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Cognitive Develepment - Fundamentals of Psychology 2 - Lecture 2

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Cognitive Develepment - Fundamentals of Psychology 2 - Lecture 2. …

Cognitive Develepment - Fundamentals of Psychology 2 - Lecture 2.

The views expressed in this presentation are those of the individual Simon Bignell and not University of Derby.

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  • Isert baby pic from “Understanding Psychology”, Feldman, 8ed, pg 396.
  • Insert figure12 from “Understanding Psychology”, Feldman, 8ed, pg 427.
  • Insert figure12 from “Understanding Psychology”, Feldman, 8ed, pg 427.
  • Insert figure12 from “Understanding Psychology”, Feldman, 8ed, pg 427.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Unit 1: Developmental Psychology Cognitive Development Spring 2010 Lecture 2
    • 2. Learning outcomes
      • On completion of the module you will be able to:
      • Demonstrate an understanding of empirical research and theories in:
        • Developmental Psychology
        • Abnormal Psychology
        • Cognitive Psychology
      • Demonstrate an ability to present, explain and summarise information.
    • 3. The module team
      • Module Lecturers
      • Simon Bignell : Room N208; Telephone: 01332 593043; email: [email_address] (Module Leader)
      • Anna Maria DiBetta : Room N208; Telephone: 01332 593080; email: a.di-betta@derby.ac.uk
      • Lovemore Nyatanga: Room N204a; Telephone: 01332 593057; email: l.nyatanga@derby.ac.uk
      •  
      • Module Seminar Leaders
      • Above plus the following Post-Graduate Teaching Assistants
      • Atiya Kamal : Room N302; email: a.kamal@derby.ac.uk
      • Lauren Kelly : Room N302; email: l.kelly2@derby.ac.uk
    • 4. Recommended textbooks
      • Passer, M, Smith, R., Holt, N., Bremmer, A., Sutherland, E. and Vliek, M. (2008). Psychology: The science of mind and behaviour, London: McGraw Hill.
      • Additional / Alternative texts:
      • Unit 1: Developmental Psychology:
        • Siegler, R, DeLoache, J.S. & Eisenberg, N. (2006) How Children Develop (2nd Ed.) NY: Worth.
    • 5. Components of the module
      • Unit 1: Developmental Psychology:
      • Cognitive development (SB)
      • The development of social relations (SB)
      • The development of the self (SB )
    • 6.
      • Developmental psychology studies the biological, physical, psychological, and behavioural patterns of growth and changes that occur throughout life.
      Developmental Psychology
    • 7. Major Issues and Methods
      • Four Broad Issues:
        • Nature and Nurture: to what extent is our development the product of heredity (nature) and environment (nurture)?
          • How do nature and nurture interact?
        • Continuity versus Discontinuity: is development continuous and gradual, or is it discontinuous, progressing through qualitatively distinct stages?
        • Stability versus Change: do our characteristics remain consistent as we age?
    • 8. Major Issues and Methods
      • Four Broad Issues (cont.):
        • Critical and Sensitive Periods: are some experiences especially important at particular ages?
          • Critical Period: an age range during which certain experiences must occur for development to proceed normally
          • Sensitive Period: an optimal range for certain experiences, but if those experiences occur at another time, normal development is still possible
    • 9. Major Issues and Methods
      • Cross-Sectional Design: compares people of different ages at the same point in time
        • Example: we may administer an IQ test to a group of 10-, 20-, and 30-year-olds
        • Allows data from many age groups to be collected relatively quickly
        • Problem: cohort effects - differences in historical periods in which people grew up
    • 10. Major Issues and Methods
      • Longitudinal Design: repeatedly tests the same cohort as it grows older
        • Example: we may administer an IQ test to a group of 10-year-olds; we retest the same group every five years
        • Extremely time-consuming
        • People may drop out of the study over time
      • Also…Sequential Design: combines the cross-sectional and longitudinal approaches
        • Most comprehensive
        • Costly and time-consuming
    • 11. Major Issues and Methods
    • 12.
      • Physical and motor development follows several biological principles:
        • Cephalocaudal principle: Reflects the tendency for development to proceed in a head-to-foot direction. (The head of an infant is disproportionately large because physical growth concentrates first on the head.)
        • Proximodistal principle: Development begins along the innermost parts of the body and continues toward the outermost parts. (Thus a fetus’s arms develop before the hands and fingers.)
