Retts: Development of several specific deficits following a period of normal functioning after birth. Typically associated with severe or profound mental retardation. Normal head circumference at birth Deceleration of head growth between ages 5 and 48 months. Loss of purposeful hand skills. CDD: Marked regression in multiple areas of functioning following a period of at least 2 years of apparently normal development. After the first 2 years of life (but before age 10 years), the child has a clinically significant loss of previously acquired skills in at least two of the following areas: Expressive or receptive language, social skills or adaptive behavior, bowel or bladder control, play, or motor skills.
Classification, Assessment And Diagnosis. Simon Bignell – Module Leader Lecture 5
Autism is defined in terms of abnormalities in social and communication development, in the presence of marked repetitive behaviour and limited imagination (APA, 1994).
Asperger Syndrome (AS) is defined in terms of the individual meeting the same criteria for Autism but with no history of cognitive or language delay, and not meeting the criteria for PDD (ICD-10, 1994).
… is a developmental disability with a childhood onset that typically results in a chronic and pervasive pattern of impairment in school, social and/or work domains, and often in daily adaptive functioning.
Problems with Attention, Hyperactivity & Impulsivity.
Symptoms of ADHD. High Impulsiveness Poor Attention High Hyperactivity
Symptoms of ADHD. High Impulsiveness Poor Attention High Hyperactivity Combined Type Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Type Predominantly Inattentive Type
Symptoms of Autistic Disorder. Restricted, repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behaviour. Impairment in social interaction . Impairment in verbal and non verbal communication. Wing, L., & Gould, J. (1979). Severe impairments of social interaction and associated abnormalities in children: epidemiology and classification. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 9, 11-29.
The triad of impairment summarises the difficulties of the Autistic child but the actual manifestation of these can vary. Asperger’s may be a subtler form of ASD.
Impairment in social interaction . Impairment in verbal and non verbal communication. Peculiarities in verbal and non verbal communication. Restricted, repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behaviour.
C. The disturbance causes clinically significant impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.
D. There is no clinically significant general delay in language (e.g., single words used by age 2 years, communicative phrases used by age 3 years).
E. There is no clinically significant delay in cognitive development or in the development of age-appropriate self-help skills, adaptive behavior (other than in social interaction), and curiosity about the environment in childhood.
F. Criteria are not met for another specific Pervasive Developmental Disorder or Schizophrenia.
Teachers/parents rate Hyperactivity, Attention, Social Skills and Oppositional behaviour using 5 point scale.
Almost Never 1 2 3 4 5 Almost Always
‘ Persists with task for reasonable amount of time.’
‘ Follows a sequence of instructions.’
‘ Extremely overactive (out of seat, on the go).’
‘ Impulsive (acts or talks without thinking).’
The ADD-H: Comprehensive Teacher Rating Scale (ACTeRS; Ullmann, Sleator, & Sprague, 1997) is used to determine whether further diagnostic testing for ADHD is warranted, not to obtain a formal diagnosis .