Hello, • Here’s fluent We are a collective of talented individuals with many years of experience in the advertising and design industry. We’ve pooled our resources so we can take on a greater scope of work. We’re also unaligned with any other bigger agencies so there are no conﬂicts of interest. We use technology to ensure efﬁciency of communication at all levels from brieﬁng through to ﬁnal delivery. In short we are clever, fast, f reliable and always there to help. Go to next page
What we do ADVERTISING: print, outdoor, TV, promotions, point of sale DESIGN: logos, brochures, publications, annual reports DIRECT MARKETING: mass distribution, personalisation BRAND DEVELOPMENT : brainstorming, research proposals PRESENTATIONS: corporate credentials, pitches ABOVE ALL ELSE: Go to next page
Where we’ve been •IT/Finished Art ZAC GUJA •Art Direction MIKE BOEKHOLT 12 years in the business. 14 years in the business. 2 years as Art Director at Leo Burnett 3 1/2 years as self-employed designer/finished artist. •MARGARET HOSKING Wellington. 3 years as studio manager in 2 Production/•Copywriting JIM FRANCIS 4 years as Senior Art Director at Ted Bates – BSB – Bates Hong Kong. graphic repro houses Brisbane. 1 year freelance finished artist Finished Art 21 years in the business. 5 years as Creative Director at Bates Brisbane – McCann-Erickson & 15 years in the business. 4 years as typesetter/quality controller Singapore. George Patterson Bates. 10 years starting as copywriter in at TGI Graphics Wellington. Mackay King Wellington working 3 years to present as independent 1 1/2 years as finished artist The 8 years as production manager at through J. Walter Thomson to HKM. Art Director/Creative Director Frontline Agency in Sydney. Typehouse Wellington. 3 years as Creative Director at Wellington. 1 year finished artist McCann- 5 years as finished artist at McCann- Goldsack Harris Wellington. Erickson Wellington. “Mike draws upon a unique blend Erickson Wellington. 2 years to present as independent of creativity and pragmatism which 2 years to present as independent Creative Director/Copywriter Margaret has a voracious appetite for ensures all work is done to the finished artist Wellington. Wellington. work and in between her finished art highest standard within the bounds of Zac “anything is possible” Guja projects manages to run a wedding Jim has won many awards for his work the latest being a Cannes Gold Lion in a happy client working relationship.” can create everything an Art catering service and a Polynesian 1999 for creative use of media. Danesh Daryanani Director could possibly conceive performance group. Regional Marketing Mgr Shell Asia-Pacific of. As well as making sure the Jim was once described by a colleague as a ‘craftsman’ writer. He is flattered Awards: see annotations on PDFs. million and one things in prepress by this but is uncertain about the Also a detailed list is available that can go wrong later don’t. label. It makes him sound as though on request. he knows everything which, he knows Go to next page full well, he doesn’t.
Our work Mike’s Singapore print work JUMP TO Zac & Mike’s Wellington work JUMP TO Margaret’s work JUMP TO Jim’s work JUMP TO Mike’s TVCs JUMP TO Go to next page
Freshwater Mike & Zac State of the Environment Reporting print work Regional, City & Auckland Regional Council. Surfacewater: “Up to 13 years of monitoring data at stream sites throughout the region tells us that the quality of our stream waters are generally good. There are some notable exceptions in the urban, peri-urban and rural areas” The following pressures are affecting surface water quality: • The urbanisation process Allocation of Surface Water Municipal 2% Shade Houses 1% Other 1% District Snapshots • Land development for rural or urban purposes • Rural land uses such as intensive stock farming and horticulture • Urbanised land uses Watercare 72% Industrial 2% Pastoral/Horticulture 19% Bowling Green/Golf Courses 3% Source: State of the Auckland Region Report, 1999. Auckland Regional Council. Auckland City Council Indicators: Quality “Within Auckland City, information and monitoring initiatives on some aspects of water quality are limited, but proposed Manukau City Council • Portable Water Getting Better strategies should improve the information base on water • Wastewater Getting Better “Overall, the quality of water in Manukau’s waterways is poor. In areas of a catchment that are undeveloped, quality in the near future” • Stormwater Getting Worse water quality is very good. However, the quality of water begins to deteriorate as it flows down a catchment • Aquifer Water Insufficient information to assess any trend One Recommended Action: into rural areas characterised by agricultural activities and into urban areas characterised by built • Streams/ Creeks Insufficient information to assess any trend “Continue to promote efficient use of water” environments” Source: State of the Environment Report – The environment is in all our hands, 1999. Manukau City Council. • Coastal Waters Getting Worse Source: Auckland State of the Environment Report, 1998. Auckland City Council. Water Quality Trends at Waikato River Sites from 1980 to 1997 Environment BOP. Taupo Gates Improving – – – trend– – – – – – Whakamaru Environment Waikato Waipapa Deteriorating trend Narrows NERMN (Natural Environment Regional Monitoring Network) data has been used to Ohakuri Horotiu Ohaaki Mercer Huntly – No change Water quality and biodiversity in rivers – State: classify the rivers and streams that are monitored into five classes” Biochemical oxygen demand “Water quality in the Waikato River improved during the late 