R And J Power Summary

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R And J Power Summary

  1. 1. Romeo and Juliet By Zachary Isaacs
  2. 2. Notes About Romeo and Juliet <ul><li>Plot not conceived by Shakespeare </li></ul><ul><li>Dramatization of Arthur Brooke’s narrative poem The Tragicall History of Romeus and Juliet </li></ul><ul><li>Written around 1594 </li></ul><ul><li>First printed edition appeared in 1597 in a “bad quarto” </li></ul>
  3. 3. Publishing in His Time <ul><li>Rarely were entire copies of the script available due to cost </li></ul><ul><li>Actors knew own lines and cues only </li></ul><ul><li>Drama not meant to be read as serious literature </li></ul><ul><li>Shakespeare’s plays were printed (often without his permission) in quartos </li></ul><ul><li>Compiled in First Folio (1623) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Gustave Freytag’s Pyramid <ul><li>From Die Technik des Dramas (1863) </li></ul><ul><li>Divided drama into five parts which correspond to the five acts </li></ul><ul><li>These parts are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exposition (Act I) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rising action (Act II) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Climax (Act III) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Falling action (Act IV) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Denouement or catastrophe (Act V) </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. DRAMATIC STRUCTURE
  6. 6. Exposition <ul><li>The exposition provides the background information necessary to understand the play. </li></ul><ul><li>The protagonist(s), the basic conflict, the setting, and other dramatic elements are all introduced in this portion of the play. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Exposition in R&J <ul><li>Prologue explains the plot; mini-play </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ ancient grudge” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ star-cross’d lovers” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Setting of Verona </li></ul><ul><li>Internal and external conflicts </li></ul><ul><li>The gravity of Prince Escalus </li></ul><ul><li>All characters introduced and developed </li></ul><ul><li>Love lives of Romeo and Juliet (Rosaline and Paris) </li></ul><ul><li>Foreshadowing (Tybalt’s anger) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Inciting Moment <ul><li>The inciting moment is the event that sets the remainder of the story in motion </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs at the end of the exposition (Act I) </li></ul><ul><li>In Sophocles’ Oedipus Rex : the oracle </li></ul><ul><li>In R&J : the meeting of Romeo and Juliet </li></ul><ul><li>Without their meeting at the party, the rest of the story is impossible </li></ul>[The Spark]
  9. 9. Rising Action <ul><li>Rising action is the period in which events intensify and/or complicate the conflict. </li></ul><ul><li>In Oedipus Rex : Oedipus kills Laius, solves Sphinx’s riddle, marries Jocasta </li></ul>
  10. 10. Rising Action in R&J <ul><li>Romeo is enamored of Juliet and pays her a late-night visit </li></ul><ul><li>Act II, Scene II: famous “balcony scene” </li></ul><ul><li>The two make wedding plans </li></ul><ul><li>Act II ends with Friar Laurence about to perform marriage ceremony </li></ul>
  11. 11. It’s complicated … <ul><li>Romeo is in love with Juliet, a Capulet </li></ul><ul><li>Juliet understands this (“doff thy name”) </li></ul><ul><li>The Rosaline factor </li></ul><ul><li>Tybalt sends challenge to Montague house </li></ul><ul><li>Nurse and Friar implicated </li></ul>
  12. 12. Climax <ul><li>Turning or tipping point </li></ul><ul><li>Zenith of tension and emotion </li></ul><ul><li>Peripateia : “plot reversal” </li></ul><ul><li>Hamartia : “tragic flaw” </li></ul><ul><li>Anagnorisis : “tragic recognition” </li></ul><ul><li>In Oedipus Rex: Jocasta and Oedipus learn the truth </li></ul>
  13. 13. “ I coulda been a comedy!” <ul><li>Without the death of Act III, it is possible that R&J would not end tragically </li></ul><ul><li>Possible second half of play: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capulets, Montagues, Tybalt, and/or Paris attempt to thwart marriage ceremony </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Romeo and Juliet overcome intervention and happily marry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capulets and Montagues reconcile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Others marry (Paris and Rosaline?) </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Climax in R&J <ul><li>Contrast between Act II, VI and Act III, I </li></ul><ul><li>First sign: death of Mercutio </li></ul><ul><li>Hamartia and peripateia : death of Tybalt </li></ul><ul><li>Anagnorisis : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ And fire-ey’d fury be my conduct now!” (III,I,126) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ O, I am fortune’s fool.” (III,I,138) </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Act III by scene <ul><li>Mercutio, Tybalt killed; Romeo banished </li></ul><ul><li>Juliet gets news from Nurse </li></ul><ul><li>Romeo hears from Friar about banishment; Nurse tells Romeo to meet Juliet </li></ul><ul><li>Paris meets with Capulets to arrange wedding </li></ul><ul><li>R&J meet; Capulets tell Juliet of wedding plan </li></ul>
  16. 16. Falling Action <ul><li>The falling action is the period after the climax in which the characters deal with the climax and consequences of the climax become evident </li></ul><ul><li>In Oedipus Rex: Jocasta hangs herself and Oedipus blinds himself with her brooches </li></ul>
