The Development of the Self - Fundamentals of Psychology 2 - Lecture 4


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The Development of the Self - Fundamentals of Psychology 2 - Lecture 4.

The views expressed in this presentation are those of the individual Simon Bignell and not University of Derby.

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The Development of the Self - Fundamentals of Psychology 2 - Lecture 4

  1. 1. Unit 1: Developmental Psychology The Development of the Self Spring 2010 Lecture 4
  2. 2. Learning outcomes <ul><li>On completion of the module you will be able to: </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrate an understanding of empirical research and theories in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developmental Psychology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abnormal Psychology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive Psychology </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Demonstrate an ability to present, explain and summarise information. </li></ul>
  3. 3. The module team <ul><li>Module Lecturers </li></ul><ul><li>Simon Bignell : Room N208; Telephone: 01332 593043; email: [email_address] (Module Leader) </li></ul><ul><li>Anna Maria DiBetta : Room N208; Telephone: 01332 593080; email: </li></ul><ul><li>Lovemore Nyatanga: Room N204a; Telephone: 01332 593055; email: </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Module Seminar Leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Above plus the following Post-Graduate Teaching Assistants </li></ul><ul><li>Atiya Kamal : Room N302; email: </li></ul><ul><li>Lauren Kelly : Room N302; email: </li></ul>
  4. 4. Recommended textbooks <ul><li>Passer, M, Smith, R., Holt, N., Bremmer, A., Sutherland, E. and Vliek, M. (2008). Psychology: The science of mind and behaviour, London: McGraw Hill. </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter 13 and 14 </li></ul><ul><li>Additional / Alternative texts: </li></ul><ul><li>Unit 1: Developmental Psychology: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Siegler, R, DeLoache, J.S. & Eisenberg, N. (2006) How Children Develop (2nd Ed.) NY: Worth. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chapter 11 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Components of the module <ul><li>Unit 1: Developmental Psychology: </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive development (SB) </li></ul><ul><li>The development of social relations (SB) </li></ul><ul><li>The development of the self (SB ) </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Development of the Self <ul><li>Definitions of the Self and Self-concept </li></ul><ul><li>The Rouge Test (Self Awareness) </li></ul><ul><li>The Developing Sense of Self </li></ul><ul><li>Erikson’s 8 Psychosocial Stages of Development </li></ul><ul><li>Quick recap of this Section </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Developing Sense of Self <ul><li>Children’s sense of self emerges in the early years of life and continues to develop into adulthood, becoming more complex as the individual’s emotional and cognitive development deepens. </li></ul><ul><li>Adults contribute to the child’s self-image by providing descriptive information about the child. </li></ul><ul><li>Self-esteem grows in relation to these factors. </li></ul>
  8. 8. The ‘Self’ <ul><ul><li>Self / ‘not others’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conceptions of the Self </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A conceptual system made up of one’s thoughts and attitudes about oneself. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An individual’s conceptions about the self can include thoughts about one’s own physical being, social roles and relationships, and ‘spiritual’ or internal characteristics. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conceptions of ‘ Identity’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used interchangeably with Self . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The idea of selfhood based on the uniqueness and individuality which makes a person distinct from others. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. The ‘Self’ <ul><li>Self-concept </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A multi-dimensional construct that refers to an individual’s perception of ‘self’ in relation to any number of characteristics, e.g. gender roles and sexuality, racial identity, and many others. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Self-awareness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An individual’s awareness of their self. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Self-esteem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The evaluative element of the self-concept. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. The Rouge (Mark) Test <ul><li>A self-recognition test that identifies a child’s ability to recognise a reflection in a mirror as his or her own. </li></ul><ul><li>A measure of self-concept; the child who touches the rouge on their own nose upon looking into a mirror demonstrates basic ability of understanding global awareness. </li></ul>Amsterdam (1972)
  11. 11. The Rouge (Mark) Test <ul><li>Using makeup, an experimenter surreptitiously places a dot on the nose of the child. </li></ul><ul><li>The child is then placed in front of a mirror and their reactions are monitored; depending on the child’s development, distinct categories of responses are demonstrated. </li></ul>
