Basics of telecommunication and networking


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Telecommunication enables people to talk via electronic media and Networking enables more than one computers to connect and share the information. In today's business telecommunication and networking play an important role. Also wireless technologies like bluetooth and Wi-Fi make easy transaction for any IT enable business.

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Basics of telecommunication and networking

  1. 1. BASICS OF TELECOMMUNICATION AND NETWORKING Prof. Milan Padariya Page 1 BASIC INTRODUCTION 3 Mantras of any computer user: 1. anytime, 2. anywhere, 3. anyway Anytime: She/he can explore internet and work on computer anytime. (i.e. travelling, working, in leisure etc.) Anywhere: She/he can use computer anywhere. (i.e. at home, at office, at school/college, at function, at shopping mall etc.) Anyway: She/he can explore internet by any means. (i.e. by desktop, by laptop, by mobile, by tablet etc.) What can make it possible?  Telecommunication (Mobile, Tablet, PDA- Personal Digital Assistance)  Internet (Website, Portals, free information, Knowledge Management System)  Revolution in electronics media (Landline, Phone, Mobile, Smartphone, Tablet, Laptop, Palmtop)  Wireless technologies (Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, RFID- Radio Frequency Identification, GPS- Global Positioning System, GIS- Geographic Information System)  Networking (PAN, LAN, CAN, MAN, WAN, WLAN)  Web technologies (Java, .NET, C+, .ASP, Web 2.0, WordPress, Joomla, Magento)  Mobile application (Android- Play store, iOS- App Store, Symbian- OVI store)  Revolution in Operating System (Windows 95 to Windows 8, MacOS, Ubantu, Linux) HOW WIRELESS TECHNOLOGY USED IN BUSINESS? Value: Productivity, Efficiency, Effectiveness, Job Satisfaction, Customer Service. Wireless technologies have become a crucial component for small businesses of all kinds. A 2010 study by AT&T found that 65 percent of small businesses feel that it would be very difficult to survive without wireless technology and that few small businesses have cut back on wireless despite economic pressures. In the Office Wired Networks are now old. Everyone needs to be wireless. Some of offices used wired network like LAN but most of used Wireless technology like Wi-Fi. They connect main head quarter with regional offices and other business places like factory, warehouse, vendors etc. Bluetooth is a short-range wireless technology that acts as a complement to Wi-Fi. It is often
  2. 2. BASICS OF TELECOMMUNICATION AND NETWORKING Prof. Milan Padariya Page 2 used to transfer data between a computer and a cellphone or connect a wireless headset. Workers gain flexibility while businesses reduce investment costs. Mobilizing Workers Mobile Workforce: Cell phones, laptops and netbooks combined with GPS, Wi-Fi and Bluetooth wireless technologies have created the potential for a powerful mobile workforce. Small businesses are often in competition with larger companies and need to maximize the efficiency of workers. They can't afford to have employees out of touch. Owners often wear many hats and have to keep track of multiple facets of a business, even during nights, weekends and vacations. Wireless technologies ensure that businesses aren't tied down to a single location. GPS GPS devices have gone from expensive premium items to common business accessories. GPS technology has been a boon to the transportation industry when it comes to finding efficient routes and tracking vehicles, but it makes sense for any business with a mobile component. Traveling employees can use GPS devices to get to their destinations on time, find the best gas prices and avoid traffic tangles. On-time customer service translates into happy customers. Outfitting company cars with GPS can take a lot of the stress out of business travel. In Short: For tracking shipment, Inventory Status on transport Smartphones A survey by research group Gartner found that smartphone sales increased 24 percent between 2008 and 2009. That is a trend that businesses are getting in on. Smartphone have all the same benefits which you can get from cell phone but smartphone gives you some extra benefits which are not given by cellphone Common Benefits: Keep in touch, communication, massaging, calendar, planner, time etc. Extraordinary Benefits: Internet, Wi-Fi, Mobile invoicing software, email, application, ERP, mobile controlled activities etc. Wireless Computers In early years, all connections require wired network for operation. Mobility of workforce is not there but in recent era some of wireless technologies like Wi-Fi and Bluetooth able workforce to work anytime, anywhere and anyway. A person can access internet, email, application, web
  3. 3. BASICS OF TELECOMMUNICATION AND NETWORKING Prof. Milan Padariya Page 3 based software etc. from outside also. She/he can use laptops from hotels, coffee shops, home, offices, book stores, malls etc. by help of wireless technology. A businessmen can do research, invoicing, project development from anywhere. This wireless approach helps to keep small businesses competitive and flexible. HOW TECHNOLOGY IS USED IN BUSINESS TO COMMUNICATE? In twenty first century communication become vital to carry out day to day transaction and successful business operation. Network become complex and faster now days, so you require highly technological network with you for survive. By means of technology you can communicate your information with your internal and external stakeholders fast. Even latest technology such as cloud computing, is being used by many businesses to operate globally and faster than any other without compromise security of your data and information. Networking With help of networking you can communicate through traditional voice and video in a secure system. Also helps in collaboration on reports, programming and other document production. Networking is very essential in today’s business and teaches us how to communicate in today’s business environment. We used some networking techniques like LAN, MAN, WAN etc. with help of networking we can stay connected in every transaction of businesses. One can easily communicate with her/his external and internal stakeholders easily. The Internet By two way internet help us in communication: 1) Static Communication and, 2) Dynamic Communication. In static communication we can share only one way information. Opposite person cannot add anything in this communication. Static communication is one way communication. In dynamic communication information being exchanged by both side. Dynamic communication is two way communications. Examples: In website of any company we can found some basic information of following things:
