English Communicative Syllabus for Pre-service Flight Attendants

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This thesis presents a study on pre-service flight attendants' needs of English. The results of the study are a set of communicative syllabus with lesson plans for pre-service flight attendant training.

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English Communicative Syllabus for Pre-service Flight Attendants

  1. 1. DEVELOPING COMMUNICATIVE ENGLISH SYLLABUS FOR PRE-SERVICE FLIGHT ATTENDANT TRAINING THESIS BY Yudi Setyaningsih NIM. 106 653 551 501 ADVISORS: Dr. ArwijatiWahyudi,Dip. TESL., M.Pd. Dr. Suharmanto, M.Pd. STATE UNIVERSITY OF MALANG GRADUATE PROGRAM IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING MARCH 2009
  2. 2. DEVELOPING COMMUNICATIVE ENGLISH SYLLABUS FOR PRE-SERVICE FLIGHT ATTENDANT TRAINING THESIS Presented to State University of Malang in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Magister in English Language Teaching BY Yudi Setyaningsih NIM. 106 653 551 501 STATE UNIVERSITY OF MALANG GRADUATE PROGRAM IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING MARCH 2009
  3. 3. This is to certify that the Magister’s thesis of Yudi Setyaningsih has been approved by the Board of Examiners as the requirement for the degree of Magister in English Language Education Malang, 20 March, 2009 Board of Examiners Dr. Arwijati Wahyudi, Dip.TESL, M.Pd……………………………………., Chair Dr. Suharmanto, M.Pd……..………………………………………………..., Member Dr. Sri Rachmajanti, Dip.TESL,M.Pd………………………………………., Member Dr. H. Imron Arifin, M.Pd.………………………………………………….., Member Acknowledged by Director of Graduate Program Dr. Marthen Pali, M.Psi iii
  4. 4. NIP 130522257 ABSTRACT Setyaningsih, Yudi. 2009. Developing Communicative English Syllabus for Pre- service Flight Attendant Training. Thesis, Graduate Program in English Language Education, State University of Malang. Advisors: (I) Dr. Arwijati Wahyudi, Dip. TESL., M.Pd. (II) Dr. Suharmanto, M.Pd. Keywords: syllabus, ESP, flight attendants This study is intended to develop a set of communicative syllabus for pre- service flight attendants having their training before going to apply for jobs at airlines. As communicating with passengers are very important, the developed syllabus is based on communicative competence as the medium of instruction. The developmental research is implemented when conducting this study and Yalden’s theory on Language Program Development is used and modified through its eight steps: 1) doing the needs survey, 2) describing the purpose, 3) selecting the syllabus type, 4) writing the proto syllabus, 5) writing the pedagogical syllabus, 6) try-out the syllabus, 7) evaluating/revising the syllabus, and 8) the final product. The needs survey places the very important aspect in this developmental research and therefore, it is done to find out the real interests and needs of some people involved in the activities. The needs survey is implemented to pre-service flight attendants and ESP teachers in the training centers, flight attendants who are still actively working, and foreign passengers who have ever flown with Indonesian airlines. Some interviews were also conducted to them as to get clearer information on what those respondents expect to have dealing with good communication of flight attendants using English. Some other factual data on English materials and its teaching and learning activities were obtained in the training centers. The syllabus contains a set of topics related to actual working condition in- flight. They are: 1) Boarding and seating, 2) Before Take-off, 3) Meals and Drinks Service, 4) socializing/personal service/extra care, 5) Sales On-board, 6) Giving Information and before Landing, 7) After Landing and Parting, 8) Flight Safety Procedure, 9) Announcement, and 10) Language Reinforcement. All topics will be presented in twelve meetings with ninety minutes of session for each meeting. The syllabus, together with its matrix of the course and lessons plan, was then tried out by an ESP teacher teaching at one of the training centers in Malang. After the try-out, the syllabus was then evaluated by syllabus experts and revised until becomes the final product. The proposed syllabus will be very useful for ESP teachers teaching at flight attendant training centers as it is completed with lesson plans that elaborate the syllabus into teaching and learning activities and also its suggested materials being used found especially in the Internet. ESP teachers as well as pre-service flight attendants will find it useful as it is developed by using the results shown in the need survey which accommodate the real interests of people involved in airlines. This syllabus is also reflecting the actual working condition so that the iv
  5. 5. pre-service flight attendants will able to communicate well using correct English that becomes the important aspect in their jobs. A suggestion is made to flight attendant training centers that the use of communicative syllabus developed with the basis of needs survey is urgent as the needs survey accommodates the real needs and interest of people involved in airlines industry. If the proposed syllabus is used then it is hoped that the outcomes will be skillful flight attendants who can serve the passengers well and they can also communicate with the passengers using correct English. v
  6. 6. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to acknowledge the valuable guidance from my advisors,Dr. ArwijatiWahyudi,Dip. TESL., M.Pd., and Dr. Suharmanto, M.Pd., who has spent generous time directing and polishing my thesis, and whose academic insight, critical acumen and constant encouragement carried me through the travail of writing this paper. Without the benefit of his superior knowledge, detailed advice and meticulous scholarship, I would not have had the courage to tackle and complete such a formidable and challenging topic asDeveloping Communicative English Syllabus for Pre-service Flight Attendant Training. There are also a number of other people to whom I owe a great deal for the completion of this dissertation: I am deeply indebted to Prof. E. Sadtono, Ph.D.,2nd Vice Rector of Ma Chung University Malang, and JaniarSinaga, S.Pd., an English teacher at SekarGegani Flight Attendant Training Center Malang who helped me with the validation of my syllabus. My gratitude to them is beyond words. I am also grateful to DiyahHimawati, S.E., the director of SekarGegani, the staff of BinaAviaPersada Flight Attendant Training Center Malang, and the staff of Adista Aviation Training Center Jogjakarta. I owe them a lot as my survey were done in their training centers. Many thanks to those helpful people. My appreciation also goes to my lecturers,staff, colleagues and classmates, at The State University of Malang for transferringtheir knowledge, recommending the topic and inspiring me to see the usefulness as well as enormous potentialities of developing syllabus. vi
  7. 7. Last but not least, I would like to make particular mention of my 9-year- old son Nino, not because of the unceasing attention he demanded of me, but for the invaluable time he considerately spared for me by lying in bed accompanying me on sleepless night whenever I was preparing my thesis. The Writer vii
  8. 8. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page DEVELOPING COMMUNICATIVE ENGLISH SYLLABUS FOR PRE-SERVICE FLIGHT ATTENDANT TRAINING.........1 THESIS 1 BY Yudi Setyaningsih..........................................................................1 NIM. 106 653 551 501............................................................................................1 DEVELOPING COMMUNICATIVE ENGLISH SYLLABUS FOR PRE-SERVICE FLIGHT ATTENDANT TRAINING.........2 THESIS 2 BY Yudi Setyaningsih..........................................................................2 NIM. 106 653 551 501............................................................................................2 ABSTRACT iv ABSTRACT iv ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.....................................................................................vi ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.....................................................................................vi TABLE OF CONTENTS.....................................................................................viii TABLE OF CONTENTS.....................................................................................viii LIST OF TABLES.................................................................................................xi LIST OF TABLES.................................................................................................xi LIST OF FIGURES.............................................................................................xiii LIST OF FIGURES.............................................................................................xiii LIST OF APPENDICES......................................................................................xiv LIST OF APPENDICES......................................................................................xiv viii
  9. 9. CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION..........................................................................1 I.1 Background of the Study..........................................................1 I.2 Statement of the Problem..........................................................4 I.3 Objective of the Study..............................................................4 I.4 Significance of the Study..........................................................5 I.5 Specification of the Product......................................................5 I.6 Definition of Key Terms...........................................................6 CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE.....................................8 II.1 Communication.......................................................................8 II.2 English for Specific Purposes..................................................9 II.3 Communicative Competence.................................................12 II.4 Syllabus.................................................................................14 II.5 The Role of Syllabus.............................................................19 II.6 The Communicative Syllabus................................................21 II.7 Communicative Activities and Materials..............................25 II.8 The Stages in Program Development....................................29 II.9 Evaluation..............................................................................31 CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY.......................................................................32 III.1 Research Design...................................................................32 III.2 The Model of the Development...........................................34 III.3 The Procedure of the Development......................................35 III.4 The subject of the Study.......................................................45 CHAPTER IV THE RESULT OF NEEDS SURVEY AND THE STAGES OF SYLLABUS DEVELOPMENT..........47 IV.1 The Result of Needs Survey................................................47 IV.2 Result of the Development...................................................75 IV.3 Validation of the Developed Syllabus.................................78 IV.4 The Try-out of the Developed Syllabus...............................78 IV.5 Evaluation and Revision......................................................79 IV.6 The Writing of Communicative English for Flight Attendants in the Training Center.......................................81 REFERENCES......................................................................................................85 REFERENCES......................................................................................................85 APPENDICES 87 APPENDICES 87 CURRICULUM VITAE.....................................................................................108 ix
  10. 10. CURRICULUM VITAE.....................................................................................108 x
