Optical fibers


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This powerpoint Deals with basic Concepts of optical Fibers.It was prepared to assist students to get knowledge about Optical fibers and their working principle as well.
Read it ,, share it ,, Cheers...(C) Regmi Milan

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  • Optical fibers

    1. 1. By; Milan Regmi
    2. 2.  An optical fiber is a thin, flexible, transparent fiber that acts as a "light pipe", to transmit light between the two ends of the fiber which are made up of glass or plastic. Fibers are used instead of metal wires because signal travels along them with less loss of intensity and are also immune to electromagnetic interference. Specially designed fibers are used for a variety of other applications, including sensors and fiber lasers. Application of optical fibers is known as fiber optics. Optical fibers are widely used in fiber-optic communications, which permits transmission over longer distances and at higher bandwidths.
    3. 3. Pic1-A bundle of optical fiber Pic2-An optical fiber cable Pic3-A single mode fiber
    4. 4.  Optical fibers are designed to work under the principal of “Total internal Reflection”. Optical fiber typically consists of a transparent core surrounded by a transparent cladding material with a lower index of refraction. Light is kept in the core by the phenomenon known as “Total internal reflection”. Joininglengths of optical fiber is more complex than joining electrical wire or cable. in order to join the ends of the fibers they must be carefully spliced together by fusing them together with heat. Special optical fiber connectors are used to make removable connections.
    5. 5.  Fiber optics, though used extensively in the modern world, is a fairly simple and old technology. This technology was first of all demonstrated by Daniel Colladon and Jacques Babinet in Paris in the early 1840s introducing the total internal reflection phenomenon for the first time. Many scientists worked on it and they correctly and systematically theorized the light-loss properties for optical fiber, and pointed out the right material to manufacture such fibers -silica glass with high purity This discovery led to Charles k. Kao being awarded with the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2009.
    6. 6.  Optical fiber communication:- Optical fiber can be used as a medium for telecommunication and networking because it is flexible and can be bundled as cables. It is especially advantageous for long-distance communications, because light propagates through the fiber with low loss of intensity compared to electrical cables. This allows long distances to be spanned with few repeaters. Channel light signals propagating in the fiber have been modulated at rates as high as 111 gigabits per second by, although 10 or 40 Gbit/s is typical in deployed systems. Each fiber can carry many independent channels, each using a different wavelength of light. For short distance applications, such as creating a network within an office building, fiber-optic cabling can be used to save space in cable ducts. This is because a single fiber can often carry much more data than many electrical cables.
    7. 7.  Optical fibers can be used as sensors to measure strain temperature ,pressure and other quantities by modifying a fiber so that the quantity to be measured modulates the intensity, phase, or transit time of light in the fiber. Fibers are widely used in illumination applications. They are used as light guides in medical and other applications where bright light needs to be shone on a target without a clear line-of-sight path. Finally,we can conclude that optical fibers have been boon for the IT prosperity of any nation.
    8. 8.  When light traveling in a denser medium hits a boundary at a steep angle (larger than the "critical angle" for the boundary), the light will be completely reflected. The phenomenon of reflection of light from denser/rarer medium to the same medium itself is called Total internal reflection. And this happens only when angle of incidence is greater or equals to angle of refraction.