SS8H11 The student will evaluate the role ofGeorgia in the modern civil rights movement.a. Describe major developments in civil rights and Georgia’s role duringthe 1940s and 1950s; include the roles of Herman Talmadge, BenjaminMays, the 1946 governor’s race and the end of the white primary,Brown v. Board of Education, Martin Luther King, Jr., and the 1956 stateflag.b. Analyze the role Georgia and prominent Georgians played in the CivilRights Movement of the 1960s and 1970s; include such events as thefounding of the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC),Sibley Commission, admission of Hamilton Holmes and CharlayneHunter to the University of Georgia, Albany Movement, March onWashington, Civil Rights Act, the election of Maynard Jackson as mayorof Atlanta, and the role of Lester Maddox.c. Discuss the impact of Andrew Young on Georgia.
Herman TalmadgeRe-elected governor in 1950Expanded schools to include grades 1-12Lengthened school year to 9 monthsRaised standards for buildings, equipment, transportation and school curricula3 percent tax passed to pay for changes
Benjamin MaysEducator and president of Morehouse CollegeMentor to MLK, Jr.Chairman of the Atlanta Board of EducationHas a street and a high school named in his honor in southwest Atlanta
1946 Governor’s Race(The Three Governors Episode)Eugene Talmadge was elected but died before takingofficeThree men claimed the office: Ellis Arnall (currentgovernor), Herman Talmadge (Eugene’s son who waschosen by the legislature based on write-in votes in theelection) and Melvin Thompson (Lt. Governor)In March, the Georgia Supreme court ruled that MelvinThompson was the rightful head of the state until aspecial election could be held in 1948Herman Talmadge won that election
1956 State FlagMany were offended by the Confederate battle emblem on the flag because ofits references to slaveryOthers felt it was a memorial to the war deadThe flag was hurting business and tourism in the stateGov. Roy Barnes changed the flagSonny Perdue promised to change the flag if elected
End of the White PrimaryThe state allowed only white Democrats to vote inthe primary elections (those in which candidatesfrom each party are chosen)This kept blacks from choosing their owncandidates – they were only allowed to vote in thegeneral election in which there really wasn’t achoiceIn 1946, the U. S. Supreme Court, Georgia’s whiteprimary system unconstitution (King V. Chapman)
The Supreme Court andEducation1948: racial integration ordered in armed forces1950: Brown v. Board of Education – case struck down“separate but equal” concept; schools were to beintegratedSibley Commission: found that most Georgianswould rather close schools than integrateMore private schools opened1961: Charlayne Hunter and Hamilton Holmes firstAfrican American students at UGA1971: All Georgia public schools integrated
Montgomery Bus BoycottDec. 1, 1955: Rosa Parks, African American, refused to give up her bus seat towhites in Montgomery, ALDr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and the NAACP organized civic leaders and preparedmarchesSupreme court ruled segregation on public transportation unconstitutional
A Nonviolent Movement isBornMartin Luther King, Jr. of AtlantaDeveloped a nonviolent approach to social changeFour-prong approach:• direct, nonviolent actions• legal remedies• ballots• economic boycottsSCLC: Southern Christian Leadership Conference –civil rights group led by Dr. KingSit-in: Dr. King’s strategy to people refuse to leave apublic building until their demands are met
The Albany Movement1961: Albany, GA becomes center of civil rights activitySNCC: Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee – challenged segregated bussystem in AlbanyNearly 500 people jailedBiracial committee formed to study concerns of African Americans
Protests Move to Alabama1963: Martin Luther King, Jr. begins work to integrate all aspects of public life inBirmingham, ALOver 3000 people arrestedBomb killed 4 black children in their churchAfrican Americans and whites from the north and south began to join together to stopthe violence
The Civil Rights ActPresident Kennedy created new civil rights lawsKennedy was assassinated before the new laws came into effectLyndon Johnson became president and pushed for passage of the Civil Rights Act of1964All public facilities had to be integratedDiscrimination was prohibited in business and labor unions
The Voting Rights Act1964: Freedom Summer – Martin Luther King, Jr. and SNCC worked to get AfricanAmericans registered to voteSelma-to-Montgomery, AL march led by Dr. KingNearly 30,000 marchersCongress passed the Voting Rights Act of 1965 – one million African Americans wereregistered to vote
A Shift in MoodSome people moved from the nonviolent strategies to more aggressive onesSNCC and “Black Panthers” confronted policeMalcolm X preached black separatismRace riots in Los Angeles, Detroit, and NewarkApril 1968: Dr. King assassinated in Memphis, TN while working with striking sanitationworkers
Atlanta: A Case Study in ChangeIntegration in Atlanta was relatively peacefulChurch leaders get much credit for this peaceful changeWilliam Hartsfield: Atlanta mayor who expandedAtlanta’s airport and worked with African American andwhite leaders; worked to integrate Atlanta’s schoolsIvan Allen: Atlanta mayor ordered removal of “white”and “colored” segregation signs in the City Hall;integrated police and fire services and city governmentTroubled times followed but were overcomeThe city became known as “the city too busy to hate” Click to return to Table of Contents.
Lester MaddoxElected governor 1967Segregationist who surprised everyone by appointing more blacks to stateboards and commissions than all prior governors combined