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6PS048 Lecture 11 2010
6PS048 Lecture 11 2010
6PS048 Lecture 11 2010
6PS048 Lecture 11 2010
6PS048 Lecture 11 2010
6PS048 Lecture 11 2010
6PS048 Lecture 11 2010
6PS048 Lecture 11 2010
6PS048 Lecture 11 2010
6PS048 Lecture 11 2010
6PS048 Lecture 11 2010
6PS048 Lecture 11 2010
6PS048 Lecture 11 2010
6PS048 Lecture 11 2010
6PS048 Lecture 11 2010
6PS048 Lecture 11 2010
6PS048 Lecture 11 2010
6PS048 Lecture 11 2010
6PS048 Lecture 11 2010
6PS048 Lecture 11 2010
6PS048 Lecture 11 2010
6PS048 Lecture 11 2010
6PS048 Lecture 11 2010
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6PS048 Lecture 11 2010

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'ADHD, Autism, and Asperger's' Topic 11 - Revision and Exam Tips. …

'ADHD, Autism, and Asperger's' Topic 11 - Revision and Exam Tips.

The views expressed in this presentation are those of the individual Simon Bignell and not University of Derby.

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  • 1. Lecture 11 Revision and the Campus Exam Simon Bignell – Module Leader (6PS048) Spring 2010
  • 2. Outline. <ul><li>When And Where Is The Exam? </li></ul><ul><li>Themes & the Relation between ASD & ADHD. </li></ul><ul><li>Summary Of The Module Content. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brief look again at content of lectures. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What Is The Format Of The Exam? </li></ul><ul><li>What Are The Exam Questions? </li></ul><ul><li>How Can I Perform Well In The exam? </li></ul><ul><li>How And What Should I Revise? </li></ul><ul><li>Questions. </li></ul>
  • 3. Today's Seminars – Guest Speakers <ul><li>Seminar 1 - 10-11, Room N704. </li></ul><ul><li>Dr Jill Bunce (Programme Leader: Dance Movement Therapy; Subject Leader: Dance and Movement Studies; Disability Coordinator: EHS) </li></ul><ul><li>The ghost, the helicopter and the significance of the black holes. </li></ul><ul><li>Seminar 2 - 11-12, Room N103. </li></ul><ul><li>Urvashi Odedra (National Autistic Society; ex-AAA) </li></ul><ul><li>Autistic Spectrum Disorders. </li></ul>
  • 4. When And Where Is The Exam? <ul><li>Please arrive early. </li></ul><ul><li>Please bring your student ID card. </li></ul><ul><li>Please listen to the instructions. </li></ul><ul><li>The exam venue: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kedleston Road Campus GYM </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Time and date: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2pm to 4pm on Monday 17 th May 2010 </li></ul></ul>
  • 5. Learning Outcomes Achieved By Exam Questions <ul><li>The examination questions achieve the following learning outcomes (as detailed in the BSc (honours) Psychology Student Handbook for this module): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstrate a detailed knowledge of symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and practices relating to Autistic Spectrum Disorders and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstrate a detailed knowledge of research and mainstream theories of Autistic Spectrum Disorders and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. </li></ul></ul>
  • 6. Themes. <ul><li>Misdiagnosis vs. Missed diagnosis. </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioural/Cognitive vs. Pharmacological treatment. </li></ul><ul><li>Normal vs. Pathological behaviour. </li></ul><ul><li>Continuum vs. Categorical classification. </li></ul><ul><li>Academia & Parental viewpoints. </li></ul><ul><li>Aetiological vs. Symptomatological. </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence-based vs. Anecdotal-based methods. </li></ul><ul><li>Acceptance vs. Rejection of Disorder. </li></ul><ul><li>Mild vs. Severe degrees of impairment. </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing incidence vs. Better awareness. </li></ul>
  • 7. Relation between ASD & ADHD. <ul><li>ADHD </li></ul><ul><li>Usually spotted in school. </li></ul><ul><li>Normal IQ. </li></ul><ul><li>Often pragmatic language problems. </li></ul><ul><li>High comorbidity with other problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Often mistaken for bad behaviour. </li></ul><ul><li>Classic Autism </li></ul><ul><li>Early onset </li></ul><ul><li>IQ tends to be lower </li></ul><ul><li>Often fail to develop spoken language </li></ul><ul><li>Problems with non-verbal communication </li></ul><ul><li>Tend to be adept at basic motor skills </li></ul><ul><li>Asperger’s </li></ul><ul><li>Later onset </li></ul><ul><li>Higher range of IQ </li></ul><ul><li>No language deficit </li></ul><ul><li>Non-verbal communication problems less severe </li></ul><ul><li>Clumsiness in basic motor skills </li></ul>
  • 8. Summary of the module content. <ul><li>Lecture 1 – Module Introduction. </li></ul><ul><li>Lecture 2 – ADHD and Hyperkinetic Disorder . </li></ul><ul><li>Lecture 3 – Autistic Disorder (Classic Autism). </li></ul><ul><li>Lecture 4 – Asperger's Disorder. </li></ul><ul><li>Lecture 5 – Classification, Assessment & Diagnosis. </li></ul><ul><li>Lecture 6 – Aetiology . </li></ul><ul><li>Lecture 7 – Comorbidity. </li></ul><ul><li>Lecture 8 – Treatment For ADHD. </li></ul><ul><li>Lecture 9 – Treatment For Autism. </li></ul><ul><li>Lecture 10 – Autism, Asperger's and ADHD. </li></ul><ul><li>Lecture 11 – Revision & Exam Tips. </li></ul>