      Physical Development
    • 13.
      • Maturation: the genetically programmed biological process that governs our growth
        • Infants vary in the age at which they acquire particular skills
        • Sequence in which skills appear is typically the same across children
      Physical Development
    • 14. Physical Development The adolescent growth spurt can be seen by the rapid increase in height that occurs in males and females at the beginning of puberty. Source: Data from J.M. Tanner, R.H. Whitehouse, and M. Takaishi, “Standards from Birth to Maturity for Height, Weight, Height Velocity and Weight Velocity” in Archives of Diseases in Childhood , 41, 555-571, 1966. Height gain in centimeters per year Age in years 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24
    • 15. Cognitive Development
      • Jean Piaget
        • Stage theory of cognitive development
      • Lev Vygotsky
        • Culture significantly affects our cognitive development
      • Theory of Mind
        • Ability to understand other people’s mental states
      • Information-Processing Approaches
        • Views cognitive development as a continuous, gradual process
        • The same set of information-processing abilities become more efficient over time
    • 16. Cognitive Development: Piaget’s Stage Model
      • Piaget’s Stage Model proposed that children’s thinking changes qualitatively with age
        • Results from an interaction of the brain’s biological maturation and personal experiences
      • Schemas: organised patterns of thoughts and action
        • Development occurs as we acquire new schemas and as our existing schemas become more complex
        • Disequilibrium: an imbalance between existing schemas and new experiences
      • Assimilation: the process by which new experiences are incorporated into existing schemas
      • Accommodation: the process by which new experiences cause existing schemas to change
      VIDEO
    • 17. Cognitive Development: Piaget’s Stages Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget (1926- 1977) spent over 50 years exploring how a child’s thought processes develops. Stage Age (Years) Major Characteristics Sensorimotor Preoperational Concrete operational Formal operational Birth to 2 2 to 7 7 to 12 12 on
      • Infant understands world through sensory and motor experiences
      • Achieves object permanence
      • Exhibits emergence of symbolic thought
      • Child uses symbolic thinking in the form of words
      • and images to represent objects and experiences
      • Symbolic thinking enables child to engage in pretend play
      • Thinking displays egocentrism, irreversibility, and centration
      • Child can think logically about concrete events
      • Grasps concepts of conservation and serial ordering
      • Adolescent can think more logically, abstractly, and flexibly
      • Can form hypotheses and systematically test them
    • 18. Cognitive Development: Piaget’s Sensorimotor Stage (0 to 2 years)
      • Infants understand their world primarily through sensory experiences and physical (motor) interactions with objects.
      • Motor Skills are reflexive and voluntary, enables infants to explore the new world around them.
        • Neonates : Only capable of surprise, pleasure, and distress.
        • Infancy : Introduces further emotions of anger, shyness, and fear.
        • At 9 months : An infant will become anxious when separated from his or her caregiver.
        • By 2 years : Infants can display emotions of guilt or of being ashamed.
        • Object Permanence: the understanding that an object continues to exist even when it cannot be seen.
      VIDEO
    • 19. Cognitive Development: Piaget’s Preoperational Stage (2 to 7 years)
      • The world is represented symbolically through words and mental images; no understanding of basic mental operations or rules
        • Rapid language development
        • Understanding of the past and future
        • No understanding of Principle of Conservation: basic properties of objects stay the same even though their outward appearance may change
    • 20. Cognitive Development: Piaget’s Concrete Operational (7 to 12 years)
      • Children can perform basic mental operations concerning problems that involve tangible (“concrete”) objects and situations
        • Understand the concept of reversibility
        • Display less egocentrism
        • Easily solve conservation problems
        • Trouble with hypothetical and abstract reasoning
      • This stage is characterised by 7 types of conservation:
        • number, length, liquid, mass, weight, area, and volume.
    • 21. Cognitive Development: Piaget’s Formal Operational Stage (12 + years)
      • Individuals are able to think logically and systematically about both concrete and abstract problems, form hypotheses, and test them in a thoughtful way