  11. 11. LIST OF TABLES Table Page Table 2.1 Yalden’s Communicative Syllabus (cited from Richards and Rogers, 1986)............................................................................................25 Table 4.2 The Method of English Teaching...........................................................49 Table 4.3 Equipment or Teaching Media...............................................................50 Table 4.4 English Materials...................................................................................51 Table 4.5 Evaluation..............................................................................................52 Table 4.6 TheInstructional Objective of the English Course.................................53 Table 4.7 The Level of Students............................................................................54 Table 4.8 Teaching Materials.................................................................................54 Table 4.9 Language Skills......................................................................................55 Table 4.10 Types of Teaching Aids.......................................................................56 Table 4.11 Information on the Training Centers....................................................57 Table 4.12 English Skills.......................................................................................59 Table 4.13 The Flight Attendants’ Habits in Reading and Writing.......................60 Table 4.14 The Teaching Method..........................................................................62 Table 4.15 Equipment or Teaching Media.............................................................62 Table 4.16 English Materials.................................................................................63 Table 4.17 Evaluation............................................................................................64 Table 4.18 Aspects of English Language Skills.....................................................65 Table 4.19 Passenger’s Expectation.......................................................................66 Table 4.20 Aspect in Service.................................................................................66 Table 4.21 Tasks Related to Language Skills........................................................67 Table 4.22 Aspects of the Language Skills Causing a Misunderstanding.............68 Table 4.23 Aspects of Speaking a Flight Attendant...............................................69 xi
  12. 12. Table 4.24 The Importance of Service...................................................................70 Table 4.25 The Clarity of Announcement..............................................................70 Table 4.26 The Awful Experience.........................................................................71 Table 4.27 The Awful Experiences........................................................................71 xii
  13. 13. LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page Figure 3.1 Stages on Syllabus Development adopted from “The Communicative Syllabus” (Yalden, 1987).............................................................38 xiii
  14. 14. LIST OF APPENDICES Appendix Page Appendix I (Communicative English Syllabus for Pre-service Flight Attendants) ......................................................................................................88 Appendix II (Matrix of the Course).......................................................................90 xiv
  15. 15. CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION This introduction presents and discusses the background of the study, the statement of the problem, the objective of the study, the significance of the study, the assumption, the scope, and the definition of the key terms. I.1 Background of the Study Airline industry has developed very rapidly in recent years. A lot of new airlines have been launched and ready to accommodate passengers going to and coming from Indonesia. The rapid development in airlines industry demands skillful flight attendants who can communicate not only with passengers but also airlines staff, and people from all over the world using correct English. The term “skillful” here does not only refer to being skillful in performing their jobs but also to be competent in language as a means of communication. A skillful flight attendant is someone who can do his/her best when facing and solving every problem that may occur in his/her field. A flight attendant will face common problems with passengers in flight environment such as pre, during, and post flight. Working in airlines also requires someone to be capable to communicate with other English speaking members of the airlines staff and people they meet whenever they are assigned to take international routes. Meeting foreigners is something that is unavoidable, therefore, mastering English is a must for all flight attendants if they want to survive in the airlines industry. Communication problems may arise when the speakers are not able to synchronize their idea. In addition, inability to understand others’ need and misinterpret others’ questions may lead to a conflict. In this case, language is very 1
  16. 16. 2 important as a means of communication which creates a harmonious working atmosphere. In a service business such as an airline, people buy an experience (Lovelock &Wright, 2002: 64). In this context, customer satisfaction as well as customer information and feedback, become critical. The US airline industry appears to be in trouble on these fronts. In a study by the Better Business Bureau, data indicates that consumer complaints “more than doubled between 1995 and 1999.”(Lovelock & Wright, 2002: 65). According to the American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI), compared to four other industries (banks, stores, hotels, phone companies) between 1995 and 2000, airlines showed the “sharpest deterioration in customer satisfaction.” (Lovelock &Wright, 2002:69). Research indicates that the majority of customers are disappointed with the way companies handle their complaints and have even more negative feelings about the organization in question after having gone through the service recovery process (Tax and Brown, 1998). According to Marshall, the Chairman of British Airways, (as quoted in Tax and Brown, 1998), the best way to manage service challenges is by creating an organization that excels in listening to its most valuable customers. Indeed, language which can cover the communication problem is really needed. Speaking the same language will minimize the problems. In line with this problem, there should be a language which is understood by a lot of people in general and widely spoken. Based on that requirement, it is English that can play the role of bridging language as it is now become the world language. English language has been playing an important role in the international communication and has become the most widely spoken language in the world.
  17. 17. 3 Indeed, it has become one of five official languages used in The United Nations Organization. English has become the bridging language among nations worldwide. Persons with different nationalities will automatically speak English whenever they meet. English is a lingua franca which connects the communication and relations among nations. English has played as a bridging language which enables them to exchange their ideas. Flight attendants, especially, those who work for international routes usually meet passengers from all over the world. To handle their business, these passengers have to speak an international language usually spoken worldwide, English. This means, flight attendants must be competent in English so that they can handle every possible situation which might happen during their flight-duty and off-duty. Before flight attendants could come to the real working condition, they have to learn how to speak English well during their time in the training center. When they are trained in the training center, they have a precious moment to practice and maximize their English. With the help of a good and competent English teacher and also a communicative syllabus, the students will be trained are being accustomed to the target language. A teacher is the sharp point in teaching and learning activities. A teacher guides the class where they should go, what they will do and how to do it. However, that statement will not work on successfully without a good syllabus. A syllabus will serve as a clear guideline for the teacher to make his/her teaching plan. So, a precise syllabus helps the teacher to do the best to the students. Such kind of syllabus is the one which provides more opportunities for the students to practice the language in the form of role play, group discussion, and presentation.
  18. 18. 4 Therefore, it is important to develop a communicative English syllabus which emphasize on practical skills which can meet the demand of the working condition in the airlines industry. The available English syllabus used in the training centers for (SekarGegani, Intersky Study, and BinaAviaPersada Flight attendant training centers in Malang) where the researcher has been teaching for more than two years only provides general English for their students and this does not meet the needs of English spoken in the real working condition. Most of the English teachers have only backgrounds in teaching English in general and do not understand the situation happening in-flight. Therefore, developing a communicative English syllabus is chosen as it becomes the heart of the teaching activity. This study is intended to produce a communicative syllabus for pre- service flight attendants training considering the real working situation. I.2 Statement of the Problem The problem of the study is “What is the appropriate English syllabus for pre-service flight attendants?” I.3 Objective of the Study Since there has not been a syllabus for flight attendant students containing communicative activities in flight attendant training centers yet where the researcher are teaching so the objective of the study is to develop an appropriate syllabus which is beneficial for the pre-service flight attendants of the training centers. The syllabus is expected to help teachers to maximize their role and results in competent flight attendants who can speak English well.
  19. 19. 5 I.4 Significance of the Study The developed syllabus is designed especially for the ESP teachers teaching at flight attendant training centers and pre-service flight attendants who are going to apply for jobs at airlines. The teacher of ESP in the flight attendant training will use the syllabus as they find that until now, the specific syllabus containing communicative activities has not been developed. Those teachers will find it easier to bring the real world condition to the classroom and make students are more accustomed to the in-flight situation. The result of this study is a set of communicative English syllabus for pre- service flight attendant in the training centers. The syllabus should cover all expectations of real life working condition in such a limited time during the six- month course period. It is hoped that the result of the study, despite its recognized limitations, will give benefits for pre-service flight attendants of the training centers as well as the ESP teachers who can transfer their knowledge of English through practical activities contained in the syllabus. I.5 Specification of the Product Syllabus and its teaching materials based on the need analysis become important aspects which influence the success of teaching and learning activities. This developmental research is specifically intended to produce a model of communicative syllabus. The product of this study will be the syllabus containing (1) the objectives, (2) the materials: the topic and sub-topics, (3) the activities involved, (4) the time allotment, and (5) the evaluation. The syllabus is completed with ten sets of lesson plans that will accommodate ESP teachers to implement the syllabus into teaching/learning
  20. 20. 6 activities. The lesson plans are equipped with materials that are very useful in teaching and students will be led to the real situation as the materials are using realia (i.e. a ticket, a boarding pass, cups and saucers, a trolley for serving passengers, etc.) and recordings in announcement. I.6 Definition of Key Terms In order to avoid ambiguity as well understanding of some terms used in this study, the following parts will clarify some key terms, they are: • Syllabus Dubin and Ohlstain (1992) state that a syllabus is a document which describes what the learners are expected to know at the end of the course, what is to be taught or learned during the course, when it is to be taught, and how to evaluate it. In this study, the syllabus being developed contains the general objectives of the course, instructional objectives, teaching materials, teaching learning activities, teaching media, evaluation system and time allocation. • Communicative Syllabus According to Yalden (1987:86), a communicative syllabus is a kind of syllabus that incorporates a consideration of everything needed to assure communication. • Syllabus Development It is a process of designing a good syllabus which can be used in flight attendant training centers. The process will start from needs analysis, description of purpose, selection of syllabus type, production of the proto-syllabus, teaching materials, evaluation.
  21. 21. 7 • Flight Attendant Training Center It is a place where senior high-school graduates are taught subjects and materials containing matters about in-flight service (hospitality, meals, and drinks service), flight safety procedure, and English. The training usually lasts for six to eight months including on-the-job training in airlines. • English for pre-service flight attendant course It is a term to name a set of lessons or studies learned by the students of Flight Attendant Training Center who need to master the English language based on the demand of the working field. • Flight Attendant Longman dictionary defines ‘A flight attendant’ as someone who serves food and drinks to passengers on a plane, and looks after their comfort and safety.
