Section 11 (On-Campus) - Revision and the Exam
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Section 11 (On-Campus) - Revision and the Exam



Section 11 (On-Campus) - Revision and the Exam

Section 11 (On-Campus) - Revision and the Exam

Autism, Asperger's and ADHD' module by Simon Bignell - Lecturer in Psychology at University of Derby.



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Section 11 (On-Campus) - Revision and the Exam Section 11 (On-Campus) - Revision and the Exam Presentation Transcript

  • Revision and the Campus Exam
  • Outline.
    • Learning Outcomes Achieved By Exam Questions.
    • Themes and the Relation between ASD & ADHD.
    • Summary Of The Module Content.
      • Brief look again at content of Sections.
    • What Is The Format Of The Exam?
    • What Are The Exam Questions?
    • How Can I Perform Well In The exam?
    • How And What Should I Revise?
    • Questions.
  • Learning Outcomes Achieved By Exam Questions
    • The examination questions achieve the following learning outcomes (as detailed in the BSc (honours) Psychology Student Handbook for this module):
      • Demonstrate a detailed knowledge of symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and practices relating to Autistic Spectrum Disorders and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.
      • Demonstrate a detailed knowledge of research and mainstream theories of Autistic Spectrum Disorders and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.
  • Themes.
    • Misdiagnosis vs. Missed diagnosis.
    • Behavioural/Cognitive vs. Pharmacological treatment.
    • Normal vs. Pathological behaviour.
    • Continuum vs. Categorical classification.
    • Academia & Parental viewpoints.
    • Aetiological vs. Symptomatological.
    • Evidence-based vs. Anecdotal-based methods.
    • Acceptance vs. Rejection of Disorder.
    • Mild vs. Severe degrees of impairment.
    • Increasing incidence vs. Better awareness.
  • Relation between ASD & ADHD.
    • ADHD
    • Usually spotted in school.
    • Normal IQ.
    • Often pragmatic language problems.
    • High comorbidity with other problems.
    • Often mistaken for bad behaviour.
    • Classic Autism
    • Early onset
    • IQ tends to be lower
    • Often fail to develop spoken language
    • Problems with non-verbal communication
    • Tend to be adept at basic motor skills
    • Asperger’s
    • Later onset
    • Higher range of IQ
    • No language deficit
    • Non-verbal communication problems less severe
    • Clumsiness in basic motor skills
  • Summary of the module content.
    • Section 1 – Module Introduction.
    • Section 2 – ADHD and Hyperkinetic Disorder .
    • Section 3 – Autistic Disorder (Classic Autism).
    • Section 4 – Asperger's Disorder.
    • Section 5 – Classification, Assessment & Diagnosis.
    • Section 6 – Aetiology .
    • Section 7 – Comorbidity.
    • Section 8 – Treatment For ADHD.
    • Section 9 – Treatment For Autism.
    • Section 10 – Autism, Asperger's and ADHD.
    • Section 11 – Revision & Exam Tips.
  • Section 2 – ADHD and Hyperkinetic Disorder.
    • Key Points:
    • First described around 100 years ago.
    • Problems with Attention, Hyperactivity & Impulsivity.
    • Affects 2-5% of school age children in UK.
    • Exists on a degree of severity.
    • Boys are six times more likely to be referred for help than girls.
    • Almost always occurs with other disorders/problems.
    • Reading
    • Barkley, R.A. et. al. (2002). International Consensus Statement (January 2002). Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 5(2). p.89-111.
  • Section 3 – Autistic Disorder (Classic Autism).
    • Key Points:
    • First described around 65 years ago.
    • Exists as a spectrum, a continuum, a syndrome with various degrees of impairment
    • Affects communication, social interactions, and strange behaviour that impair education performance.
    • Generally evident before age 3.
    • A life-long pervasive developmental disorder with genetic susceptibility.
    • Reading
    • Frith, U. & Happe, F. (1994) Autism: Beyond Theory of Mind. Cognition, 50, pp.115-132.
  • Section 4 – Asperger's Disorder.
    • Key Points:
    • A higher-functioning form of Autism characterised by impairments in the social domain, some impairment in the behaviour/interests domain.
    • No significant delays in cognitive or language skills.
    • Motor clumsiness, especially in younger children.
    • Asperger’s tend to desire to interact with others, but don’t know how to in an appropriate way.
    • May live very successful independent lives in appropriate job settings.
    • Not so easy to spot Asperger’s Disorder.
    • Reading
    • Baron-Cohen, S. (1999). The Extreme-Male-Brain Theory of Autism. In Tager-Flusberg, H, (ed) Neurodevelopmental Disorders. MIT Press (1999).
  • Section 5 – Classification, Assessment & Diagnosis.
    • Key Points:
    • Diagnosis has to be made on a behavioural basis.
    • Variations in symptoms and severity of impairments.
    • DSM-IV (APA, 1994) & ICD-10 (WHO, 1994).
    • ‘ Pervasive Developmental Disorder’.
    • ‘ Attention-Deficit and Disruptive Behavioural Disorders’.
    • Missed diagnosis and misdiagnosis.
      • Multiple referral routes.
      • Pressures on Local Authority resources.
      • Multiple assessment protocols and diagnostic tools.
  • Section 6 – Aetiology of ADHD & Autism.
    • Key Points:
    • The causes of ADHD are not fully known.
      • Likely to have multiple causes and complex interactions.
      • Good evidence for genetic component.
      • Evidence of structural and functional brain abnormality.
    • Barkley’s Theory of Response Inhibition in ADHD.