  • 9. Lecture 2 – ADHD and Hyperkinetic Disorder. <ul><li>Key Points from Lecture: </li></ul><ul><li>First described around 100 years ago. </li></ul><ul><li>Problems with Attention, Hyperactivity & Impulsivity. </li></ul><ul><li>Affects 2-5% of school age children in UK. </li></ul><ul><li>Exists on a degree of severity. </li></ul><ul><li>Boys are six times more likely to be referred for help than girls. </li></ul><ul><li>Almost always occurs with other disorders/problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Reading </li></ul><ul><li>Barkley, R.A. et. al. (2002). International Consensus Statement (January 2002). Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 5(2). p.89-111. </li></ul>
  • 10. Lecture 3 – Autistic Disorder (Classic Autism). <ul><li>Key Points from Lecture: </li></ul><ul><li>First described around 65 years ago. </li></ul><ul><li>Exists as a spectrum, a continuum, a syndrome with various degrees of impairment </li></ul><ul><li>Affects communication, social interactions, and strange behaviour that impair education performance. </li></ul><ul><li>Generally evident before age 3. </li></ul><ul><li>A life-long pervasive developmental disorder with genetic susceptibility. </li></ul><ul><li>Reading </li></ul><ul><li>Frith, U. & Happe, F. (1994) Autism: Beyond Theory of Mind. Cognition, 50, pp.115-132. </li></ul>
  • 11. Lecture 4 – Asperger's Disorder. <ul><li>Key Points from Lecture: </li></ul><ul><li>A higher-functioning form of Autism characterised by impairments in the social domain, some impairment in the behaviour/interests domain. </li></ul><ul><li>No significant delays in cognitive or language skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Motor clumsiness, especially in younger children. </li></ul><ul><li>Asperger’s tend to desire to interact with others, but don’t know how to in an appropriate way. </li></ul><ul><li>May live very successful independent lives in appropriate job settings. </li></ul><ul><li>Not so easy to spot Asperger’s Disorder. </li></ul><ul><li>Reading </li></ul><ul><li>Baron-Cohen, S. (1999). The Extreme-Male-Brain Theory of Autism. In Tager-Flusberg, H, (ed) Neurodevelopmental Disorders. MIT Press (1999). </li></ul>
  • 12. Lecture 5 – Classification, Assessment & Diagnosis. <ul><li>Key Points from Lecture: </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnosis has to be made on a behavioural basis. </li></ul><ul><li>Variations in symptoms and severity of impairments. </li></ul><ul><li>DSM-IV (APA, 1994) & ICD-10 (WHO, 1994). </li></ul><ul><li>‘Pervasive Developmental Disorder’. </li></ul><ul><li>‘Attention-Deficit and Disruptive Behavioural Disorders’. </li></ul><ul><li>Missed diagnosis and misdiagnosis. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple referral routes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pressures on Local Authority resources. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple assessment protocols and diagnostic tools. </li></ul></ul>
  • 13. Lecture 6 – Aetiology of ADHD & Autism. <ul><li>Key Points from Lecture: </li></ul><ul><li>The causes of ADHD are not fully known. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Likely to have multiple causes and complex interactions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good evidence for genetic component. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evidence of structural and functional brain abnormality. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Barkley’s Theory of Response Inhibition in ADHD. </li></ul><ul><li>Theory of Mind deficit. Executive Dysfunction. Weak Central Coherence. </li></ul><ul><li>Reading </li></ul><ul><li>Barkley, R.A. et. al. (2002). International Consensus Statement (January 2002). Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 5(2). p.89-111. </li></ul><ul><li>Rajendran, G. & Mitchell, P. (2007). Cognitive Theories of Autism. Developmental Review, 27. </li></ul><ul><li>Frith, U. & Hill, E. (2004) Understanding Autism: Insights From Mind and Brain In Autism: Mind and Brain, ed. Frith, U. & Hill, E. Oxford, Oxford University Press, pp.1-19. </li></ul>
  • 14. Lecture 7 – Comorbidity in ADHD and Autism. <ul><li>Key Points from Lecture: </li></ul><ul><li>A large number of medical conditions are very often associated with ADHD and/or Autism. </li></ul><ul><li>High overlap between ADHD and ASD symptoms. </li></ul><ul><li>ADHD and Autism are generally described as separate disorders with separate genetic aetiologies. </li></ul><ul><li>Most genetic studies exclude cases of Autism from studies on ADHD and vice versa. </li></ul><ul><li>Reading </li></ul><ul><li>Gillberg, C., & Billstedt, E. (2000). Autism and Asperger syndrome: Coexistence with other clinical disorders. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica , 102 , 321–330. </li></ul>
  • 15. Lecture 8 – Treatment For ADHD. <ul><li>Key Points from Lecture: </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct problems and symptoms of ADHD may hinder treatment and/or assessment. </li></ul><ul><li>All strategies do not fit all children. </li></ul><ul><li>Medication is the ‘treatment of choice’ for ADHD following MTA. </li></ul><ul><li>The MTA studies suggest that there’s very little benefit from any psychotherapeutic treatment on core symptoms. </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulant treatment is easily available in the community and behavioural treatment is not. But opinion remains divided. </li></ul><ul><li>Reading </li></ul><ul><li>The MTA Cooperative Group. (1999). A14 Month Randomized Clinical Trial of Treatment Strategies for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 56. p.1073-1086. </li></ul>