1970’s. Since then it has generally remained The NERMN monitoring network was set up to fulfil Environment BOP’s requirements Dissolved oxygen stable” under Section 35 of the Resource Management Act (1991) to monitor the “...state of pH – – – – – – – – – Water quality and biodiversity in rivers – Pressures: the whole or any part of the environment of its region” State of the Environment Total ammonia – – – – – – Temperature – – – – – – – – “With some industrial exceptions, point source discharges contribute relatively minor loads of contaminants There are water quality/ quantity pressures from an increasing population, economic Total phosphorus – – – – – development and expanding farming (particularly dairying) in the region. to the Waikato River” – Total nitrogen – – – – – – – Enterococci – – “The Kaituna Catchment Control Scheme provides soil conservation and flood protection Chlorophyll a – – – – – – – – Water quality and biodiversity in rivers – Responses: to the Rotorua/ Rotoiti catchments and flood and drainage protection to the Lower Arsenic – – – – – – “Environment Waikato monitors water quality and biodiversity to determine how river ecosystem health State of the environment reporting is Reporting – Information Kaituna area around the Te Puke/ Maketu area” Boron – – – – – – changes over time and to make appropriate management decisions” Source: State of the Environment Report Bay of Plenty, 1998. Environment BOP. Dissolved colour – – Source: Waikato State of the Environment Report, 1998. Environment Waikato. making a difference. Here are some examples where “plan, do, check and report” are leading to “adapt and Taranaki Regional Council. “Water quality is excellent in the upper catchments of the region but often deteriorates in the lower reaches as a result of both diffuse and point source discharges” improve” – locally and nationally: for Motivation “While there have been significant improvements in the management and monitoring of point source discharges in the region over the last decade, there remains scope for improvement, particularly with Objectives are implemented through plan respect to the effects of diffuse source agricultural discharges” methods, rules, specific resource consent conditions and other ? Source: State of the Environment Taranaki Region, 1996. Taranaki Regional Council. Air quality issues are addressed and measures, e.g. “promote awareness of the production and consequences objectives developed for regional policy statements and plans, e.g. do of motor vehicle emissions”. “To avoid, remedy or mitigate the adverse effects that arise from the discharge of Vege washing/Market gardens contaminants to air, including those from: motor vehicles…” (0.96%) Consented abstraction of Irrigation surface water in Manawatu- Wanganui region (pasture & hort) (33.47%) Horizons.mw. improve Air Quality “River water is better than previously, largely as the result of Auckland Regional Council Water supply (54.42%) less specific discharges. But there could well be less available State of the environment monitoring shows some air pollution is getting Worked with Auckland City worse in Auckland. So what’s Auckland Regional Council doing? Council to improve coverage of (0.04%)Construction in the future to meet all our needs, and worryingly, in some check air quality monitoring in the Average Macroinvertebrate Community (0.82%) Recreation streams and rivers water quality is degraded upstream of city for carbon monoxide (CO)People are a part of the environment. But when Everything is Connected and particulate matter. Index (MCI) Values in Taranaki (The MCI is a representation of the aquatic community used (9.24%) Industry traditional polluting sewage outfalls” “Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colourless odourless gas that can be poisonous to humans… Approximately 333,000 tonnes per year are emitted in the Auckland Region… The most significant source of COthey act in ways that upsets nature’s balance, things to express the ‘health’ of the catchment system. A high MCI (1.05%) Source: Measures of a changing landscape – State of the Environment Report Manawatu- is the motor vehicle… Over the past 13 years petrol indicates a catchment system with a high water quality.) Gravel washing Wanganui Region, 1999. Horizons.mw. Gisborne District Council. Groundwater: and diesel sales have increased by 70 per cent…can go wrong – air or water may become polluted, “Nationally Gisborne’s deep emissions from cars have risen by 70 per cent since 1985. If fuel consumption continues to increase atglobal temperatures may rise or soil quality may Surface water: adapt this rate, the air quality in Auckland will get worse…” groundwater quality could be described State of the Auckland Region Report 1999 “The current state-of-the-environment as poor which is a result of the geologybe degraded. Not only do such things impact on our Auckland Regional Council is: report Palmerston North City Council. monitoring programme has been in and the long residual time the • developing a Regional Air Quality Planday-to-day lives but the effects on the environment place for 6 years. The data collected • encouraging Aucklanders to reduce vehicle use “The City’s wastewater discharge to the Manawatu River does continue to have some impact on the Manawatu River, but groundwater has spent confined • running the 0800 SMOKEY campaignas a whole can be on-going and long-term. enables assessment of seasonal and underground. The quality may be poor • lobbying for stronger government initiatives to control further measures are proposed as a result of the Wastewater 2006 project to reduce that