Topic 3 - Autistic Disorder 2010
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Topic 3 - Autistic Disorder 2010

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Autism, Asperger's and ADHD.

Autism, Asperger's and ADHD.
Lecture 3 Autistic Disorder.

The views expressed in this presentation are those of the individual Simon Bignell and not University of Derby.

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  • Retts: Development of several specific deficits following a period of normal functioning after birth. Typically associated with severe or profound mental retardation. Normal head circumference at birth Deceleration of head growth between ages 5 and 48 months. Loss of purposeful hand skills. CDD: Marked regression in multiple areas of functioning following a period of at least 2 years of apparently normal development. After the first 2 years of life (but before age 10 years), the child has a clinically significant loss of previously acquired skills in at least two of the following areas: Expressive or receptive language, social skills or adaptive behavior, bowel or bladder control, play, or motor skills.
  • There is very little consistency between cognitive profiles as mapped out by WISC-R between individual children. Considering the heterogeneity of characteristics associated with autism spectrum disorders, it is not surprising that questions often arise about how best to evaluate children with this diagnosis. Thorough assessment depends on information gathered through a variety of methods and relies on the collaboration of many individuals including, professionals, family members, and educators. There is not a single test that when used alone can provide a definitive diagnosis of an autism spectrum disorder, or that can guide effective intervention planning. Assessment is a process that may serve a variety of purposes and involve a number of different procedures. Considering the heterogeneity of characteristics associated with autism spectrum disorders, it is not surprising that questions often arise about how best to evaluate children with this diagnosis. Thorough assessment depends on information gathered through a variety of methods and relies on the collaboration of many individuals including, professionals, family members, and educators. There is not a single test that when used alone can provide a definitive diagnosis of an autism spectrum disorder, or that can guide effective intervention planning. Assessment is a process that may serve a variety of purposes and involve a number of different procedures. The first step in the assessment process is to consider the purpose of the evaluation. The purpose of the assessment will likely depend on the referral question, source of referral (e.g., parent, teacher, other professionals), and setting (e.g., school, clinic, residential placement). Screening for early indicators of autism spectrum disorder is one potential purpose of assessment. Another reason to conduct an evaluation would be for diagnostic purposes. A diagnosis of a Pervasive Developmental Disorder, which includes Autistic Disorder, Asperger Disorder, and Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified, is usually based on criteria from the most recent version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR; APA, 2000). Assessment for the purpose of diagnosis typically occurs in clinics or private practices and is led by psychiatrists, psychologists, or physicians. Psychologists employed by schools may also conduct a diagnostic assessment for the purpose of establishing eligibility for special education services. Another purpose of assessment could be to measure a child’s cognitive and academic strengths and weaknesses, and/or emotional health. Often this type of assessment provides the best information for intervention and curriculum planning. Finally, assessment procedures may be used to document intervention efficacy or for research purposes. To summarize, the purposes of assessment are as follows: Screening Diagnosis/Identification Qualification for Services Assessment of Strengths, Weaknesses, and/or Emotional Health Intervention or Curriculum Planning Documentation of Intervention Efficacy/Research

Topic 3 - Autistic Disorder 2010 Topic 3 - Autistic Disorder 2010 Presentation Transcript