  4. 4. BASICS OF TELECOMMUNICATION AND NETWORKING Prof. Milan Padariya Page 4  Mission and vision of company  Company Profile  Product list/Information  Price list of product  Contact details  Inquiry form/quotation form Company provides information to you that is static (one-way) communication and when you are being interested in any product and make inquiry about that product and get quotation from the company via email that is dynamic (two-way) communication. When we talk about online business (E-Commerce) internet helps us for communication and placing the order and getting the information. In most of web portal there is one option of “online support” that is dynamic communication. Wireless Communications Wireless devices are now capable of doing everything from making a phone or talking over a “walkie-talkie” to using the Internet or company network to run applications and send memos. Wireless technology is quickly evolving, with products like the iPad and Blackberry taking the place of paper and writing utensils, distributing information immediately from any location where a signal is available. This is time for wireless communication. Now days wired communication being out dated. Almost all smartphones come with wireless technologies like Wi-Fi and Bluetooth. Emerging field of wireless communication is cloud computing. Many companies are using this wireless technology for daily transaction and communication. Mainly wireless communication is used for following purpose:  Communication with customers  Communication with employees  Send invoice and memo  Exchange of information from one office to other  To run application  Warehouse management  Shipment tracking and tracing
  5. 5. BASICS OF TELECOMMUNICATION AND NETWORKING Prof. Milan Padariya Page 5 Cloud Computing Cloud computing takes networking to a whole new level. Documents and programs can be stored in “virtual” drives or computers, and can be accessed by any authorized user through ordinary Internet connections. Cloud computing allows real-time communication and interaction exactly the way a network does, with access extended to global level. Cloud computing eliminates data lost through system crashes, avoids problems with network downtime as well as providing the ability for software upgrades to be performed network-wide by upgrading a single instance of an application. Google Docs is an example of cloud computing where multiple users can interact on document production in real-time. NETWORKING AND COMMUNICATION TREND The world’s largest and most widely used network is the Internet. The Internet is a global “network of networks” that uses universal standards to connect millions of different networks with more than 350 million host computers in over 200 countries around the world. Enterprise networking and internetworking allow all the new connectivity to be made much more easily. The better the connectivity, the more productive employees will be since most of their work is now done through the electronic networks. Continuing telecommunication deregulation and information technology innovation, telephone and computer networks are slowly converging into a single digital network using shared Internet-based standards and equipment. The term broadband refers to the amount of data that can be carried over the transmission line. The dial-up modems that are prevalent with home computers are called narrowband because they can’t carry very large amounts of data. Data size is measured in kilobits. The faster broadband transmission lines are able to carry megabits and gigabits of data versus the kilobits available through slower dial-up modems. Broadband connections in private homes are becoming more popular than the dial-up modems because of the faster transmissions speeds. The dilemma currently facing broadband providers and consumers is the age-old “chicken or the egg” conundrum. The broadband providers usually charge about $50 a month for DSL or cable modem Internet access. They say that’s their break-even point until more consumers sign up for the high-speed service. Content providers say there isn’t that much demand for
  6. 6. BASICS OF TELECOMMUNICATION AND NETWORKING Prof. Milan Padariya Page 6 advanced content because most consumers don’t have the Internet connections required for smooth delivery of the content. Consumers, on the other hand, say they don’t want to pay that much for high-speed Internet access because of the lack of compelling content available. BASICS OF COMPUTER NETWORK In its simplest form, a network consists of two or more connected computers. What you should keep in mind is that you can continually add components to this kind of network and expand it exponentially. You can take a simple desktop computer and by way of a network interface card (NIC), incorporate it into an existing network. To share network resources, such as printers, and to route communications on a LAN, you require special software called a network operating system (NOS). Typically Hubs and switches help route traffic on the network to the right computing device. When two or more networks are connected to each other, you would need a router somewhere so that data transmissions are routed to the correct network device. Very large networks may require multiple routers so that transmissions can be processed faster. In simple form, when two or more objects (living or non-living things) are being connected with each other via any suitable medium is called “Network”. When two or more computers are being connected with each other via suitable medium (Wired or Wireless) is called “Computer Network”. Components of Computer Network
  7. 7. BASICS OF TELECOMMUNICATION AND NETWORKING Prof. Milan Padariya Page 7 1. NIC (Network Interface Card) NIC helps to incorporate operating system in to host computer. 2. NOS (Network Operation System) For sharing of the resources from one computer to other computer/s we need one centralized operating system and which is called as Network Operating System. (Note: When operating system is used for only one computer, it is called Computer Operating System but when it is used for computer network, it is called Network Operating System.) 3. Server The network operating system resides on a dedicated server computer for all the applications on the network. 4. PC (Personal Computer) Personal computers are work as source of information. We can share information from one to other. 5. Router/Modem (Medium) Router/Modem is required for transmission of data from correct computer to correct destination. Router/Modem used as medium between two or more computers. In large networks multiple routers are used for transmission. 6. Hub and Switches Typically Hubs and switches help route traffic on the network to the right computing device. NETWORK IN LARGE COMPANY Most of corporation used combination of private and public transmission mediums and use public or private ISP (Internet Service Provider). In small to medium companies use of network is limited and easy to establish. Few components of network can make computer network. When a company is in developing phase requirements and capabilities of computer network is limited or few, but when it will come into developed phase requirements and capabilities will be raised.