  12. 12. The Rouge (Mark) Test <ul><li>6 to 12 months - the child simply sees a ‘sociable playmate’ in the mirror’s reflection. </li></ul><ul><li>12 months - self-admiring and embarrassment begin. </li></ul><ul><li>14 to 20 months - most children demonstrate avoidance behaviours. </li></ul><ul><li>18 months half of children recognise the reflection in the mirror as their own. </li></ul><ul><li>20 to 24 months self-recognition climbs to 65 percent. </li></ul>Video
  13. 13. The Developing Sense of Self <ul><li>Infants have a rudimentary sense of self in the first months of life, as evidenced by their control of objects outside of themselves. </li></ul><ul><li>Their sense of self becomes more distinct at about 8 months of age, when they respond to separation from primary caregivers with separation distress. </li></ul>
  14. 14. The Developing Sense of Self <ul><li>By 18 to 20 months of age, many children can look into a mirror and realise that the image they see there is themselves. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By 30 months of age, almost all children recognise their own photograph. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>By Two-years-old children’s exhibition of embarrassment and shame, their self-assertive behaviour, and their use of language also indicate their self-awareness. </li></ul>
  15. 15. The Developing Sense of Self <ul><li>At age 3 to 4 , children understand themselves in terms of concrete, observable characteristics related to physical attributes, physical activities and abilities, and psychological traits. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Their self-evaluations during the preschool years are unrealistically positive. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Children begin to refine their conceptions of self in primary school , in part because they increasingly engage in social comparison, the process of comparing aspects of one’s own psychological, behavioural, or physical functioning to that of others in order to evaluate oneself. </li></ul>
  16. 16. The Developing Sense of Self <ul><li>By middle to late primary school, children’s conceptions of self begin to become integrated and more broadly encompassing, reflecting cognitive advances in the ability to use higher-order concepts. </li></ul><ul><li>In addition, older children can coordinate opposing self-representations and are inclined to compare themselves with others on the basis of objective performance. </li></ul>In elementary school, children’s self-concepts are increasingly based on their relationships with others, especially peers, and others’ evaluations of them, making them vulnerable to low self-esteem
  17. 17. The Developing Sense of Self <ul><li>The ability to use abstract thinking allows adolescents to think of themselves in terms of abstract characteristics that encompass a variety of concrete characteristics and behaviours. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adolescents can also conceive of themselves in terms of a variety of selves, depending on the context. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. The Developing Sense of Self <ul><li>In early adolescence , thinking about the self is characterised by a form of egocentrism called the personal fable , a story that adolescents tell about themselves that involves beliefs in the uniqueness of their own feelings and their immortality. </li></ul><ul><li>The kind of egocentrism that forms the basis for adolescents’ personal fables also causes many adolescents to be preoccupied with what others think of them. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The imaginary audience refers to the belief that everyone is focused on the adolescent’s appearance and behaviour. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. The Developing Sense of Self <ul><li>In their middle teens , adolescents often begin to agonise over the contradictions in their behaviour and characteristics. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most, however, still do not have the cognitive skills needed to integrate their recognition of these contradictions into a coherent conception of self . </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. The Developing Sense of Self <ul><li>In late adolescence and early adulthood , the individual’s conception of self becomes both more integrated and less determined by what others think. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Older adolescents’ conceptions of self also frequently reflect internalised personal values, beliefs, and standards. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support and tuition from parents, teachers, and others is important in helping adolescents understand the complexity of personalities. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Erikson’s Views <ul><li>Erik Erikson argued that the resolution of these many issues, the crisis of identity versus identity confusion , is the chief developmental task in adolescence . </li></ul><ul><li>During this stage, the adolescent or young adult either develops an identity or experiences one of several negative outcomes: </li></ul>&quot;Human personality in principle develops according to steps predetermined in the growing person's readiness to be driven toward, to be aware of and to interact with a widening social radius&quot;