  22. 22. 8 CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE As the theoretical becomes the basis of the study, chapter II deals with: communication theory, English for Specific Purpose (ESP),communicative competence, syllabus and its types,the role of syllabus, the communicative syllabus, communicative activities and materials, the stages of program development, the material evaluation. II.1 Communication Communication is unavoidable in human being’s life. People communicate with others directly as well as indirectly. In communication, there is always delivering and exchanging ideas to one another. The exchanges of ideas may give us a lot of information; on the other hand, the ideas can be shared with others. People communicate in most of their life and the ability of communicating is innate. A harmonious communication does not occur automatically. It demands a good means of communication. Here, a language to bridge the communication is needed. Language, as stated by Crystal in The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language is a system which mediates in highly complex way; between the universe meaning and the universe of sound. There is usually a speaker and a hearer to make communication exists. Language enables the speaker to transform configuration of meaningful sound, and it enables the hearer to understand the sound produced by the speaker and he/she can transform these sound into a reasonable script. In other words, a thought in the speaker’s mind is encoded
  23. 23. 9 through a language, which is then decoded by the hearer, so that the thought ends up in his/her mind. In addition, Crystal mentions that communication is a crucial factor in our social life and it becomes the basic of our social life. It means that people cannot live normally as full human being without communication. Communication is intended for various reasons: get in touch with others to reach specific goal, and to assist others achieve their goals. Other intentions are to negotiate and work toward the accomplishment of a set of mutually constructed purposes. People can also continually develop and manage their personal identities, relationship, and multicultural relationship through communication. II.2 English for Specific Purposes English for specific purposes (ESP) is a way of teaching/ learning English for specialized subjects with some specific vocational and educational purpose in mind. There are different needs for different purposes (and learners) of English language e.g. English for Economics, English for Business, English for Secretaries, English for Technicians and others. Certainly a basic knowledge of general English language competence will be required too and developed further. English for vocational purposes is an application of ESP according to students’ language needs for work and to their different jobs at vocational school. ESP must be seen as an approach to language learning (not as a product) which is based on learners need and directed by specific and apparent reasons for learning. There is a distinction between what a person does (performance = language use) and what enables them to do it (competence = language learning) (Bloor, 1984). This approach is learning and learner oriented (but not teacher
  24. 24. 10 oriented) with a conception and preference of communicative competence. If we consider the learning process we are able to find out a lot of syllabus’ goals as well as students’ goals implicated in ESP. II.2.1 ESP in Relation to Syllabus Goals Learning English for specific purposes at flight attendant training centers does not follow the general syllabus from the Ministry of Education defining what is to be learnt. It is up to the training centers to conduct its local content subject decided by the ESP teachers teaching at the training centers themselves. There are some goals of the general syllabus and compare them to ESP goals. Especially within the “Didactic principles” (Berner, 2005) it is found many sensible goals according to ESP. These principles also can be seen as a guidance to the aspects of the apprentices how learning could take place. II.2.1.1. Some Didactic Principles The main criteria for the selection of teaching subjects is the applicability to the job and everyday life situation of the students with the special requirements of the apprenticeship. • It is recommendable to start from the students’ previous knowledge and field of experiences. • The chief importance in teaching these students is to transmit basic language skills. • The communicative skills should be developed by using the foreign language as teaching language and with the use of language tapes, videos of shopping talks, phone talks, or radio and TV-reports.
  25. 25. 11 • The use of special authentic materials like service and repair instructions, product information, business letters or technical journals improve the reading comprehension and intensify the relationship to their job. • To take pleasure in language learning communication should have priority to linguistic terms. Mentioned goals of the general syllabus - outlining general topics and communicative tasks - do agree with the goals of English for specific purposes. The general syllabus should be used as a basis for materials, for the initial selection of texts, exercises and activities. The materials themselves the teacher uses will produce a detailed language syllabus, were both the needs analyses of the students and the learning process is to be considered II.2.1.2. ESP in relation to the goals of an “ESP” teacher The primarily goal in language learning activities is to get the students able to communicate, to understand what others wish and to interact freely with others. For those reasons classroom activities should be planned in a way that the students do have a real natural purpose. It is better to present the language in a context to a purpose other than the English language itself. “Language is best taught when it is being used to transmit messages, not when it is explicitly taught for conscious learning” ( Krashen, 1988). It is easier to describe the purposes a teacher has than the goals, which are in accordance actually. He has to create the presupposition for a good learning situation in an agreeable classroom atmosphere by keeping in mind the basic principles of language learning and language teaching.
  26. 26. 12 The most effective language teaching will mean that the students are set realistic tasks where they use the language for a specific purpose. That will be achieved by using authentic materials mentioned later referring to the syllabus. An authentic text is preferable to support the natural language approach as a part of the teaching/learning process especially at training centers. “To use a target situation text makes the exercise more realistic and increases the learners’ motivation by emphasizing the real world application of the language” (Lewis, 2000). The most important role then for the teacher is that of a “catalyst, to help to make things happen” and his purpose is to activate students and to encourage them to communicate. Using authentic material should also reflect a teacher’s relation to ESP and considered as an attempt to provide a stimulus to learning. Interesting teaching material helps to organize and to keep on the teaching/learning process. II.3 Communicative Competence Language teaching is based on the idea that the goal of language acquisition is communicative competence: the ability to use the language correctly and appropriately to accomplish communication goals (Savignon, 1983). The desired outcome of the language learning process is the ability to communicate competently, not the ability to use the language exactly as a native speaker does. Communicative competence is made up of four sub competences: linguistic, sociolinguistic, discourse, and strategic competence (Savignon, 1983):
  27. 27. 13 • Linguistic competenceis knowing how to use the grammar, syntax, and vocabulary of a language. Linguistic competence asks: What words do I use? How do I put them into phrases and sentences? • Sociolinguistic competenceis knowing how to use and respond to language appropriately, given the setting, the topic, and the relationships among the people communicating. Sociolinguistic competence asks: Which words and phrases fit this setting and this topic? How can I express a specific attitude (courtesy, authority, friendliness, respect) when I need to? How do I know what attitude another person is expressing? • Discourse competenceis knowing how to interpret the larger context and how to construct longer stretches of language so that the parts make up a coherent whole. Discourse competence asks: How are words, phrases and sentences put together to create conversations, speeches, email messages, newspaper articles? • Strategic competenceis knowing how to recognize and repair communication breakdowns, how to work around gaps in one’s knowledge of the language, and how to learn more about the language and in the context. Strategic competence asks: How do I know when I’ve misunderstood or when someone has misunderstood me? What do I say then? How can I express my ideas if I don’t know the name of something or the right verb form to use? In the early stages of language learning, instructors and students may want to keep in mind the goal of communicative efficiency: that learners should be able to make themselves understood, using their current proficiency to the fullest. They should try to avoid confusion in the message (due to faulty pronunciation,
  28. 28. 14 grammar, or vocabulary); to avoid offending communication partners (due to socially inappropriate style); and to use strategies for recognizing and managing communication breakdowns. II.4 Syllabus A syllabus is an expression of opinion on the nature of language and learning; it acts as a guide for both teacher and learner by providing some goals to be attained. Hutchinson and Waters (1987:80) define syllabus as follows: at its simplest level a syllabus can be described as a statement of what is to be learnt. It reflects of language and linguistic performance. This is a rather traditional interpretation of syllabus focusing as it does on outcomes rather than process. However, a syllabus can also be seen as a "summary of the content to which learners will be exposed" (Yalden.1987: 87). It is seen as an approximation of what will be taught and that it cannot accurately predict what will be learnt. Brown (1995) and Richards (1990) list the following types of syllabuses. They are: • Product-Oriented Syllabuses Also known as the synthetic approach, these kinds of syllabuses emphasize the product of language learning and are prone to intervention from an authority. • The Structural Approach Historically, the most prevalent of syllabus type is perhaps the grammatical syllabus in which the selection and grading of the content is based on the complexity and simplicity of grammatical items. The learner is expected to master each structural step and add it to her grammar collection. As such the focus is on the outcomes or the product.