  • Autistic Disorder Simon Bignell – Module Leader Lecture 3 Spring 2010 (6PS048 & 6PS052)
  • Introduction To The Lecture.
    • What is Autism?
    • Symptoms of autism.
    • Prevalence of autism.
    • How Autism was first recognised.
    • Assessment.
    • Diagnosis.
    • Questions.
  • Learning Outcomes Of This Lecture.
    • On completion of the lecture and with independent study you should be able to:
    • 1.     Understand the main symptoms, variations and diagnostic criteria relating to autistic disorder.
    • 2.     Be able to describe autistic disorder in detail.
  • Autistic Spectrum Disorder.
    • A continuum that…
    • “… ranges from the most profoundly physically and mentally retarded person ... to the most able, highly intelligent person with social impairment in its subtlest form as his only disability. It overlaps with learning disabilities and shades into eccentric normality.”
    • Lorna wing
    • Autism
    • No single cause; no single cure.
    • Hence : A spectrum, a continuum, a syndrome.
  • What Is Autism?
    • Autism is a developmental disability that significantly affects a person’s verbal and nonverbal communication, social interactions, and education performance. It is generally evident before age 3.
    • Characteristics include engagement in repetitive activities & stereotyped movements, resistance to environmental change or changes in daily routines, & unusual responses to sensory experiences.
  • What Is Autism?
    • Considered a continuum whereby it can be found with various degrees of impairment and functioning (Wing & Gould, 1979).
    • The probability of a second child being diagnosed with ASD is 1 in 20.
    • A life-long pervasive developmental disorder with genetic susceptibility.
  • What Is Autism?
    • A syndrome – cluster of symptoms appearing in a particular combination (Boucher & Pennington, 1991).
    • A spectrum of disorders. Ranges from low functioning – high functioning / Asperger's Disorder (Asperger's Syndrome).
    • Presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interests.
    • The DSM-IV includes five types of disorder under the term ‘ Pervasive Developmental Disorder’ PDD .
        • Autistic Disorder*.
        • Rett’s Disorder.
        • Childhood Disintegrative Disorder.
        • Asperger’s Disorder*.
        • Pervasive Development Disorder Not Otherwise Specified*.
    • * Mainly these form the Autistic spectrum ASD.
    What Is Autism?
  • What Is Autism?
    • “There are no clearly established guidelines for measuring the severity of a person's symptoms. Therefore, the line between Autism and PDDNOS is blurry.” (Boyle, 1995).
    • Other features often present:
    • An insistence on sameness.
    • Attentional and perceptual abnormalities – notice fine details and very small changes in their environment.
    • Difficulties generalising learning to new situations.
    • Can have exceptional talents and abilities (savant abilities).
  • What Is Autism?
    • The triad of impairment summarises the difficulties of the autistic child but the actual manifestation of these can vary.
    Restricted, repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behaviour. Impairment in social interaction . Impairment in verbal and non verbal communication.
  • The Triad Of Impairment.
    • Impairment in social interaction.
    • Difficulties in making sense of the world can lead to behaviour that appears bizarre and antisocial.
    • May withdraw totally or may attempt to interact but may upset, bore or irritate others.
    • Problems in forming relationships.
  • The Triad Of Impairment.
    • Impairment in verbal and non verbal communication.
    • Difficulties in receptive language – may take everything literally.
    • Difficulties with metaphor.
    • Difficulties with pragmatics - don’t easily understand facial expressions, tone of voice, gesture (Happ è , 1993; Tager-Flusberg, 2001).
  • The Triad Of Impairment.
    • Restricted, repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behaviour.
    • Find change very difficult.
    • Often develop obsessive interests.
    • Rigid and restricted behavioural patterns – very set in their routines (Happ è , 1993).
    • Restricted repertoire of interests.
  • What Does Autism Look Like?
    • Poor eye contact.
    • Doesn't seem to know how to play with toys.
    • Excessively lines up toys or other objects.
    • Is attached to one particular toy or object.
    • Doesn't smile.
    • At times seems to be hearing impaired.
  • What Does Autism Sound Like?
    • The child doesn’t point, make baby babble or gestures by one year of age.
    • Usually the child doesn’t speak one word by 16 months of age (however, some have language and lose it around 2 years of age.).
    • Does not combine two words by 2 years of age.
    • Does not respond to name when called.
    • Loses language or social skills.
  • What Does Autism Feel Like?
    • Hypersensitive to sounds:
      • Imagine chairs sliding on the floor, keys on a keyboard clicking, someone chewing, a fly buzzing outside the window all coming at you at one time.
    • Has a routine and feels lost if the routine is changed.
    • Hypersensitive to touch.
    • Hypersensitive to light.
    • Takes language literally:
      • If a police officer says “freeze” the person with autism thinks: that’s silly…it’s not freezing.
    • Thinks in pictures.
  • Prevalence Of Autism.
    • Went from 1 in 2500, to 1 in 1000, to 1 in 166 over the past decade.
    • Autism is now more common than childhood cancer, down’s syndrome, spina bifida or cystic fibrosis.