impact and meet the regional long term trends in water quality, vehicle air pollution.What we do makes a difference. compared to other districts however in water quality standard” investigation of point sources of terms of irrigation use, it has proven to Objectives are implemented through methods, rules (including specific conditions inHow do we know when things are going wrong? State “The Wastewater 2006 project has involved detailed analysis of options for the future treatment and disposal of the City’s contamination, and provides be a valuable resource reflected by the plan resource consents) and other measures, e.g. use of “generator pays” to reduce the amount of waste needing disposal. A Waste Management Plan that focuses on the 5 “R’s” of waste wastewater. The preferred scheme is to improve the quality of discharges to the Manawatu River to meet the relevant background information for compliance large volumes extracted every year”of the environment reporting gives us a clear indication Waste reduction issues are management: reduce, reuse, recycle, recover and residual disposal was adopted in 1997. standard in the Manawatu Catchment Water Quality Regional Plan.” monitoring” Source: State of the Environment, 2000. Gisborne Estimated Total Tonnage of Waste as Measured addressed and objectives set for do Amount of Green Waste Separated from the Mainof the health of the environment, how much of an Source: Our City’s Environment 2000 – The State of the Environment Report. Palmerston North City Council. District Council. at the Weighbridge strategic and waste management Estimated Total Waste Recycled in Palmerston North 4000 3500 Waste Stream at the Awapuni Landfill 1996-1998 Year 1995-96 1998-99 plans. These are consistent with 2500 3000impact we are having and how successful our efforts Manawatu – Wanganui’s Regional Policy Statement and Regional Monitoring Tonnage 2500 Tonnes of waste disposed 57,074.89 48,775.80 2000 Strategy, e.g. “To reduce the amount of waste needing disposal”. 2000 Kg per capita per day (adjusted) 3.15 1.77 Tonnage 1500 1500to re-establish nature’s balance have been. Hawke’s Bay Regional Council. Some gaps & next steps: 1000 1000 500 0 Solid Waste has recently completed a “Sustainable yield – perhaps 500 1995/96 1996/97 1997/98 1998/99 Tasman District Council. Source: Palmerston North City Council Other Industries Water quality and ecology: improve 0 1995/96 1996/97 1997/98 1998/99 – Services and Facilities Unit (11%) (5%) major study identifying the most fundamental Source: Palmerston North City Council – Services and Facilities Unit (3%) Power generation “Water quality was generally Sewage Surface water quality and instream values: habitat-based Minimum Flow groundwater management Waste has been monitored at the (4%) better in 1999/2000 as a question is how much water Palmerston North City CouncilNew Zealand’s Environment weighbridge of the Awapuni Landfill “Water quality at freshwater bathing sites has generally been settings and sustainable since 1995. Resource consents are Mining/quarrying consequence of the moderate can be allocated from an monitored for compliance. excellent, with only occasional breaches of national bacterial Allocations on all the rivers State of the environment monitoring shows the amount of waste (8%) climate. Critter numbers aquifer and still be disposed of per person per day in Palmerston North City has decreased. check Information is collected on where waste standards” and streams in the region comes from, e.g. transfer stations, (insects, worms and molluscs) So what’s Palmerston North City Council doing?– trash or treasure? recycling centres, business or from which water is sustainable. Practical residential sectors and its makeup, e.g. are used to assess water answers to these questions paper, plastic, garden waste, metal etc. Stormwater Ground water quality: abstracted (the Sustainable Dairy sheds (46%) quality and numbers have are some years away because “The amount of waste disposed of per capita per day waste collected through the kerbside rubbish Sources of Total Waste Stream Measured at the Awapuni Landfill Weighbridge (23%) “The quality of our groundwater is generally good, with the exception Low Flow Project)” has steadily decreased from 3.15 kg in 1996 to 1.77 collection from 1997-98 to 1998-99”. 30000 returned to pre-drought levels” of the many variables andThe State of New Zealand’s Environment reports that our environment is under of levels of nitrate which exceed drinking water standards in some “Groundwater in Hawke’s Bay kg in 1998-99”. “There has been a significant increase in waste In 1998/99, there was a dramatic decrease in the amount of green waste separated from the main 250000 Gaps and next steps: many unknowns” collected for recycling… since 1995”. waste stream…”. 20000constant pressure from our activities: our use of land; waste disposal; the things of the Waimea Plains aquifers” is generally good and is Tonnes Source: Hawke’s Bay State of the adapt There was a significant increase in the amount of Our City’s Environment 2000 The State of the Environment Report, Palmerston North City Council 15000 Current Sources of Discharges to Water 1999 “Managing the availability of readily suited for drinking and Environment Update, 2000. Hawke’s Bay 10000we take out like fish, fossil fuels or water; and the things we put back like Source: Environment TODAY! Tasman, 2000. Tasman District Council. Regional Council. Depending on further waste reduction, changes may be 5000 surface water – the Council irrigation. made to methods and rules in “next generation” strategies reportvehicle emissions, land fills, mine tailings, pests and weeds, hydro dams… and plans and resource consents may be reviewed. 