  29. 29. 15 One problem facing the syllabus designer pursuing a grammatical order to sequencing input is that the ties connecting the structural items maybe rather feeble. A more fundamental criticism is that the grammatical syllabus focuses on only one aspect of language, namely grammar, whereas in truth there exists many more aspects to language. Finally, recent corpus based research suggests there is a divergence between the grammar of the spoken and of the written language; raising implications for the grading of content in grammar based syllabuses. • The Situational Approach These limitations led to an alternative approach where the point of departure became situational needs rather than grammatical units. Here, the principal organizing characteristic is a list of situations which reflects the way language and behavior are used every day outside the classroom. Thus, by linking structural theory to situations the learner is able to induce the meaning from a relevant context. One advantage of the situational approach is that motivation will be heightened since it is "learner- rather than subject-centered" (Wilkins.1976: 16). However, a situational syllabus will be limited for students whose needs were not encompassed by the situations in the syllabus. This dissatisfaction led Wilkins to describe notional and communicative categories which had a significant impact on syllabus design. • The Notional/Functional Approach Wilkins' criticism of structural and situational approaches lies in the fact that they answer only the 'how' or 'when' and 'where' of language (Brumfit and Johnson. 1979:84). Instead, he enquires "what it is they communicate through
  30. 30. 16 language" (Op.Cit.:18). Thus, the starting point for a syllabus is the communicative purpose and conceptual meaning of language i.e. notions and functions, as opposed to grammatical items and situational elements which remain but are relegated to a subsidiary role. In order to establish objectives, the needs of the learners will have to be analyzed by the various types of communication in which the learner has to confront. Consequently, needs analysis has an association with notional-functional syllabuses. Although needs analysis implies a focus on the learner, critics of this approach suggest that a new list has replaced the old one. Where once structural/situational items were used a new list consisting of notions and functions has become the main focus in a syllabus. White (1988:77) claims that "language functions do not usually occur in isolation" and there are also difficulties of selecting and grading function and form. Clearly, the task of deciding whether a given function (i.e. persuading), is easier or more difficult than another (i.e. approving), makes the task harder to approach. The above approaches belong to the product-oriented category of syllabuses. An alternative path to curriculum design would be to adopt process oriented principles, which assume that language can be learnt experientially as opposed to the step-by-step procedure of the synthetic approach. • Process-Oriented Syllabuses Process-Oriented Syllabuses, or the analytical approach, developed as a result of a sense of failure in product-oriented courses to enhance communicative language skills. It is a process rather than a product. That is, focus is not on what the student will have accomplished on completion of the program, but on the
  31. 31. 17 specification of learning tasks and activities that s/he will undertake during the course. • Procedural/Task-Based Approaches Prabhu's (1979) 'Bangalore Project' is a classic example of a procedural syllabus. Here, the question concerning 'what' becomes subordinate to the question concerning 'how'. The focus shifts from the linguistic element to the pedagogical, with an emphasis on learning or learner. Within such a framework the selection, ordering and grading of content is no longer wholly significant for the syllabus designer. Arranging the program around tasks such as information- and opinion-gap activities, it was hoped that the learner would perceive the language subconsciously whilst consciously concentrating on solving the meaning behind the tasks. There appears to be an indistinct boundary between this approach and that of language teaching methodology, and evaluating the merits of the former remain complicated. A task-based approach assumes that speaking a language is a skill best perfected through practice and interaction, and uses tasks and activities to encourage learners to use the language communicatively in order to achieve a purpose. Tasks must be relevant to the real world language needs of the student. That is, the underlying learning theory of task based and communicative language teaching seems to suggest that activities in which language is employed to complete meaningful tasks, enhances learning.
  32. 32. 18 • Learner-Led Syllabuses The notion of basing an approach on how learners learn was proposed by Breen and Candlin (1984). Here the emphasis lays with the learner, who it is hoped will be involved in the implementation of the syllabus design as far as that is practically possible. By being fully aware of the course they are studying it is believed that their interest and motivation will increase, coupled with the positive effect of nurturing the skills required to learn. However, as suggested earlier, a predetermined syllabus provides support and guidance for the teacher and should not be so easily dismissed. Critics have suggested that a learner-led syllabus seems radical and utopian in that it will be difficult to track as the direction of the syllabus will be largely the responsibility of the learners. Moreover, without the mainstay of a course book, a lack of aims may come about. This leads to the final syllabus design to be examined; the proportional approach as propounded by Yalden (1987). • The Proportional Approach The proportional syllabus basically attempts to develop an "overall competence" (Op.Cit.:97). It consists of a number of elements with theme playing a linking role through the units. This theme is designated by the learners. It is expected initially that form will be of central value, but later, the focus will veer towards interactional components ; the syllabus is designed to be dynamic, not static, with ample opportunity for feedback and flexibility (ibid:100). The shift from form to interaction can occur at any time and is not limited to a particular stratum of learner ability. As Yalden (ibid:87) observes, it is
  33. 33. 19 important for a syllabus to indicate explicitly what will be taught, "not what will be learned". This practical approach with its focus on flexibility and spiral method of language sequencing leading to the recycling of language seems relevant for learners who lack exposure to the target language beyond the classroom. But how can an EFL teacher pinpoint the salient features of the approaches discussed above? II.5 The Role of Syllabus Some experts say that a syllabus is an instrument which can help the learners to arrive at the objective effectively. A syllabus also becomes a clear guideline for a teacher to make a lesson. It describes the progress of teaching and learning activity. In addition, Hutchinson and Waters (1987) say that a syllabus does not only show the teachers and students their learning destination but also how they can reach their goal. Having a syllabus in fact, is something unavoidable for teachers. The communicative syllabus gives more systematic attention to the communication needs of the learners (Richard, 1996 and Munby, 1978). This kind of syllabus is usually focused on communication in restricted setting such as English for Specific Purposes. In addition, a good syllabus should give economical aspects in time and money. This means that the setting of instruction has to be planned and the content of the syllabi are developed based on the practical constraint of any given situation. The learners will learn more efficiently if the learning track is in a good structure and if it is not, the learners will not be able to reach their goal in the scheduled time.
  34. 34. 20 Hutchinson and Waters (1987) state that there are eight reasons for the importance of having a syllabus. They state that language is very complex which cannot be learned by one go. Therefore, this complex entity must be divided into several manageable units to give a practical basis for the division of assessment, textbook and learning time. A syllabus gives moral support for the teacher and the learner as it provides a set of criteria for material selections. It defines the kind of text books that may be used, the evaluation and the basis of making a test. Having a syllabus is one way in which standardization is achieved. The syllabus being developed is an ESP syllabus which can be used for pre-service flight attendants. This syllabus should cover the students’ need. In order to produce such syllabus, several theories of syllabus by Richard (1996) will be used as the basis of the content of the syllabus. Meanwhile, Yalden’s ideas (1987) will be used as the basis of syllabus development. Richard (1996) proposes a number of syllabus options that give emphasis on speaking skill. They are: • Situational means that the syllabus will be organized around different situations and the oral skills needed in the oral working situation. • Topical means that the syllabus will be developed based on different topics and talk in different situation. • Functional means that the syllabus will be developed based on the language function commonly used in the real working situation. • Task-based means that the syllabus will be organized based on different tasks and activities that the students will perform in English.
  35. 35. 21 II.6 The Communicative Syllabus The principles given by Canale and Swain (1980) are considered to be useful in designing a communicative syllabus. The syllabus is meant to be based on speech acts or communicative functions, rather than units of grammar or activities with a grammatical focus. According to Stratton (1977), the syllabus must contains unit such “Ask”, “Request”, “Demand”, rather than “Simple Present Tense”, “Present Continuous Tense”, or “Relative Clause”. This kind of syllabus may be referred to as functional, functional-notional, notional, semantic, or communicative (Dobson, 1979). The term functional-notional syllabus is used here. First, we will discuss the history of functional-notional syllabus, which leads directly to the concepts underlying the communicative syllabus. The history begins with the story of the formation of the European Economic Community and the European Common Market, which resulted in the increasing interdependence of European countries. With this increased interdependence came the need of greater efforts to teach adults the main languages of the European Common market. The history continues with the production of influential set of proposal for a “unit/credit” system of language for adults (Trim, 1077;VanEk, 1975). The system began in 1971 with an expert team which D. Wilkins worked together with a group of people from a number of different countries. They were concerned with the teaching of English. Their main thesis was that there should be a system that assists in teaching adults who would soon be moving between countries as “guest workers”, and who would need to be equipped with fairly defined areas of their
  36. 36. 22 second language for occupational purposes. A preliminary document prepared by Wilkins was concerned with functional or communicative definition of language. It was used to incorporate these proposals, which served as a basis for developing communicative syllabus. Wilkins in his preliminary document, tried to illustrate the system of meaning that underlies the communicative uses of language. The system of meaning is divided into two categories: notional and functional. The term “notion” refers to the meaning and concepts the learner needs in order to communicate, for example, time, duration, location, and quantity, and the language needed to express them. While “function” refers to the social purpose the language used for, such as requesting, complaining, suggesting, and promising. Wilkins revised and expanded this document into a book called Notional Syllabus (Wilkins, 1976). This book had a great impact on the development of Communicative Language Teaching. An additional point derived from Wilkins’s document, namely, semantico- communicative analysis, has been incorporated by the Council of Europe into a set of specifications for a first-level of communicative syllabus. This threshold level specification (Van Ek& Alexander, 1986) has had a strong influence on the design of communicative language programs and textbooks in Europe. Wilkins (1976) is known for providing a theoretical framework for the communicative syllabus. In this syllabus, Wilkins divides communicative functions into six categories: 1. Judgment and evaluation (approving, disapproving, forgiving, etc.) 2. Suasion (persuading, commanding, scolding, etc.)
  37. 37. 23 3. Argument (agreeing, denying, conceding, etc.) 4. Rational enquiry and exposition (inferring, comparing, proving, etc.) 5. Personal emotions (enjoyment, sorrow, etc.) 6. Emotion relations (greetings, gratitude, flattery, etc.) In addition, Dobson (1979) proposes a set of communicative functions, similar to Wilkins’: 1. Requesting and giving information 2. Expressing through processes 3. Expressing opinions 4. Making judgment 5. Modifying people’s behavior 6. Expressing personal feelings 7. Interacting socially Both Wilkins and Dobson admit that setting a list of communicative function categories is not an easy task. Wilkins (1976) claims that a complete communicative syllabus, in reality, does not yet exist, due to the difficulty of specifying the functions.Dobson (1979) states that communicative functions are not exhaustive. In contrast, Yalden (1987) proposes an alternative way of looking at a communicative syllabus, and specifies ten necessary components: 1. A consideration is about the purpose for which the learners expect to acquire the target language. 2. An idea of setting in which they want to use the target language.
