On October 23rd, 2014, we updated our
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rapid immunization of large, at-risk populations after potential exposure to anthrax
- vaccine applied to mucosal surfaces to replace intramuscular vaccination
- There study examined the use of soybean oil-and-water nanoemulsions (NEs) as a mucosal adjuvant for an rPA vaccine to replace the aluminum adjuvant of the traditional vaccines
NE immunization was effective in inducing both serum anti-PA immunoglobulin IgA and IgG antibodies
high titers of lethal-toxin-neutralizing serum antibodies
sGuinea pigs nasally immunized with rPA-NE vaccine were protected against an intradermal challenge with 1,000 times the 50% lethal dose
a needle-free anthrax vaccine requiring fewer doses and having fewer side effects than the traditional vailable human vaccine
although the rate of natural anthrax infection has declined, this topic remains a controversial one because of its relation to bio terrorism
this breakthrough is an excellent starting point and scientists should introduce the vaccine to humans and test it's success rate. In the future, research must focus on finding an antitoxin that can effectively cure vaccinated and non vaccinated humans after infection or exposure to the spores.
the fight against anthrax and all other biological weapons should be taken more seriously in the future to prevent any surprising attack from taking place.
Reference Baillie, L. 2001. The development of new vaccines against anthrax. J. Appl. Microbiol. 9: 609–613 . Bailey-Smith, K., Todd, S.J., Southworth, T.W., Proctor, J., Moir, A., 2005. The ExsA protein of Bacillus cereus is required for assembly of coat and exosporium onto the spore surface. J. Bacteriol. 187, 3800–3806. Franz D. 2009. Preparedness for an anthrax attack. Molecular aspects of medicine 30:503-510. Friedlander A. M. 1986. Macrophages are sensitive to anthrax lethal toxin through an acid-dependent process. Journal of Biological Chemistry 261:7123. Shadonly S., T. Smith. 2008. Anthrax. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 233:63-72.