0 1995/96 Transfer Stations 1996/97 Public 1997/98 Organic 1998/99 Commercial Refuse The Trend of Indigenous Biodiversity Decline in the Last Millennium† Nelson City Council. Domestic Rubbish Specials (Hazardous) Const/Industrial WasteIn many cases, we don’t understand how these pressures change our For example, climate change results from increased Source: Palmerston North City Council – Services and Facilities Unitenvironment or what the consequences of change may be over time. “In order to promote water conservation the Council has introduced universal water Wellington Regional Council Bad news: greenhouse gas emissions from things like “In some areas water quality is deteriorating due to stormwater and non- metering throughout its reticulated area. This initiative, coupled with a review of Good news: transport, grazing animals and the removal of point source discharges – if left unchecked water may become unsuitable plan water charges for major consumers, is expected to reduce the total volume of water “Overall freshwater quality is good and generally water is suitable for its forests that store carbon dioxide. The loss of New consumed and to provide a more equitable distribution of costs and benefits” fir its purpose of management” Biodiversity issues are addressed and national The Ministry has developed a set of national environmental indicators stated purposes of management” goals, objectives and actions set in the do for monitoring and reporting on the state of indigenous biodiversity. Zealand’s native plants, animals and the places “A number of initiatives to improve the quality or allocation of freshwater are currently “The worst affected water bodies in the Region have not improved significantly” Government’s New Zealand Biodiversity Strategy (2000). The Ministry for the Environment is the These indicators will be used with central and local government “Adverse effects caused by major discharges to water are decreasing as partners for state of the environment reporting. they live happens when land is cleared or animal underway, or will commence soon. This includes the preparation of a regional water “Lower Hutt groundwater is over 100% allocated” lead agency for some actions, e.g. “Use monitoring resource consents are renewed” results to provide local, regional and national ? views on the state of New Zealand’s indigenous pests and weeds are introduced. These impacts are quality plan to address the fact that most of the water contaminants probably come Source: Measuring Up – The State of the Environment Report for the Wellington Region, 1999. Wellington Regional Council. † Estimated trends of indigenous biodiversity loss (as reflected in species extinctions and loss of forest ecosystems) in New biodiversity, to report on progress towards from land use in the wider catchments” “We have good public access to freshwater bodies” Zealand since 1000AD based on data from published sources including The State of New Zealand’s Environment, 1997. achieving biodiversity goals…” measurable and result from pressures people put Source: Nelson State of the Environment Report, 1999. Nelson City Council. improve on the environment. A Ministerial Advisory Committee was It is hard to know how to change or manage our Marlborough District Council. Surfacewater: requirements for being suitable for contact reaction, “Monitoring results to data suggest that the Regional the objectives of the Regional Policy Statement Policy Statement objectives relating to groundwater Bio-what? Biodiversity! Biological diversity (or biodiversity for short) simply means the variety of all life – plants and animals of all shapes and sizes and the places in which they live. set up in 1999 to consider biodiversity and private land. What followed was Bio-What? and a final Committee report advising the Government on “how New Zealand could do better” activities without good environmental information. concerning water quality are not being met district are being met” The State of New Zealand’s Environment report (1997) explains the loss of indigenous biodiversity when it comes to looking after “…results from monitoring on rivers such as the Taylor, wide” Source: State of the Environment Report, 1999. Marlborough District (those plants, animals and places that belong naturally to New Zealand) as the number one environmental check biodiversity on private land. Council. Working with partners, issue facing New Zealand. So what’s the Government doing? Opawa and the Rai, have shown levels of bacterial environmental indicators for biodiversity are beginning to be contamination that make them unsuitable for contact Groundwater: “Ultimately, the fate of New Zealand’s biodiversity monitored and reported. recreation. Although monitoring of other rivers in “The quality of water in Marlborough’s aquifers today Human Impacts on will depend on our ability to better manage theFilling the Information Gap A Partnership Approach New Zealand’s Natural Forest and Tall Shrubland exotic species we have brought here, including Marlborough has produced results which meet the is generally very high and suitable for most uses” ourselves, and our willingness to share more of our nation’s land and water resources with the depleted species which have nowhere left to run.” adapt The State of New Zealand’s Environment 1997The Ministry is developing a national State of the Environment Reporting Partnership will be vital to the success of state of the environment reporting. Christchurch City Council. What is happening? “Dissolved nitrogen levels have