  38. 38. 24 3. The role of the learners in using the target language as well as the roles in social interaction. 4. The communicative events in which the learners participate. 5. The language functions involved in these events, or what the learners need to be able to with or through the language. 6. The notions involved or what the learners need to be able to talk about. 7. The skills involved. 8. The variety or varieties of the target language that will be needed, and in the level in the spoken and written language which the learners will need to reach. 9. The grammatical content that will be needed. 10. The lexical content that will be needed. Yalden has made a remarkable contribution, which permits one to incorporate all ten components in a syllabus that is more communicative than one which cannot incorporate these components. The claims Yalden (1987) makes is that the ten components take into consideration everything which is required to ensure genuine communication. In addition to the ten components necessary for a communicative syllabus, Yalden has also provided eight types of communicative syllabus. The following list (Table 2.1) is a modified version of Yalden’s communicative syllabus, cited in Richards and Rogers (1986).
  39. 39. 25 Table 2.1 Yalden’s Communicative Syllabus (cited from Richards and Rogers, 1986) NO. TYPES REFERENCE 1. Structural plus functions Wilkins (1976) 2. Functional spiral around a structural core Brumfit 1980 3. Structural, functional, instrumental Allen (1980) 4. Functional Japp&Holdin (1975) 5. Notional Wilkins (1976) 6. Interactional Widdowson (1979) 7. Task-based Prabhu (1983) 8. Learner-generated Candlin (1976) Thus, unlike the structural syllabus, the communicative syllabus focuses more on the notions and functions of the language. This will be clearly illustrated through a discussion of its implementation in communicative activities. II.7 Communicative Activities and Materials In communicative activities, learners need to be exposed to and given opportunities to interact in real-life situations using the target language. However, Nunan (1989) claims that communicative activities can also be of little real-life relevance – they are unlikely to happen outside the classroom. Nunan does suggest that communicative activities should focus on meaning. He expresses this notion in this following quotation: …I too will a communicative task as a piece of classroom work which involve learners in comprehending, manipulating, producing, or interacting in the target language while their attention is principally focused on meaning rather than form (Nunan, 1989). Similar views have been expressed by Prabhu and Krashen. According to Prabhu, “…form is the best learned when the learner’s attention is on meaning”
  40. 40. 26 (Briendly, 1985). Prabhu conducted a study in India, and discovered that learners who had been given task-based programs in which meaning is emphasized, rather than form, did better than those who had undergone traditional instruction in a test of structure (Brindley, 1985). According to Krashen, “…the way we acquire language is through comprehensible input, focus on the message, not form” (Murray, 1983). Hence, focusing on meaning is of great importance in the communicative classroom. In negotiating meaning and information exchange in the communicative classroom, interactions play an important role. Negotiating for meaning occurs because of the need to come to a shared common knowledge, by asking questions, checking, and asking for clarification or additional explanation, until the message is communicated effectively (Watts, 1989). As a result, an information exchange occurs. The kind of activity mentioned above, or other communicative activities that stimulate interaction should be based, according to Nunan (1988), on the principles of information gap, role-plays, transfer of information (Johnson, 1982), and problem-solving (Bourke, 1989). Among these, “information gap” is one of the most fundamental concepts of Communicative Approach (Cheah, 1982). Any activity which claims to be communicative should employ the concept of information gap. What is information gap? According to the Longman Dictionary for Applied Linguistics (1985), information gap is a situation in which there is communication between two or more people where information is known only to some of the people present. A gap in information may be necessary so as to create
  41. 41. 27 a desire and a purpose for communication. In fact, during the process of communicating, negotiation of meaning and information exchange occur. An information gap can be created by providing information to some and withholding it from others, or by allowing the learners to have some choice in what they say (Johnson, 1982). This is one way of looking at information gap, which allows the speaker to choose, and which does not allow the listener to know, in advance, what will be said to him/her. Further social interactive or communicative activities are “role play” and “simulations”. These activities are used for creating a wide variety of social situations and relationships. In this activity, learners are required to use their knowledge of language beyond the classroom. Success is measured in both the functional effectiveness of the language and the acceptability of the forms that are used. Specifically, in role-play, students are assigned specific roles which they must perform. Each individual has a unique manner of reacting to people, situations, and objects. While performing the roles, learners must interact with others, negotiate, and exchange information in order the task is successfully completed. In addition, role-play deals with problems through actions – a problem is delineated, acted out, and discussed. In this activity, some students are players and others are observers (Joyce & Weil, 1992). The essence of role-playing is the introduction of a problem situation and the desire to resolve it. The role-playing process provides a sample of human behavior that serves as a vehicle for students to: 1) explore their feeling; 2) gain insights into their attitudes, values, and perceptions; 3) develop their problem-
  42. 42. 28 solving skills and attitudes; and 4) explore subject matter in various ways (Joyce & Weil, 1992). Finally, communicative activities may emphasize group work. The rationale underlying this, as given Nunan (1988), is that it enhances the quality of student talk, allows for greater potential of individualization, promotes for a positive affective climate, and increases student’s motivation. Consequently, students will be able to learn more (Nunan, 1988). In addition, group work is the simplest organization. The cooperative activity is conducted in groups of two and three, because the interaction is simpler than it would be in larger groups. It is easier for students to learn to work together when they are not attempting to master complex activity simultaneously. To summarize this section, communicative activities and materials should highlight the following: interaction, negotiating meaning, information exchange, information gap, role-play, and group work. In order to provide communicative materials Nunan (1988) provides five principles of materials design that can be used in designing communicative syllabus: 1. Materials should be clearly linked to the existing curriculum. 2. Materials should be authentic tasks and texts. 3. Materials should stimulate interaction. 4. Materials should allow learners to focus on formal and standardized language. 5. Materials should encourage learners to apply their developing language skills to the world beyond the classroom. In addition, students should be given a variety of communicative activities. These activities may be created by the students themselves or by teachers, who
  43. 43. 29 have responsibilities of creating a variety of teaching methods and techniques which derive from Communicative Approach, in order to make the classroom setting more communicative. II.8 The Stages in Program Development Yalden (1987) proposes the following steps in developing a syllabus for the language program: Stage 1: The Needs Survey Needs Survey is the first step or stage that should be done in designing and developing a syllabus in Yalden’s model. The intended purposes of doing this survey is to gather as much information as possible about the learners or people that are involved in the program Stage II: The Description of the Purpose Description of the purpose is prepared in terms of student characteristics and skills on entry to and exit from the program. All these data are derived from the need survey. To describe the description of the purpose, the general category for the course should be defined first. The general category is very important because it differentiates between occupational-purposes and educational-purposes. The occupational purposes category has a narrow focus of learners who have been categorized as a highly homogenous in occupational setting. The educational purpose category is for specific school program. Both of them belong to teaching language for specific purposes (Yalden (1987)). Stage III: Selection of syllabus type
  44. 44. 30 Yalden (1987:110) says that there is no single syllabus that can cover all the needs, therefore, she suggests the modification or various combination or more flexible approaches for syllabus construction. In line with Yalden’s opinion, Krahnke (1987:9) says that one type of syllabus is usually dominant and can be combined with other types of syllabus. So, the syllabus designer may feel free to choose the element or component which are needed and demanded in teaching and learning situation. Stage IV: Production of a Proto-syllabus In any communicative syllabus type, a large numbers of components need to be considered. The components may include general notions and specific topics. The work of selecting and combining general notions and specific topics are complicated especially for those who have been accustomed to dealing with a structural syllabus. Therefore it is useful to examine works, such as Threshold Level and Waystage (Yalden (1987:138) since it provides examples of the notional-functional proto syllabus. Stage V: Production of Pedagogical Syllabus The component produced in Proto syllabus stages are to be viewed as guidelines. They are organizing strategies and giving further input about the learner’s want, desires, and needs. The pedagogical syllabus also provides a repertoire of words and phrases, chosen as exponents of functions and suitable to the topics identified as important to learners (Yalden (1987:144). It is the teacher’s role to make the repertoire of words and phrase come to life by choosing and carrying out communicative activities in a wide range.
  45. 45. 31 II.9 Evaluation Evaluation as the final phase in the process of developing a syllabus has two broad aspects. First, the syllabus designer expects to evaluate or test the students in the program. Second, the teacher will apply the syllabus into the real teaching. Then, the result of the evaluation is used to determine the gap between the goals and the final language performance of the learners. If there are some materials need to be revised, the evaluation result can also be used to re-examine and revise the overall design. Re-examining and revising the whole cycle are labeled the Recycling Stage because the whole cycle begins again and there will be some adjustment. One important thing as this stage is retained, the model can be considered flexible and dynamic. Without it, the procedure is rigid and unresponsive to any kind of change or reassessment.