  • 16. Lecture 9 – Treatment For Autism. <ul><li>Key Points from Lecture: </li></ul><ul><li>Many different types of behavioural interventions for ASD. </li></ul><ul><li>Early intervention is most beneficial. </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment depends on the individual. </li></ul><ul><li>Most effective treatment for the disorder is highly structured and intensive ‘Applied Behavioural Analysis’ (ABA). </li></ul><ul><li>Problems treating people with Autism, communication, non-compliance, comorbidity, intellectual/emotional immaturity. </li></ul><ul><li>Reading </li></ul><ul><li>Lovaas, O. I. (1987) Behavioral treatment and normal educational and intellectual functioning in young autistic children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, 3-9. </li></ul>
  • 17. What Is The Format Of The Exam? <ul><li>Exam information </li></ul><ul><li>The examination is 2 hours long (on-campus). </li></ul><ul><li>Students must answer 2 questions from 6 (one pair of questions from three questions sets.) </li></ul><ul><li>Each answer should be answered in a separate booklet. </li></ul><ul><li>Put your Student ID number on the paper. </li></ul><ul><li>Inform the module leader if you have an ECF for the exam or if you have any special requirements. </li></ul>
  • 18. What Is The Format Of The Exam? <ul><li>Mock exam questions </li></ul><ul><li>Answer one pair of questions from set A, B, or C: </li></ul><ul><li>A) </li></ul><ul><li>i) Using evidence from research, evaluate the suggestion that the symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder are explainable as one end of a continuum of normal human behaviour. </li></ul><ul><li>ii) Illustrate the factors that may obstruct the treatment of Autism, Asperger’s Syndrome and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. </li></ul><ul><li>Or </li></ul><ul><li>B) </li></ul><ul><li>i) Assess the issues surrounding the use of food supplements and special diets in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. </li></ul><ul><li>ii) Using evidence from research, outline how the symptoms of Autism may impair children’s cognitive and social development. </li></ul><ul><li>Or </li></ul><ul><li>C) </li></ul><ul><li>i) Using evidence from research, summarise the support for the main theories of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. </li></ul><ul><li>ii) Discuss why early intervention is important for children diagnosed with Autism. </li></ul>Look at the past papers on the Forum
  • 19. What Are The Exam Questions? <ul><li>With reference to research... </li></ul><ul><li>Using evidence from research... </li></ul><ul><li>Using evidence from research and/or theory... </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;......&quot;, Discuss. </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnosis of Autism/ADHD. </li></ul><ul><li>Theories of Autism/ADHD. </li></ul><ul><li>Causes of Autism/ADHD. </li></ul><ul><li>Subtypes of ADHD. </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment & Treatment of Autism/ADHD. </li></ul>
  • 20. How Can I Perform Well In The exam? <ul><li>Use the lecture notes in addition to general background reading. Have key studies and theories in memory. </li></ul><ul><li>Read the questions thoroughly and plan an answer. </li></ul><ul><li>Write clearly and use correct grammar and style. </li></ul><ul><li>When revising, practice answering exam questions under exam conditions (in the same amount of time!). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mark your work and learn what you didn’t know. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better - get someone else to mark and comment. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When you are revising, don't just read your notes. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concentrate on asking yourself questions about your work. </li></ul></ul>
  • 21. How And What Should I Revise? <ul><li>Use the lecture handouts as a guide. </li></ul><ul><li>Print and read any recommended papers. </li></ul><ul><li>Find review papers. </li></ul><ul><li>Read papers and highlight or summarise key points. </li></ul><ul><li>Know three main theories of Autism. </li></ul><ul><li>Know about Barkley’s theory of response inhibition. </li></ul><ul><li>Be able to describe symptoms, assessment, diagnosis & treatment. </li></ul><ul><li>Have a pre-structured answer to the obvious questions. </li></ul><ul><li>Use Google advanced search and filter for .pdf or .ppt files. </li></ul><ul><li>Use the module Blackboard web site. </li></ul><ul><li>Practice and assess your own knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Buddy up with someone and revise together. </li></ul>
  • 22. AAA Blackboard WebPages and Forum Student Forum Blackboard Web Pages
  • 23. Any questions on the exam or any part of the module?

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