generally The Government introduced a package of initiatives to address reportsystem that uses environmental indicators to fill the information gap. What agencies are involved will depend on what is being reported. The “Generally, the City’s groundwater abstraction declined since 1991, however they are above biodiversity and private land issues. It includes: an advisory service, funding for initiatives on private land and for council pilot projects, a national policy Before Polynesian Key Information: Settlement Before EuropeanJust like the indicators that measure the health of our economy (e.g. Gross Ministry’s partners include regional, district and city councils, other decreased by 13% between 1989 and 1999” the recommended guidelines” statement and amendments to laws to clarify council roles. Settlement Today’s Forest Cover “Total groundwater abstraction” Source: Christchurch City Update 2000. Christchurch CityDomestic Product), environmental indicators will track changes in our government departments, iwi and science research agencies. Partners may “The median faecal coliform values sampled Council. “Microbiological water quality in waterways” in the City generally increased between 1995environment and inform the decisions we make about: our use of land, also include industry or sector, non-government and community groups. “Nutrient levels in waterways” and 1999”our disposal of waste, the things we take out, the things we put back. Partnership isn’t new. Indicator data and information are already being collected and Environment Canterbury. reported within a partnership “Surface water quality was generally very good. Water quality at those rivers receiving contaminant discharges generally met the required standards. Water quality at bathing sites was worse than recorded during the 1994/95 period, possibly because of higher rainfall.” framework. This cooperation “Generally groundwater was of very high quality throughout the region with no major changes to long-term trends found in the 1994/95 results in a consistent year. However, shallow unconfined groundwater continues to be at risk from contamination from various source, most commonly from approach to monitoring the microbiological contamination” environment, improved data Source: Regional Environment Report – 1995/96, 1997. Environment Canterbury. quality, no more doubling up, better access to information for Otago Regional Council. Where to from here? state of the environment “Overall, water quality throughout Otago is generally of a high “Since its inception 10 years ago, the Otago Regional Council has reporting and cost sharing. standard – both the surface water and in the groundwater aquifers” already had considerable success in its efforts to improve the Please note that not all partners logos have been represented here. region’s water resource. North Otago: Source: Safeguarding Otago’s Water Resources – A State of the Environment Report April 2001. Otago Regional Council. “Surface water quality monitoring in the North Otago district has been carried out for over 20 years and bears out the fact that water National State of the Environment Reporting So where to next strongly reflects the nature and intensity of surrounding land use” PartnershipEnvironmental indicators can also be combined with social and economicindicators to report on our ability to meet the needs of people now without with national state of thepreventing future generations to do the same. This ability is calledsustainable development. Pack environment reporting? Environment Southland. How healthy are our freshwater ecosystems? – aquatic and riparian habitats Aquatic Health Integrated With most of the indicators confirmed for “At present, there is little or no information on the extent and condition of aquatic habitat in Southland. While a complete Traditional national state of the environment reporting, assessment for Southland has not been done, we do know that significant amounts of near-pristine aquatic habitats Growth the Ministry is beginning to walk the exist in areas of conservation estate such as Fiordland and Stewart Island (Rakiura)” Economy Source: State of the Environment Report – Water, Oct 2000. Environment Southland. Participation Economy partnership talk – initially with councils, other Social mobility Efficiency Social Equity government departments and iwi, then with New Zealand satellite image supplied by Terralink Limited. The image is an assembly of 200 different satellite scenes from SPOT, LANDSAT7 and IRS satellite imagery. Social Cohesion Biophysical other relevant agencies. Cultural Identity Community Air Environment Land To help, a partnership Source Environment pack is being sent to : Aucklan winfo Plants & animals Envi prospective partners, first councils, then Water ronm d City ent others – the whole process will take several years. Counci A trial with Waikato councils through the Waikato Waikato Information Forum lSo far, environmental indicators have been confirmed for: Information Forum (WINFO) is paving the way.Waste Transport Ozone Marine Land Freshwater Energy Biodiversity Air Check out the Ministry’s state of the environment reportingEnvironmental indicators are being developed and confirmed for: web site: www.environment.govt.nz to see the set of national environmental indicators and what’s being reported now (computer with web access adjacent).Maori Energy Toxics Amenity Pest/Weeds Go to next page