  46. 46. 32 CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY This chapter presents the findings based on the data obtained from the novel, which are related to the formulated research questions proposed in Chapter I. The findings are related to the strategies applied by the translator of Wuthering Heights, Lulu Wijaya, and the appropriateness of the translation. III.1 Research Design The study will employ developmental research design that consists of a sequence process in which a specific education product e.g. syllabus media is developed based on the need survey, expert validation, field tested, and revised. Borg and Gall (1989: 624) defines the educational research and development (R&D) as a process used to develop and validate educational product. According to the them the term product includes not only the materials objects such as textbooks, instructional films and so forth but also intended to refer to the established procedures and processes such as method of teaching or method of organizing instruction. According to Borg & Gall (1989: 783 – 795), R&D in education covers ten steps in its implementation. They are: 1. Preliminary study 2. Research plan 3. Design development 4. Preliminary field test 5. Limited field test result 6. Main field test
  47. 47. 33 7. Broader field test result 8. Feasibility study 9. Feasibility study final revision 10. Final product implementation and dissemination III.1.1 Preliminary study This first step consists of needs survey, review of related literature,small- scale research, and needed standard report. III.1.1.1. Needs Survey There are some criteria in doing the needs survey, they are :(1) Is the product important for education?, (2) Is it possible to develop the product?, (3) Is there capable, experienced, and knowledgeable human resource having abilities to develop the product?, and (4) Is there enough time to develop the product? III.1.1.2. Review of Related Literature This study is conducted to familiarize the developed product temporarily. This is done for compiling research result and other information useful for the development of the product. III.1.1.3. Small Scale Research The researcher often has questions that cannot be answered and tries to look for it by doing a small-scaled research on a product being developed. III.1.2 Planning the Research After doing the preliminary study, the researcher is able to proceed to the second step that is planning the research. The plan covers: (1) formulate objective
  48. 48. 34 of the research, (2) arrange budget, time, and personnel, (3) formulate researcher’s qualifications and his/her participations in the research. Gay (1992:102) states that the major purpose of developmental research is not to formulate or test a theory but to develop effective product for use in schools. Borg (1989) also states that the objective of educational R & D is a finished product that can be used effectively in educational program. This study does result in quality products to meet educational needs. III.2 The Model of the Development The model used to develop the syllabus in this thesis follows the one suggested by Yalden (1987:88). There are some specific reasons which become the foundation of choosing that model. First, it is specially used to develop a language program. Second, it sets out the content of the syllabus in advance or before the beginning of the program. Third, it considers the learners’ aspect and society. Based on the above discussion, the researcher is sure that the learners will get the most useful and beneficial knowledge from this program. In Indonesia, English is regarded as a foreign language which is not used in daily life by common people. English is only used by some people who deal with foreigners and those who are required to use English in their working field. Nowadays, in the globalization era, mastering the language is a must. Students of flight attendant training center need to be familiar with the language. The need to be able to converse since they are being prepared in airlines industry which is regarded the place of the foreigners.
  49. 49. 35 III.3 The Procedure of the Development The basic approach to syllabus design that is done here is an ESP (English for Specific Purposes) approach, which means an approach in which the content is matched to the requirements of the learners. To meet the requirement of the learners, the researcher follows Yalden’s idea. She said that the syllabus should be in line with the purpose of which the learners in the real working situation, the communicative events in which the learners will involve, and the social aspect of the target language (1987:86 – 87). In addition,Gillet (1989) said that there are three types of ESP: English as a restricted language, English for Academic and Occupational Purposes, and English with specific topics. The researcher develops a syllabus for Academic and Occupational Purposes. Here are the stages taken by the researcher: 1) Stage 1: doing the needs survey, 2) Stage 2: describing the goals and the objectives of the course, 3) Stage 3: selecting/developing the syllabus types, 4) Stage 4: writing the proto syllabus, 5) Stage 5: writing the pedagogical syllabus, 6) Stage 6: validating, 7) Stage 7: evaluating, and Stage 8: trying out (see figure 3.1). One main purpose of conducting a needs analysis is, according to Gardner and Winslow (1983:76), "to produce information which when acted upon makes courses better adapted to students’ needs” and "part of the object of formal needs identification is to back up one's proposals with quantitative evidence of their importance". Furthermore, they added, "in many cases, concrete evidence of particular needs, such as these surveys produced, could be directly used as part of the course validation / approval procedure.”
  50. 50. 36 Stage 2 is describing the goals and the objectives of the course are meant to describing the beliefs, values, and goals that underlie the course (Richards, 2001). It provides a succinct statement of the course philosophy for anyone who may need such information, including students, teachers, and potential clients. Developing objectives also help provide focus and direction to some of the deliberations involved in course planning. As mentioned in the previous section, selecting/developing the syllabus types has some reasons, they are: first, it is specially used to develop a language program, second, it sets out the content of the syllabus in advance or before the beginning of the program, and third, it considers the learners’ aspect and society. The next steps are writing the proto and pedagogical syllabus that later need to be validated, evaluated, tried out, and revised if there are certain reasons that need to be considered. III.3.1 Stage 1: Doing the Needs Survey Needs survey is the first stage taken in the program of the development. The objective is to obtain as much information as possible in any given situation about the learners and their purpose in studying the target language, about the teachers and their expectation about the teaching materials, and about the flightattendants and the requirement in their working field. To collect all the data, the researcher will distribute a set of questionnaires for the students of flight attendant, the ESP teachers, and flight attendants. The responses to the first set of questionnaires for the students of flight attendant training center will give a feedback for the researcher about the present syllabus. They will give input whether the syllabus suit their need. The responses
  51. 51. 37 from the teachers will give more potential input as they have the experience in teaching ESP there. Then, the questionnaires for the flight attendants will give aclear picture about the working condition and requirement. Also, they can give input whether the flight attendants have learned the suitable materials in their last training. As a whole, all the information gathered will be used as the basic foundation to establish realistic and acceptable objectives. In doing step 1, three aspects are taken into consideration: (1) The communicative needs of the learners, (2) The instruments of collecting data, and (3) The source of information.
  52. 52. 38 Figure 3.1 Stages on Syllabus Development adopted from “The Communicative Syllabus” (Yalden, 1987) III.3.1.1. The Communicative Needs of the Learners The three different types of meaning the learner needs to express are: • Functional (i.e. the social purpose of the utterance) • Modal (the degree of likelihood) • Conceptual - the meaning relations expressed by forms within the sentence (categories of communicative function)
  53. 53. 39 III.3.1.2. The Instruments of Collecting Data To gather information, some instruments are used during the needs survey. These instruments include 1) questionnaires, 2) interviews, and 3) proficiency test. There are four groups of people involved in airlines who are given questionnaires, being interviewed, and administered proficiency test. Those people are: the flight attendant students (pre-service), ESP teachers in the training centers, the flight attendants, and the foreign passengers using Indonesian airlines. III.3.1.2.1. Questionnaires The questionnaires are given to students in three flight attendant training centers, the ESP teachers for obtaining data about the syllabus being used, teaching materials, and the teaching and learning program as a whole. The questionnaires for flight attendants give a clear image and data about the real working condition and the demand of the use of English in airlines industry and in order to obtain what the stakeholders want, the survey will be sent to some foreign passengers. To get more objective and reliable data, the interview was done with all of the respondents mentioned and picked up randomly. In designing a questionnaire, the researcher must determine what kind of information needed. As a consequence, she determines the specific points before the questionnaire is designed. This ensures that all areas upon which the information required is covered. To elicit data about the communicative needs of the learners, a set of questionnaire was provided to gather information about the students’ data, their characteristics and background language, and their communicative needs of the target language.