    • Boys are affected 4 times as often as girls but unknown as to why.
    • 1 out of 68 families will have a child with autism.
    • Growing at a rate of 10-17 percent per year (it is thought).
  • Prevalence Of Autism.
  • Increasing Incidence Of Autism?
    • Science still baffled over its aetiology (genetic origin).
    • Diagnosis has been purely behaviourally bases.
    • New criteria for diagnosis may account for the apparent increase in its prevalence.
    • Currently estimates vary wildly.
    • " Autism is not a modern problem , even though it has only been recognised in modern times. In view of the short history of psychiatry, and the even shorter history of child psychiatry, we know that a disorder recently described is not necessarily a recent disorder. An increase in diagnosed cases does not necessarily mean an increase in cases."  
    • "Autism - explaining the enigma" (1989) by Uta Frith. 
    Increasing Incidence Of Autism?
  • How Autism was First Recognised .
    • Leo Kanner and Hans Asperger who, independently of each other, published accounts of this disorder.
    • These publications, Kanner's in 1943 and Asperger’s in 1944, contained detailed case descriptions and also offered the first theoretical attempts to explain the disorder.
  • How Autism was First Recognised .
    • Both authorities (Leo Kanner and Hans Asperger) believed that there was present from birth a fundamental disturbance which gave rise to highly characteristic problems.
    • Kanner, working in Baltimore, and Asperger, working in Vienna, saw cases of strange children who has in common some fascinating features.
    • Above all the children seemed to be unable to entertain normal affective relationships with people.
  • How Autism was First Recognised .
    • Kanner’s paper has become the most quoted in the whole literature on autism,
    • Asperger’s paper, written in German, and published during the second world war, was largely ignored.
    • Asperger’s definition of autism or, as he called it, ‘autistic psychopathy’ is far wider than Kanner's.
    • Having this special category has proved clinically useful.
    • The belief has grown that Asperger described quite a different type of child, not to be confused with the one Kanner described. This is not the case.
  • How Autism was First Recognised .
    • Both Kanner and Asperger choose the word ‘autistic' in order to characterise the nature of the underlying disturbance.
    • In fact, it is not really a coincidence, since the label had already been introduced by the eminent psychiatrist Eugen Bleuler in 1911.
  • How Autism was First Recognised .
    • In the 70s, knowledge of Autism begun to spread to Sweden. The first autistic classes within special education were started in the middle of the 70s.
    • The work of Asperger did not become known until the end of the 1980s when his book was translated into English.
    • Kanner's work and Bettelheim's "refrigerator mother" theory of autism were quite often confused  and it was  generally accepted that autistic children had frigid mothers*.
  • Assessment & Diagnosis.
    • Assessed on a behavioural basis.
    • ICD-10 and DSM-IV; tick-list medical approach.
    • Missed diagnosis and misdiagnosis.
      • Multiple referral routes.
      • Pressures on LEA resources.
      • Multiple assessment protocols.
    • There’s also pressure NOT to diagnose (limited support resources at LEA level).
  • Assessment & Diagnosis.
    • The NICHD lists these five behaviours that signal further evaluation is warranted:
      • Does not babble or coo by 12 months.
      • Does not gesture (point, wave, grasp) by 12 months.
      • Does not say single words by 16 months.
      • Does not say two-word phrases on his or her own by 24 months.
      • Has any loss of any language or social skill at any age.
  • Assessment & Diagnosis.
    • Assessment for the purpose of diagnosis typically occurs in clinics or private practices and is led by psychiatrists, psychologists, or physicians.
      • CARS rating system (childhood autism rating scale).
      • The checklist for autism in toddlers (CHAT).
      • The autism screening questionnaire.
      • The screening test for autism in two-year olds.
  • Assessment & Diagnosis.
    • Thorough assessment depends on information gathered through a variety of methods.
      • Professionals.
      • Family members.
      • Educators.
    • There is not a single test that when used alone can provide a definitive diagnosis of an autism spectrum disorder.
  • Assessment & Diagnosis.
    • It’s easier to ‘spot’ autism at the low functioning end of the spectrum.
    • High functioning children do adapt .
    • Early intervention is critical.
      • Younger children have a greater degree of brain plasticity (Edelman, 1992).
    • Late screening:
      • Very few tools sensitive to adolescent/adult diagnosis.
      • Self-diagnosis common (AQ published on web).
  • Is There A Cure For Autism?
    • No – a lifelong disorder.
    • But people with Autism often make good progress and develop coping strategies.
    • Range of therapies and treatments but no real consensus on what is most effective.
    • Because there is a wide variability in people with Autism there is a need to develop an individual treatment and management plan.
  • 6 Steps To Success For Autism.
    • Step 1: Educate Yourself.
    • Step 2: Reach Out to the Parents.
    • Step 3: Prepare the Classroom.
    • Step 4: Educate Peers and Promote Social Goals.
    • Step 5: Collaborate on the Implementation of an Education Plan.
    • Step 6: Manage Behavioral Challenges.
  • Any Questions?