Zac’s print work 9.8 Silt Traps always at a premium on grower’s trees. Although the Nelson Catchment properties and these measures are Board recommended that more Description/Purpose normally “squeezed in”. They may, investigation be undertaken to quantify Silt traps are pits dug at intervals along therefore, quickly ﬁll with sediment and the effects of subsoiling, staff had little interception drains. Their purpose is to lose their effectiveness during a large doubt that the practice was absolutely retain sediment on-site and minimise off- storm. Some recognition of catchment necessary to improve the inﬁltration and site sedimentation. size, inﬂow velocity and silt trap provide a basis to initiate underground capacity, undertaken at initial design, drainage patterns. would improve their effectiveness. Installation They should be used in combination The reason that they work as well as they 9.10 Tiled drainage beneath with measures that reduce runoff. The do is because of the very strongly waterways Figure 2(10) raised accessway Photo – smaller the quantity of runoff directed aggregated nature of the granular loams. These include a 100 mm ﬁeld tile Photo: Environment BOP. through these measures, the less This allows the particles to settle easily (drainage pipe) in a trench (170 mm sediment they need to trap. Silt traps can when runoff velocity diminishes. Silt wide and at least 900 mm deep), and interception drain. This can be done by be constructed either by excavating pits traps will not be as effective on other soil backﬁlled with coarse drainage metal, placing aggregate on the accessway to or constructing bunds, and passing types that readily break down to clay and then grassed. The tiled grassed waterways mound it up, this gives all weather access runoff through them prior to discharge silt sized particles, because their typically collect water from the subsoiling and and reduces the potential for future off site. Excavations can consist merely small capacity will not allow sufﬁcient drain water via the drainage metal and lowering of the accessway. Any accessway of a hole, preferably longer than it is settling time to retain the ﬁne particles. ﬁeld tiles safely down to the outlets. The that goes directly onto a road will need wide and with the outlet at the opposite Sediment retention ponds (see system also provides drainage for the to be piped to allow roadside drainage. end to the inlet. Earth bunds can be used Earthworks Chapter) would be more wetter soils of the ﬂats and valley ﬂoors. The size of culvert should be checked as well, or in conjunction with effective in situations where the soil is with the local council or drainage excavations, to form a silt trap. easily broken down to clay and silt. Main and outlet waterways usually engineer. follow natural ﬂow paths and need little There are currently no guidelines on trap Maintenance shaping to function effectively. The sizing. On strongly aggregated soil types, Maintenance: Silt traps should be regularly cleaned of depth of drainage metal provides a it is probably appropriate to excavate a Maintain the raised nature of the sediment so their effectiveness is greater capacity for drainage, and creates series of scoops along a drain rather than accessway to ensure runoff cannot ﬂow retained. Any drainage pipe should be a break in the hard pan, allowing better construct a more formal silt trap at the directly to the road. Keep the culvert inspected to ensure that it is not blocked inﬁltration to occur across the orchard. lower end of a paddock. However, for less under the accessway open and clear. and is functional. Water is able to rise as the volumes well aggregated soil types, and assuming that there is an offsite need for sediment to be retained, then sediment retention 9.9 Subsoiling – amongst trees ponds should be used. A drainage pipe, such as those detailed in earth bunds (see Subsoiling involves the ripping of soil to Soil Conservation Earthworks Chapter) can be used to drain the pond or depression, or the pond should be kept shallow enough so that it a depth of about 460 to 600mm to shatter the compacted pan, particularly under tractor wheel marks, as the is not a safety hazard. Silt traps should be compacted soil obstructs water Technical Handbook located in side drains as well as permanent drains. They need to be located away from turning areas for inﬁltration. Application safety reasons. Subsoiling can be undertaken using a D4 bulldozer with trailing twin rippers In permanent drains, small check dams hydraulically mounted, or mounted on a constructed out of rock, timber or hydraulic toolbar. Soil conditions need to erosion control fabric can be used to be dry enough to shatter, but not so dry retain sediment as well as to reduce the that the machine cannot rip to the velocity of water in the drain. Scoops required depth. Work is normally (slightly deeper excavations) at 15 – 20 undertaken in spring/early summer metre intervals along a drain can also be (October/November) or early winter used. (May/June). Subsoiling runs could be up to 100 m long on slopes of less than 8°, Limitations but limited to 40 m on steeper slopes. Silt traps quickly ﬁll with sediment and Two rips per row are necessary to break will need regular digging out. the compacted layer under tractor tyre Minimising the quantity of runoff will marks. reduce the frequency at which this needs to be done. Subsoiling was not wholly accepted by landowners as being necessary, and their At present there is no speciﬁc design concerns related to the questionable requirement for silt traps – they are drainage beneﬁts as well as the Installation of tile drains through orchard. Silt traps. Photo: Franklin Sustainability Project. merely “holes on the ground”. Room is possibility of killing roots of producing Photo: Nelson Catchment Board. 9•6 Soil Conservation B Soil Conservation B 9•7 Go to next page