  54. 54. 40 III.3.1.2.2. Interviews with the Teachers of ESP and the Flight Attendants The interviews with the teachers were conducted to elicit data about course design constraints which include the level of the course, the number, and qualification of the teachers. The response from the interviewed teachers was used to complete the data taken from the questionnaire The researcher thinks the response from the interview is important to make the data more objective. The interview gets more objective data because all the interviewed respondents gave response spontaneously. The interview was focused on the existing syllabus, the hindrances in teaching and learning in using the syllabus, and teachers’ hope for the ideal syllabus based on the need. The flight attendants are expected to give information about the kinds of spoken English commonly used in-flight, some hindrances that may occur, problems with the passengers, and the flight attendants’ English competence. III.3.1.2.3. Proficiency Test Proficiency tests are designed to measure people’s overall mastery of English or to measure how suitable candidates are for performing a certain task or follow a specific course. For example, is one well prepared to use English in a particular setting such as working in an airlines? Does the student know enough English to follow a certain university lecture given in the medium of English? Does the student know enough English in order to function efficiently in a particular type of employment? Proficiency test was also given to know their level of proficiency and to be a basis for developing the syllabus. The content of a proficiency test is not based on the content or objectives of language courses which people taking the test may
  55. 55. 41 have followed. It is in no way related to any syllabus or teaching program; indeed, many proficiency tests are intended for students from several different schools, countries and even language backgrounds. III.3.1.3. Sources of Information The flight attendants are the main informants. They are expected to give information about the types of English they use to carry out in their work and daily activities. The second informants are the teachers who are involved in teaching English in this field. All the informants are important resources for the researcher to set up a communicative English syllabus for the students (pre- service) of flight attendant. The interview sessions give a great contribution in this study since the researcher obtained direct and spontaneous responses from the interviewee who commonly categorized as the most objective answers. III.3.1.4. Procedures of Collecting and Analyzing Data Below are some steps taken in order to collect and analyze the data having been done either by sending questionnaires via e-mails or letters to the respondents. The steps are gaining access, administering the questionnaires, and analyzing data. III.3.1.4.1. Gaining Access Several letters are sent to flight attendant training centers in Malang and Jogjakarta to get a permission for distributing the questionnaires and having an interview with the students and the teachers. The training centers are SekarGegani Training Center Malang, BinaAviaPersada Training Center Malang, and Adista Aviation Training Centre in Jogjakarta. Twenty flight attendants of Garuda
  56. 56. 42 Indonesia and twenty two foreign passengers are also important people who are given the questionnaires. The questionnaires are sent in a bundle together with the letters asking for the time for interview. The researcher proposes a polite request to distribute the questionnaires to the subject immediately and the result are taken on the appointed data. On the same date the interview is done. III.3.1.4.2. Administering the Questionnaires After a permission is obtained, the survey is done on the agreed dates by using instruments. The researcher visits the chosen flight attendant training centers and meets the students. The questionnaires are distributed and on the same day and the researcher conducts the interview with the students and the teachers. Generally, the number of students of flight attendant training centers are not many that the interview, the distribution and the data collected via questionnaires can be obtained on the same day. The interview will last about 30 minutes for each person. There are 9 questions in the questionnaires, they are : 1) the most suitable method of English teaching in flight attendant training center, 2) the most advantageous method in learning English, 3) equipment or teaching media needed in the teaching/learning activity, 4) media that can enhance the teaching of English, 5) materials in teaching English, 6) English skill courses given most, 7) evaluation used in measuring achievement in English proficiency, 8) types of exercises, and 9) the most suitable assessment used in measuring achievement. III.3.1.4.3. Analyzing Data Data analysis is done after all the data are gathered. After the researcher gets all the questionnaires back she begins to analyze the responses then classifies
  57. 57. 43 the responses to different headings. Also, she eliminates some of the irrelevant responses and put them aside. The responses taken from the questionnaires are the data for this study. They become the basic steps for the researcher to go to further stages. The researcher takes some notes of the important points, put each data to the right headings then design the syllabus which suits the data gathered. III.3.2 Stage 2: Describing the Goals and Objectives of the Course From the result of the data analysis, the goals and objectives of the course can be specified. The goal refers to the overall aims of the course, and the objectives refer to more detailed and specific descriptions of the purpose. For the purpose of the study the goal is providing a good and practical ESP syllabus and materials for students of flight attendant training center, somehow it can be used for the flight attendants to increase their language competence. The objective of the study is to enable the students to master English for airline industry. III.3.3 Stage 3: Selecting/Developing the Syllabus Types Based on the result of the data analysis, the goals and the objectives of the course, types of the suitable syllabus will be selected. The types of the syllabus chosen will be one or more the combination of syllabus type proposed by Richard (1996) which will be used as the basis of the content of the syllabus. Meanwhile, Yalden’s idea (1987) will be used as the basis of the syllabus development. The details have been discussed in chapter II.
  58. 58. 44 III.3.4 Stage 4: Writing the Proto Syllabus The component produced in proto syllabus stages are to be viewed as guidelines. They are organizing strategies and give further input about the learner’s want, desires, and needs. Yalden (1987) wrote that the proto syllabus includes some general notions and specific topics, communicative functions, discourse and rhetorical skills, variety of language, role-sets, and communicative events, as well as grammar and lexis. III.3.5 Stage 5: Writing the Pedagogical Syllabus In this stage, writing the syllabus is done in accordance with the relevant teaching, learning, and testing approaches. To accomplish this, the syllabus should be developed further by including the exercises types and teaching techniques, as well as preparing the lesson plans and the weekly syllabus. III.3.6 Stage 6: Validating the syllabus It is a must to ask experts in the field of syllabus design, ESP specialist, and subject specialists for validating the proposed syllabus. Those experts are supposed to give feedback, comment, critics, and anything to make the syllabus better. The validators are 1) a senior lecturer and experts in designing syllabus as well as in linguistics areas from The State University of Malang and 2) an English teacher teaching general English at SekarGegani Flight Attendant Training Center in Malang as the researcher’s colleague. III.3.7 Stage 7: Evaluating the Syllabus Ideally an evaluation of the program should be done in a real teaching situation. But this kind of evaluation will be time consuming and takes a lot of
  59. 59. 45 money. The researcher will try to find the way out by looking back at her previous experiences in teaching the students of flight attendant training center. She will also ask other teachers to apply this syllabus and ask for criticism and suggestions from the researcher advisor and the head of the training center. The syllabus designer will ask for comments, opinions, and suggestions from the English teachers to improve the syllabus. Their valuable comments will be used as the basic to revise the proposed syllabus. III.3.8 Stage 8: Trying out the syllabus After revising syllabus, it has to be tested by teachers by constructing lesson plans based on the designed syllabus. This try out is intended to have clearer ideas whether the syllabus is clear, understandable, applicable, and practical enough for the destined field. After validated by the experts, the syllabus was tried out by an English teacher on 25 October 2008 at SekarGegani Flight Attendant Training Center. JaniarSinaga, S.E. is teaching general English at the training center. His teaching materials cover general things like vocabulary on general English, tenses, reading, speaking, and listening. Although Janiar has no background in aviation, he did not find difficulties in implementing the syllabus as it was already elaborated in lesson plans and matrix of the course. III.4 The subject of the Study The study is conducted at Adista Aviation Training Centre (Jogjakarta) and SekarGegani, Intersky Study, and BinaAviaPersada Flight attendant training centers in Malang. The proposed syllabus is assumed to be applied in those three training centers. The subjects of the study, therefore, are the students, English teachers and experts in designing syllabus. There is one class of pre-service flight
  60. 60. 46 attendant for each training center. Each class consists of 5 to 10 flight attendant students. The teachers involved in this study are English teachers who have background as flight attendants and those who teach ESP classes. The experts in designing syllabus of ESP are being involved to validate the proposed syllabus before and after the study comes to the final project.
  61. 61. CHAPTER IV THE RESULT OF NEEDS SURVEY AND THE STAGES OF SYLLABUS DEVELOPMENT This chapter is the discussions of the findings of the data analysis and the appropriateness of the translation which are based on the formulated research questions proposed in Chapter I. It comprises the discussions of the strategies implemented by Lulu Wijaya, the translator of Wuthering Heights, and the appropriateness of the translation based on the findings and the validation process conducted by the two validators who are experts in translation. IV.1 The Result of Needs Survey The findings of the needs survey are based on the data covering questionnaires for (1) pre-service flight attendants in the training centers, (2) ESP teachers in the flight-attendant training centers, (3) flight attendants, and (4) foreign passengers travelling with Indonesian airlines. IV.1.1 The Results of the Need Survey from Pre-service Flight Attendants Some flight attendant training centers in Jogjakarta and Malang have students of flight attendants of five to ten per class. The training centers are: BinaAvia (Malang and Jogjakarta), SekarGegani (Malang), and Adista Aviation Training Centre (Jogjakarta). From forty questionnaires sent to the pre-service flight attendants, only twenty questionnaires were returned. 47
  62. 62. 48 There are 9 questions in the questionnaires, they are : (1) the most suitable method of English teaching in flight attendant training center, (2) the most advantageous method in learning English, (3) equipment or teaching media needed in the teaching/learning activity, (4) media that can enhance the teaching of English, (5) materials in teaching English, (6) English skill courses given most, (7) evaluation used in measuring achievement in English proficiency, (8) types of exercises, and (9) the most suitable assessment used in measuring achievement. IV.1.1.1. Analysis on Pre-service Flight Attendant’s Response. Concerning the teaching method the teacher uses in the training center. The results show that twenty students of the training center (pre-service flight attendants) prefer to have demonstration (25%) and discussion (29%) for the method of teaching. The pre-service flight attendants being interviewed mention that when they have their teachers demonstrate something using realia, they will understand better than just having the lectures from their teachers. Then, the demonstration is continued with some discussion where the pre-service flight attendants can ask questions and give ideas. The result of the methods preferred is shown in Table 4.1. When talking about the teaching media used in the training center 83% respondents state that using media is needed and 35% answer that audio video (movies, sound recordings, or other multimedia) can enhance the teaching of English. Overhead Projector (OHP) is considered old-fashioned that most training centers do not use it anymore and students are more familiar with the latest technology: Audio-video presentations using computers (laptops) and LCD projectors.