      • Early in this period there is a return to egocentric thought
      • Most of previous characteristics discussed have now developed.
      • The child shows logical thinking and is able to work through abstract problems and use logic without the presence of concrete manipulation.
      • Many adults never attain this stage
    • 22. Cognitive Development: Piaget’s Theory
      • Assessing Piaget’s Theory:
        • General cognitive abilities associated with Piaget’s four stages occur in the same order across cultures
        • Children acquire many skills and concepts earlier than Piaget believed
        • Cognitive development within each stage seems to proceed inconsistently
        • Culture influences cognitive development
        • Cognitive development is more complex and variable than Piaget proposed
        • Piaget has been criticised for using difficult questions
          • Blank & Rose (1974) The way in which the question is asked is important, when they replicated Piaget experiment the percentage of 6-year olds that could conserve increased.
    • 23.
      • Because Piaget concentrated on the individual child, he failed to consider the effect that the social setting may have on cognitive development.
      • According to Russian developmental psychologist Lev Vygotsky, the culture in which we are raised significantly affects our cognitive development.
      • The way that adults use language and gestures and the child's experience through social interactions are very influential on cognitive development.
      • Cognitive development occurs as a consequence of social interactions in which children work with others to jointly solve problems.
      Cognitive Development: Vygotsky
    • 24. Cognitive Development: Vygotsky
      • Zone of Proximal Development (Vygotsky):
        • the difference between what a child can do independently and what the child can do with assistance from adults or more advanced peers
      • Helps us recognise what children will soon be able to do on their own
      • Emphasises that we can help move a child’s cognitive development forward, within limits
      • Children’s cognitive abilities increase when they encounter information that falls within their ZPD.
    • 25. Cognitive Development: Vygotsky
      • “… what is the zone of proximal development today will be the actual development level tomorrow – that is, what a child can do with assistance toady she will be able to do by herself tomorrow”.
      “ The zone of proximal development defines those functions that have not yet matured, but are in the process (of doing so)…”
    • 26. Cognitive Development: Theory of Mind
      • Theory of Mind: a person’s beliefs about the “mind” and the ability to understand other people’s mental states
      • The ability to make inferences about others’ representational states and to predict behaviour accordingly’ (Lewis & Mitchell, 1994)
        • Studies of lying and deception provide evidence of theory of mind
        • Rudimentary understanding develops around age 3 to 4
      • It is claimed that children below about 4 years do not have theory of mind
      • How do we know?
        • False belief tests:
          • Unexpected transfer test (Wimmer & Perner, 1983)
          • Deceptive box test (Perner, Leekam & Wimmer, 1987; Gopnik & Astington, 1988)
        • Appearance-reality tests:
          • Rock-sponge test (Flavell, Flavell & Green, 1983)
    • 27.
      • Information processing: The way in which people take in, use, and store information.
        • To many developmental psychologists, changes in information processing account for cognitive development. (Sielgler, 1998; Lacerda, von Hofsten & Heimann, 2001; Cashon & Cohen, 2004.)
        • According to this approach, quantitative changes occur in children’s ability to organise and manipulate information.
        • Children may become increasingly adept at information processing, similar to a computer program becoming more sophisticated as a programmer modifies it on the basis of experience.
      Cognitive Development: Information-Processing Approaches
    • 28.
      • Views cognitive development as a continuous, gradual process
        • The same set of information-processing abilities become more efficient over time
      • As children age:
        • Information-search strategies improve
        • Information-processing speed quickens
        • Attention span and ability to inhibit impulsive responses to distracting stimuli also improves
      Cognitive Development: Information-Processing Approaches
    • 29. Summary
      • Cognitive Development
        • Major Issues and Methods
        • Physical Development
        • Piaget
        • Vygotsky
        • Theory of Mind
        • Information-Processing Approaches

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