Minerals – more than just a pile of rocks. Mike & Zac print work What minerals do we produce? New Zealand has a wide variety of mineral deposits reflecting its diverse geology. Our mining industry contributes about $1 billion annually to the economy (around 1% of GNP). Gold, coal, ironsand and clays are our most significant mineral exports. Of these, gold is the most valuable, with an annual production of about 8.9 tonnes and a value of $185 million in 1999. New Zealand is also rich in fossil fuels – coal, oil and gas – the Earth’s most valuable form of energy. Our thriving petroleum industry contributes about 1.5% to our gross domestic product. Coal supplies the local steel industry and electricity generating stations as well as being used directly in processing by major industries. The rest is exported. The most widely used mineral products in New Zealand are aggregates – the rocks, sand and gravel used for building and maintaining roads, and for making concrete. New Zealand also produces silver, limestone, marble, dolomite, silica, pumice, salt, serpentinite, zeolite and diatomite. Map Legend Petroleum Production Petroleum Potential Where are Hard Rock Gold Alluvial Gold they found? New Zealand currently has two large open-pit gold mines More than 2,300 Limestone Why do we need different products can be obtained Formed on the seabed mainly from seashells, Gold’s special Ironsand Zeolite – Macraes in Otago and Martha Mine in Waihi – and in the South Island there are many smaller mines working alluvial gold in river gravels. from crude limestone is one of properties have made minerals? (unrefined) oil. our most important industrial minerals. Gold it a valuable metal in modern technology. Coal Clay The main coal mining areas are around Huntly in the North Island and on the West Coast of the South Island. Most of our oil and gas is found in the Taranaki basin, Salt If the surveys and New Zealand’s gold mining industry both offshore and onshore, including Maui, New Zealand’s Oil & Gas satellite pictures look creates more than 4,000 jobs and spends treated to recover the gold largest petroleum field. New Zealand is generally considered What are and silver. Finally, the gold ‘under-explored’ and the potential for new oil/gas finds is Oil and natural gas are fossil fuels good, a test well or over $200 million (80%) of its income in is smelted to produce attracting more exploration companies to explore here. formed from microscopic marine plants ‘wild cat’ is drilled. Industrial industrial minerals used for? the country each year. bars of bullion. Halloysite clays are mined in Northland. Amorphous and animals that were buried in ocean To assist the drilling Limestone/ Coal extracted. Underground mining methods are sediments many millions of years ago. process, a fluid Minerals Every New Zealander uses about six tonnes of Gold is a rare and precious metal that has been used for ornamental purposes and as a medium Alluvial and beach sand gold deposits are extracted using gravity Clays/ Ironsand $90M Gas $440M silica, zeolite and pumice are produced in the central North Island. Diatomite is found in Otago used where the coal is deeply buried, or where (commonly called aggregate each year and an average-sized house Gold & Silver Oil and gas together supply nearly 75% of New Zealand produces a wide range of of exchange for over 5,000 years. More $210M and dolomite is mined at Mt Coal is New Zealand’s largest established would contain about 250 tonnes of aggregate methods and account for about 20% of all the land over the resource is very steep or ‘drilling mud’) is “industrial minerals”. Burnett, northwest of Nelson. the world’s fossil fuel energy and have given taking into account concrete floor, concrete recently, its special properties have gold produced. energy resource and, with our energy particularly valuable. constantly pumped rise to a huge petrochemical industry. These minerals are non-metallic and can be blocks, concrete driveway, concrete tile roof, made it a valuable metal in modern Coal What is the value of use projected to increase by 30% After mining, the coal is down the centre of What is gold used for? $230M over the next 20 years, coal’s How are oil and gas ‘mined’? divided into three main types: construction base fill, brick cladding, technology. It is an excellent minerals produced crushed, sorted (“screened”) the drill pipe. This Most gold is used in jewellery. minerals such as aggregates; agricultural and gib board wall lining. conductor of heat and electricity, it is from the ground? importance may also grow. into various sizes, and Oil and gas are found in tiny spaces in cools and lubricates the Gold leaf has been used for malleable and ductile, retains its lustre After processing, the value of certain rocks that are deeply buried in minerals like limestone; and minerals that Limestone’s most decoration of buildings, fine books, Coal is the fossilised remains of washed to remove fine drill bit, and carries rock the final products can be five times are the raw material for manufactured important use is as a base and will not chip, flake or corrode. the amounts shown in the pie chart. material and impurities. a “sedimentary basin”. Sedimentary cuttings to the surface. and picture frames since Egyptian Aggregate/ plants that lived on Earth about 300 products, such as clay for bricks and Other Industrial Oil basins are located and defined by Offshore, specialised oil drilling rigs are for fertiliser but it is also How is gold mined? times and it is still in use today. Minerals $270M $400M million years ago. There are three