  63. 63. 49 These days, sources of teaching and learning are found abundantly in the Internet. Teachers are able to use them through computers beamed to the screen with LCD projectors. Most training centers are using the latest technology of equipment that can improve the teaching and learning process. The pre-service flight attendants can enjoy the movie shown through the LCD projector as they find it very useful to know more about the real working condition on-board (see Table 4.2). Table 4.2 The Method of English Teaching The Most Suitable Methods of Teaching Responses Percentage Demonstration 14 25% Question and answer 10 18% Presentation 9 16% Discussion 8 14% Modeling 8 14% Lecturing 7 13% Total 56 100% The Most Advantageous Methods Responses Percentage Discussion 12 29% Presentation 9 21% Demonstration 7 17% Lecturing 6 14% Question and answer 5 12% Modeling 3 7% Total 42 100%
  64. 64. 50 Materials in teaching English are also given more attention by the pre- service flight attendants. Some respondents answer that speaking (30%) isimportant in doing their job later as a flight attendant and speaking, again, Table 4.3 Equipment or Teaching Media Equipment / Teaching Media Needed Responses Percentage Yes 15 83% No 3 17% Total 18 100% The Media for Enhancing Teaching/learning Activities Responses Percentage Audio Video 15 35% Audio 14 33% LCD projector 12 28% Overhead Projector 2 5% Total 43 100% (53%) holds the majority in carrying out their tasks efficiently. Reading is put in the third place as this skill, although needed, but rarely done by the flight attendants as they are busy doing their serving jobs. Writing skill is needed in making reports or filling in the log book. As the main key to be a successful flight attendant is a good communication, speaking materials are considered very important in the teaching of English. Foreign passengers in international as well as domestic flights use English when communicating with the flight attendants and this make all aspects in speaking skill such as fluency, intonation, speed, and voice clarity become very
  65. 65. 51 important to be learned. This also deals with announcement made by flight attendants in welcoming their passengers and conducting flight safety demonstration. This result is indicated in table 4.3 Table 4.4 English Materials Materials Used Responses Percentage Speaking 16 30% listening 14 26% Reading 12 23% Writing 11 21% Total 53 100% Most Given Materials Responses Percentage Speaking 17 53% listening 11 34% Reading 3 9% Writing 1 3% Total 32 100% The assessment they might have when they are in the training center is another thing that is asked. In measuring their achievement, test (38%) is still having the most important aspect in evaluation while individual exercise (40%) obtains more attention. Students prefer a combination of on-going assessment and product assessment (60%). As most pre-service flight attendants are senior high- school fresh graduates, they are still thinking that evaluation is in the form of written test and must be done individually. But they prefer to have a combination of on-going and product assessment as it is fair enough for them and they can
  66. 66. 52 show their best efforts in having the training. Table 4.4 shows the type of assessment/evaluation. Table 4.5 Evaluation Evaluations Used for Achieving Performance Responses Percentage Test 14 38% Assignment 9 24% Classroom Participation 8 22% Daily Observation 6 16% Total 37 100% Exercises Given by Teachers Responses Percentage Individual Exercise 14 40% Group exercises 11 31% In-pairs exercises 7 20% Classroom exercises 3 9% Total 35 100% Assessment Responses Percentage Both Assessment 12 60% On-going Assessment 6 30% Product Assessment 2 10% Total 20 100% IV.1.2 The Results of Questionnaires for ESP Teachers in the Flight- attendant Training Centers The researcher distributed the questionnaires to twenty English for Specific Purposes (ESP) teachers at the training center. The questions are on 1)
  67. 67. 53 the instructional objective of the English course, 2) the level of students, 3) the teaching materials, 4) language skills given to the students most, 5) language skills students should master after the course, 6) types of teaching aids available for the course, 7)the number of students in the course, 8) time allocation for English course, and 9) teaching techniques used in the course. IV.1.2.1. Analysis on ESP Teachers’ Response The most wanted instructional objective of the teaching is speaking (61%) and it obtains the most attention compared with reading and writing. Although speaking gets the most attention by the ESP teachers, but surprisingly, they still prefer writing to reading for the instructional objective. These teachers, in the researcher’s point of view, still do not realize the actual working condition in airlines that needs speaking ability in communicating with passengers. Table 4.5 shows the result. Table 4.6 TheInstructional Objective of the English Course Instructional Objectives Used in the Training Center Responses Percentage Speak 14 61% Write 5 22% Read 4 17% Total 23 100% As most pre-flight attendants are senior high-school graduates, the level of students in the training center are in the upper-intermediate (50%). This is proven by the results of the proficiency test for the pre-service flight attendants done when they enrolled in the training center (see table 4.6)
  68. 68. 54 Table 4.7 The Level of Students Levels Responses Percentage Upper Intermediate 7 50% Intermediate 8 44% Advance 1 6% Total 16 100% Most teachers teach English integratively (71%). As the four speaking skills are needed mostly in the teaching, these ESP teachers find it easier to combine the four skills into one method. It is fine but these teachers need to emphasize on the most needed skill used in the real working condition when conducting the learning process. ESP teachers must consider that the students of flight attendant training will enter a hospitality world named airlines industry having highlights in communication skill (see table 4.7) Table 4.8 Teaching Materials Materials Given Responses Percentage Integrative 12 71% Speaking 4 24% Reading 1 6% Total 17 100% Table 4.8 below shows language skills that students must be given during the training, and, what they must master at the end of the semester. Speaking (63% and 54%) are chosen by the teachers. Most ESP teachers (44%) mention
  69. 69. 55 that they need teaching aids that can be used in supporting the teaching/learning activity. As those teachers are very familiar with the latest technology in teaching equipment provided by the training centers, they always use the equipment in every session to help their students get clearer ideas of what is taught. Besides Audio-video, they mention realia (boarding passes, trolleys, plates, cup and saucer, and other thing related to the service in-flight) as the most important things to have. Table 4.9 Language Skills Skills Most Given to Students Responses Percentage Speaking 5 63% Listening 2 25% Reading 1 13% Writing 0 0% Total 8 101% Skills Mastered by Students Responses Percentage Speaking 14 54% Listening 4 15% Writing 5 19% Reading 3 12% Total 26 100% As the Internet now is still the main source for flight attendant training centers, teachers mostly use audio-video and the LCD projector in teaching their students. Movies and other things presented with LCD projector can attract their
  70. 70. 56 students’ attention. And it enables them to get involved easily in the real working condition. Table 4.9 shows the result: Table 4.10 Types of Teaching Aids Availability of Teaching Aids Responses Percentage Audio Video 11 44% LCD Projector 8 32% Audio 4 16% Overhead Projector 2 8% Total 25 100% Mostly, they have 1 – 10 students (56%) at the training center and English is allocated to have 3 hours for a week (56%). The teaching technique is discussion (67%). The training centers in Malang and Jogjakarta have mostly ten students, but recently, as far as the researcher finds out, the students in the training centers are increasing in numbers. This is due to the opening of new airlines, especially domestic ones. The teaching hours are mostly three hours as they must share with General English taught by other teachers. And the most desirable teaching technique is discussion. These teachers treat the pre-service flight attendants as adults ready to enter the working situation, not just students having to be spoon-fed. Table 4.10 indicates some information concerning the condition in the training centers including the number of students, time allocation for English and teaching technique used in the course:
  71. 71. 57 Table 4.11 Information on the Training Centers Number of Students Responses Percentage 1 - 10 students 9 56% 11 - 20 students 6 38% Others 1 6% Total 16 100% Time Allocation Responses Percentage 3 Hours 9 56% 6 Hours 6 38% Others 1 6% Total 16 100% Teaching Techniques Responses Percentage Discussions 10 67% Others 3 20% Lecturing 2 13% Total 15 100% IV.1.3 The Results of Questionnaires for Flight Attendants Seventeen flight attendants who are still active working in Garuda Indonesia were given the questionnaires consisting ten questions. From twenty questionnaires distributed via e-mails, only seventeen flight attendants gave responses. The questions are asked about their previous training when they were still in the training center. The questions are 1) English skills that should be emphasized in the training center, 2) skills that usually used most in their daily activity, 3) How often they read (English materials) in a week, 4) What they read
  72. 72. 58 most often, 5) How often they write in a week (letter/e-mails, diaries, journals, articles, etc.), 6) the method their instructors used when teaching English in their previous training center, 7) the most advantageous method for them in learning English, 8) the need of equipment or teaching media, 9) materials in English skill courses should be given most, and 10) evaluation used in measuring their achievement in English proficiency. IV.1.3.1. Analysis on Flight Attendants’ Responses. Speaking skill still dominates what those flight attendants want to have while they were studying in the training center and also for their daily activities. Speaking skill is very important as they must interact with the passengers coming from various backgrounds and English is used as the only official language in- flight although other languages may be used. Fluency in English can make them have high self-confidence as it is easier for them to deal with passengers and useful when they fly abroad and have to meet the local ground-staff, catering service personnel, and other people they meet when they have chances to stay in hotels and go shopping. Becoming flight attendants carrying out international route duties requires them to use English most of the time. As a foreign language used in Indonesia, English, is the language spoken to foreign people including passengers coming from different places around the world. Therefore, English plays an important role in becoming a means of communication when dealing with foreign passengers. The speaking skill chosen by the flight attendants is shown in table 4.11
  73. 73. 59 Table 4.12 English Skills English Skills Emphasized in the Training Center Responses Percentage Speaking 13 50% Listening 10 38% Writing 2 8% Reading 1 4% Total 26 100% Skills Usually Used Daily Responses Percentage Listening 5 21% Speaking 13 54% Reading 4 17% Writing 2 8% Total 24 100% Flight attendants also have reading habits to improve their knowledge and catch up with the latest news. Newspaper is a reading materials mostly read by the flight attendants. Some English newspapers are also available onboard and this makes them easy to read when they have spare time during flight. They also have habits of writing e-mails in English as they have friends not only Indonesian but also other nationalities. When doing their jobs, they only write log book or reports if there are complaints from the passengers of equipment that are malfunctioned Besides their tight flight schedule, the flight attendants still consider reading important. Although they can catch the latest trends by using laptops (and the Internet) brought when they stay overnight in certain places, they prefer to

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