  8. 8. BASICS OF TELECOMMUNICATION AND NETWORKING Prof. Milan Padariya Page 8 What are the reasons? 1. Increase the numbers of department 2. Increase the numbers of employees 3. Increase the numbers of transaction 4. Raised requirements of some software like, ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning), CRM (Customer relationship Management), Employee evaluation software, E-Billing, KMS (Knowledge Management Software) etc. 5. Increase the numbers of customers 6. Increase the production 7. Inventory management become complex 8. Requirement of good production, planning and control These reasons lead to use more complex, integrated and compatible computer network in large organization. Now question is: What will they do with existing computer network? And answer is: Either they will replace the existing network or they will connect new network with existing network by two ways. 1) Modify the existing network as per the situation. 2) Keep the existing network untouched. Generally in earlier time of developed phase of organization, they buildup on “INTRANET” but as time passes they will go for “EXTRANET” also. Look at the schematic diagram of Computer network in large organization. Main components like NIC, NOS, Server, Computer, Router/Modem, Hub and Switches remain same but this network need some extra components for boosting of network.
  9. 9. BASICS OF TELECOMMUNICATION AND NETWORKING Prof. Milan Padariya Page 9 New Requirement:  Mobile Wi-Fi Network  Corporate Website  Intranet and Extranet  Wireless Internet Service Provider  Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) KEY DIGITAL NETWORKING TECHNOLOGIES Main three key technologies are there: 1. Clint/Server Computing 2. Packet Switching 3. TCP/IP
  10. 10. BASICS OF TELECOMMUNICATION AND NETWORKING Prof. Milan Padariya Page 10 Client/Server Computing It is for all kinds of network including the Internet. In this technology main thing is “SERVER”. All computers are connected with that server and server is made in one main computer that is “HOST COMPUTER” or “MASTER COMPUTER”. This type of network is best fitted to most of companies where this network expanding area of other networks or replacing hardware components. Packet Switching “Packet switching is a method of breaking large blocks of text into smaller chunks of data and routing them in the most economical way through whichever communication channel is available.” OR SIMPLY… “It is method of breaking large amount of information in to small parts of information and transmit them by most economical way through communication channel whichever is available.” The data were broken into small packets on their way out of the server computer and then sent to and reassembled on the client computer. It happens so quickly and so efficiently that you don’t even notice. Packet switching also checks for transmission errors when data travels from one location to another. TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) TCP/IP was developed in 1978 and driven by Bob Kahn and Vint Cerf. Today, TCP/IP is a language governing communications among all computers on the Internet. TCP/IP is two different protocols, they are used together. IP has a packet-addressing method control and detects how packet information is sent out over network. The Transmission Control Protocol ensures the reliability of data transmission across Internet connected networks. TCP checks packets for errors and submits requests for re-transmissions if errors are found; it also will return the multiple packets of a message into a proper, original sequence when the message reaches its destination. The most popular model for connecting networks is the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP). Even though this protocol was originally created for what we now call the Internet, it is easily transferred to networks of all sizes. It provides the easiest
  11. 11. BASICS OF TELECOMMUNICATION AND NETWORKING Prof. Milan Padariya Page 11 methodology for communicating between computers through standardized protocols that ignore the hardware and software platforms of the individual pieces of equipment. Companies can create Web-based interfaces for different databases for data input/output and accessing information without actually combining the data physically in one huge computer. They do so by using TCP/IP models. With these protocols, they can reduce the disruption to the organization and decrease the overall costs of adding to their network. Figure shows you how TCP/IP works. The most important benefit of the TCP/IP model is that it allows two computers to communicate even if they are based on different hardware and software platforms.