    • Theory of Mind deficit. Executive Dysfunction. Weak Central Coherence.
    • Reading
    • Barkley, R.A. et. al. (2002). International Consensus Statement (January 2002). Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 5(2). p.89-111.
    • Rajendran, G. & Mitchell, P. (2007). Cognitive Theories of Autism. Developmental Review, 27.
    • Frith, U. & Hill, E. (2004) Understanding Autism: Insights From Mind and Brain In Autism: Mind and Brain, ed. Frith, U. & Hill, E. Oxford, Oxford University Press, pp.1-19.
  • Section 7 – Comorbidity in ADHD and Autism.
    • Key Points:
    • A large number of medical conditions are very often associated with ADHD and/or Autism.
    • High overlap between ADHD and ASD symptoms.
    • ADHD and Autism are generally described as separate disorders with separate genetic aetiologies.
    • Most genetic studies exclude cases of Autism from studies on ADHD and vice versa.
    • Reading
    • Gillberg, C., & Billstedt, E. (2000). Autism and Asperger syndrome: Coexistence with other clinical disorders. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica , 102 , 321–330.
  • Section 8 – Treatment For ADHD.
    • Key Points:
    • Conduct problems and symptoms of ADHD may hinder treatment and/or assessment.
    • All strategies do not fit all children.
    • Medication is the ‘treatment of choice’ for ADHD following MTA.
    • The MTA studies suggest that there’s very little benefit from any psychotherapeutic treatment on core symptoms.
    • Stimulant treatment is easily available in the community and behavioural treatment is not. But opinion remains divided.
    • Reading
    • The MTA Cooperative Group. (1999). A14 Month Randomized Clinical Trial of Treatment Strategies for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 56. p.1073-1086.
  • Section 9 – Treatment For Autism.
    • Key Points:
    • Many different types of behavioural interventions for ASD.
    • Early intervention is most beneficial.
    • Treatment depends on the individual.
    • Most effective treatment for the disorder is highly structured and intensive ‘Applied Behavioural Analysis’ (ABA).
    • Problems treating people with Autism, communication, non-compliance, comorbidity, intellectual/emotional immaturity.
    • Reading
    • Lovaas, O. I. (1987) Behavioral treatment and normal educational and intellectual functioning in young autistic children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, 3-9.
  • What Is The Format Of The Exam?
    • Exam information
    • The examination is 2 hours long (on-campus).
    • Students must answer 2 questions from 6 (one pair of questions from three questions sets.)
    • Each answer should be answered in a separate booklet.
    • Put your Student ID number on the paper.
    • Inform the module leader asap if you have an ECF for the exam or if you have any special requirements.
  • What Is The Format Of The Exam?
    • Mock exam questions
    • Answer one pair of questions from set A, B, or C:
    • A)
    • i) Using evidence from research, evaluate the suggestion that the symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder are explainable as one end of a continuum of normal human behaviour.
    • ii) Illustrate the factors that may obstruct the treatment of Autism, Asperger’s Syndrome and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.
    • Or
    • B)
    • i) Assess the issues surrounding the use of food supplements and special diets in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.
    • ii) Using evidence from research, outline how the symptoms of Autism may impair children’s cognitive and social development.
    • Or
    • C)
    • i) Using evidence from research, summarise the support for the main theories of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.
    • ii) Discuss why early intervention is important for children diagnosed with Autism.
    Look at the past papers on the Forum
  • What Are The Exam Questions?
    • Note: Questions will differ from previous years’ exam papers.
    • With reference to research...
    • Using evidence from research...
    • Using evidence from research and/or theory...
    • "......", Discuss.
    • Diagnosis of Autism/ADHD.
    • Theories of Autism/ADHD.
    • Causes of Autism/ADHD.
    • Subtypes of ADHD.
    • Assessment & Treatment of Autism/ADHD.
  • How Can I Perform Well In The exam?
    • Use the Section notes in addition to general background reading. Have key studies and theories in memory.
    • Read the questions thoroughly and plan an answer.
    • Write clearly and use correct grammar and style.
    • When revising, practice answering exam questions under exam conditions (in the same amount of time!).
      • Mark your work and learn what you didn’t know.
      • Better - get someone else to mark and comment.
    • When you are revising, don't just read your notes.
      • Concentrate on asking yourself questions about your work.
  • How And What Should I Revise?
    • Use the section hand-outs as a guide.
    • Print and read any recommended papers.
    • Find review papers.
    • Read papers and highlight or summarise key points.
    • Know three main theories of Autism.
    • Know about Barkley’s theory of response inhibition.
    • Be able to describe symptoms, assessment, diagnosis & treatment.
    • Have a pre-structured answer to the obvious questions.
    • Use Google advanced search and filter for .pdf or .ppt files.
    • Use the module Blackboard web site.
    • Practice and assess your own knowledge.
    • Buddy up with someone and revise together.
  • AAA Blackboard WebPages and Forum Student Forum Blackboard Web Pages
  • Any questions on the exam or any part of the module?