  17. 17. Falling Action in R&J <ul><li>Paris and Juliet are set to marry </li></ul><ul><li>Friar gives Juliet sleeping potion and plans for Romeo and Juliet to run away </li></ul><ul><li>Capulet changes date of wedding </li></ul><ul><li>Juliet takes potion in her chamber </li></ul><ul><li>Nurse goes to fetch Juliet, finds her unconscious, and assumes her dead </li></ul><ul><li>Capulets and others mourn Juliet’s “death” </li></ul>
  18. 18. Denouement <ul><li>The denouement (or catastrophe) of a tragedy serves as a conclusion to the story </li></ul><ul><li>Untangling of the plot </li></ul><ul><li>Resolution of conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Brings about a sense of catharsis for the audience </li></ul><ul><li>In Oedipus Rex : Oedipus gives his children to Creon and goes into exile </li></ul>
  19. 19. Denouement in R&J <ul><li>Balthasar brings news of Juliet’s death of Romeo </li></ul><ul><li>Romeo buys poison from apothecary </li></ul><ul><li>Friar Laurence finds out from Friar John that Romeo never received his letter </li></ul><ul><li>Romeo kills Paris in Juliet’s tomb </li></ul><ul><li>Romeo commits suicide by poison </li></ul><ul><li>Juliet wakes to find Paris and Romeo dead and dies by stabbing herself with a dagger </li></ul><ul><li>Friar explains himself </li></ul><ul><li>Capulets and Montagues resolve their feud </li></ul>
  20. 20. Mercutio <ul><li>Name is evocative of “mercurial,” meaning lively, witty, and unpredictable; suits him well </li></ul><ul><li>Goes from one extreme to the other </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Mercutio is stabbed and vacillates between graveness and lightheartedness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I am hurt. A plague o’ both your houses” (III,I,91-2) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Ay, ay, a scratch, a scratch” (III,I,94) </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. The Nurse <ul><li>Breast-fed and raised Juliet </li></ul><ul><li>Serves as a motherly figure, confidante, and messenger </li></ul><ul><li>Provides comic relief </li></ul><ul><li>Offers practical alternative to Juliet’s idealistic view of love </li></ul>
  22. 22. Other Characters <ul><li>Benvolio: acts as a moderator when Romeo and Mercutio debate; foil to Romeo </li></ul><ul><li>Capulet: stock character of the angry father </li></ul><ul><li>Prince: represents law and order </li></ul>
  23. 23. Themes <ul><li>Moderation vs. excess </li></ul><ul><li>The nature of love </li></ul><ul><li>Fate vs. personal responsibility </li></ul>
  24. 24. Theme of Moderation <ul><li>Aristotle’s belief in the necessity of moderation is found in Nicomachean Ethics </li></ul><ul><li>Moral virtues are found between extremes of action (golden mean) </li></ul><ul><li>For example, generosity is the moral virtue found between a deficiency (stinginess) and an excess (prodigality) </li></ul><ul><li>Found in Eastern philosophy: the Buddhist “middle way” is meant to avoid extremism </li></ul>
  25. 25. The Friar <ul><li>Embodies Aristotle’s concept of the “golden mean” </li></ul><ul><li>Acts as a foil to Romeo, who represents youth’s impatience, haste, and short-sightedness </li></ul><ul><li>Preaches the values of moderation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Wisely and slow; they stumble that run fast” (II, IV,90) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Therefore love moderate; long love doth so. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Too swift arrives as tardy as too slow.” (II,VI, 14-5) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Uneven is the course. I like it not.” (IV,I,5) </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Immoderate Romeo <ul><li>Dotes on Rosaline </li></ul><ul><li>Quickly falls in love with and marries Juliet (Rosaline who?) </li></ul><ul><li>Slays Tybalt after condemning fighting </li></ul><ul><li>Views banishment as death </li></ul><ul><li>Refuses to listen to Friar’s counsel: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ O, then I see that mad men have no ears” (III,III,61) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fights stranger (Paris) in the tomb </li></ul><ul><li>Commits suicide right before Juliet wakes </li></ul>
  27. 27. Extreme Juliet <ul><li>Falls in love with Romeo immediately </li></ul><ul><li>Describes her love as “boundless” and “infinite” </li></ul><ul><li>Requires that Romeo’s “purpose” is “marriage” </li></ul><ul><li>Ignores Friar’s offer to hide her with nuns </li></ul><ul><li>Prepared to die if she cannot live with Romeo: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ If all else fail, myself have power to die” (III,V,242) </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Love <ul><li>Fickleness (Romeo and Rosaline?) </li></ul><ul><li>Romeo and Juliet have love at first sight </li></ul><ul><li>Love is inhibited by both families </li></ul><ul><li>Arranged marriage </li></ul>
  29. 29. Who’s to blame?
  30. 30. Circumstances/Fate <ul><li>Doomed from the prologue </li></ul><ul><li>Not responsible for family feud </li></ul><ul><li>Romeo does not provoke Tybalt or Paris </li></ul><ul><li>Unable to change their destiny (like Oedipus?) </li></ul><ul><li>Accidents (errant letter, Mercutio) </li></ul>
  31. 31. The Friar <ul><li>Performs secret wedding ceremony hoping to end feud (he succeeds) </li></ul><ul><li>Gives sleeping potion to Juliet </li></ul><ul><li>Aids and abets banished Romeo </li></ul><ul><li>Conceives plan for Romeo and Juliet’s new life in Mantua </li></ul>
  32. 32. “ Juliet and Her Romeo” <ul><li>Go against their parents’ wishes </li></ul><ul><li>Operate in secrecy </li></ul><ul><li>Ignore the advice of counselors like the Friar and Nurse </li></ul><ul><li>Are ultimately responsible for their actions because they have free will (murder, suicide) </li></ul>
  33. 33. Thank you QUESTIONS? COMMENTS?

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