  22. 22. Erikson’s Views <ul><li>Identity confusion: An incomplete and sometimes incoherent sense of self, with resulting feelings of isolation and depression. </li></ul><ul><li>Identity foreclosure: Can arise if adolescents prematurely commit themselves to an identity without adequately considering their choices. </li></ul><ul><li>Negative identity: An identity that represents the opposite of what is valued by people around the adolescent. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Erikson’s Views <ul><li>Due to the complexity of achieving an identity in modern society, and because of the negative consequences of failing to do so, Erikson argued for the importance of a psychosocial moratorium. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A time-out period during which the adolescent is not expected to take on adult roles and can pursue activities that lead to self-discovery. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only possible in some cultures and only to the more privileged classes. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Infant (0-1 years) 1) Trust vs Mistrust Needs maximum comfort with minimal uncertainty to trust himself/herself, others, and the environment. Toddler (2-3 years) 2) Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt Works to master physical environment while maintaining self esteem. Preschooler (3-6 years) 3) Initiative vs Guilt Begins to initiate, not imitate, activities; develops conscience and sexual identity. Erikson’s 8 Psychosocial Stages of Development
  25. 25. School-Age Child (6-12 years) 4) Industry vs Inferiority Tries to develop a sense of self-worth by refining skills. Adolescent (12-19 years) 5) Identity vs Role Confusion Tries integrating many roles (child, sibling, student, athlete, worker) into a self-image under role model and peer pressure. Young Adult (19-25 years) 6) Intimacy vs Isolation Learns to make personal commitment to another as spouse, parent or partner. Erikson’s 8 Psychosocial Stages of Development
  26. 26. Middle-Age Adult (25-50 years) 7) Generativity vs Stagnation Seeks satisfaction through productivity in career, family, and civic interests. Older Adult (50 + years) 8) Integrity vs Despair Reviews life accomplishments, deals with loss and preparation for death. Erikson’s 8 Psychosocial Stages of Development
  27. 27. Summary for Lecture 4 <ul><li>The ‘Self’. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-concept </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-awareness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-esteem </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Rouge (Mark) Test. </li></ul><ul><li>The Developing Sense of Self. </li></ul><ul><li>Erikson’s 8 Psychosocial Stages of Development. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Summary for Section 1 Developmental Psychology <ul><li>Lecture 2 - Cognitive development. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Piaget: Children think and learn in ways different from adults. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sensorimotor stage (0 to 2 years). </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Preoperational stage (2 to 7 years). </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Concrete operational stage (7 to 11 years). </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Formal operation stage (11+ years). </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Lecture 3 - The development of social relations. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bowlby: Infant’s innate behaviours are evolved responses to promote survival. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Preattachment phase (0 to 6 weeks). </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attachment-in-the-making (6 weeks to 6-8 months). </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clear-cut attachment (6-8 months to 1½-2 years). </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reciprocal relationships (from 1½ or 2 years on). </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Summary for Section 1 Developmental Psychology <ul><li>Lecture 4 - The development of the self. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Erikson: Resolution of crisis important for healthy social development. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trust vs. Mistrust (0-1 years). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Autonomy vs. Shame (2-3 years). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Initiative vs. Guilt (3-6 years). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Industry vs. Inferiority (6-12 years). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identity vs. Role confusion (12-19 years). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intimacy vs. Isolation (19-25 years). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Generativity vs. Stagnation (25-50 years). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ego Integrity vs. Despair (50 + years). </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Next Section – Abnormal Psychology <ul><li>Abnormal behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Interventions and therapies </li></ul><ul><li>Main Text </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Passer, M., Smith, R., Holt, N., Bremmer, A., Sutherland, E. and Vliek, M. (2008). Psychology: The science of mind and behaviour , London: McGraw Hill. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Additional / Alternative Text </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comer, R.J. (2007). Abnormal Psychology (6th edition), Worth Publishers: London. </li></ul></ul>