What is coal used for? pottery. About 60% of the total minerals geologists using satellite and aerial used while in very deep water (up to 2000 used as a filler in paper, New Zealand’s largest goldmines are The largest industrial use of gold main types, or ranks, of coal found Most of the coal New Zealand New Zealand produces are aggregates. photographs, and magnetic and gravity metres), drill ships can be used. plastics, paint, rubber Macraes Flat in Otago and Martha The Grey River worldwide is in the electric and in New Zealand: bituminous, sub- Coal handling facility at produces is for industrial measurements. Detail about the rock How are they mined? and carpet backings, for Mine in Waihi. Martha Mine today dredge scoops gravel electronic industries bituminous Huntly Power Station. use or for export. Coal in What are oil and gas used for? strata under the basin is found McDonald’s Lime Ltd paper surface coatings, containing gold. There are about 1200 aggregate mining accounts for about one third of the where gold-plated (steaming), and lignite combination with ironsand and limestone is Oil provides a wide range of fuels that are limestone quarry. through seismic surveying. operations throughout the country. Most and in glass. gold and nearly all of the contacts and connectors are used (the lowest rank). The used to create steel at the Glenbrook Steel used to provide heat, electricity, and energy aggregates are mined from quarries using Halloysite clays are used for making fine silver New Zealand in everything from computers higher the rank, the Mill near Auckland. for transportation. higher the carbon and surface mining methods, porcelain, bone china, and industrial- produces. Macraes Flat, to televisions. About half a million tonnes annually is Plastics, nylon and other artificial fibres automotive ceramics. Silica is the main but some sand and our largest identified gold Gold’s ability to reflect heat energy content, and used in the Huntly Power Station, New are all derived from oil. Plastic can be gravel are extracted ingredient in glass while amorphous silica is resource, has a current has led to the increasing use of the higher the coal’s value. Zealand’s largest thermal power station. It has melted, moulded and extruded into a huge Drilling for oil off from river deposits and added to cement, Dolomite is added to resource of four million glass coated with a thin gold film four generating units: one burning coal and the Taranaki coast. Most plastic variety of forms. How is coal mined? by dredging the seabed. phosphatic fertilisers, absorbent zeolite is used ounces. Both mines are in modern buildings and also in products found Natural gas is used for power generation, Gold bar containing the Surface mining methods three using natural gas. in the home are First, the overburden to make pet litter, and diatomite is used for its open-pit hard rock the space industry. millionth ounce extracted One of the (“open pit” or “open cast”) are Coal is also used in the manufacture of a transportation, and in many industrial and filtration and liquid derived from oil. (the covering of rocks mines where the Gold alloys and compounds are from Macraes mine. most important wide range of products including soap, domestic applications. The petrochemical preferred because they are Quarry and cement works at and soil) is removed and absorption gold is extracted used in dentistry, for fillings and uses of coal is industry produces insecticides and fertilisers. safer, generally cheaper, and washing powder, perfume, printing ink, sheep Cape Foulwind, Westport. properties from the rock for generating stockpiled for later use repairs, and in medicine, to treat several types a greater proportion of dip, antiseptic, weedkiller, adhesives, and Solvents used in drycleaning, carbon and as a mild electricity. in rehabilitation. Explosives are used to blast (mainly quartz) by of cancer, chronic ulcers and arthritis. the deposit can be timber preservatives. black in printer’s ink, asphalt on roads, abrasive. the rock from the quarry sides. Then it is jaw- crushing and grinding. and waxes in furniture polish are all crushed, screened or milled (pulverised) and This produces a slurry refined from oil. classified according to particle size. that is then chemically Pure gold is 24 carat and is usually The nylon bristles and plastic alloyed with small amounts of other handle of our toothbrush are metals to harden it and impart a made from petrochemicals. specific colour. with s provide you and Fossil fuel your food A TV set is You clean your tee Gold has been energy to cook ing on this than 35 metamade of more minerals th with coat – for jeweller used the Teflon an. non-metals ls and some in many limestone isNylon stockings are woven decoration y and non-stick fryp The tea cup such for the glas as silica toothpast es. Washing powders contain from plastic fibres made for over is clay, the glas made from s screen. mineral compounds like 5,000 years. s from silifrom the chemicals in oil. (sand) and ca sodium phosphate. the cutlery It’s funny to think of washing pets’ in the plating from zeolite, our and Gold is used stainless stee l. your hands with coal – but Thanks to stays dry Roads are hones contacts of cellp corrode. some soaps are made from coal. litter tray smell. made from not doesn’t aggregates. because it does Go to next page
Mike & Zacprint work Expect Unexpected the the Tickets available from 0800 HURRICANE 0800 487 742 or Ticketek outlets THE FORCE BEHIND THE HURRICANES T iic k e t s a v a iilla b lle f r o m T ckets ava ab e from 0800 HURRICANE Expect the 0800 487 742 0800 487 742 THE FORCE BEHIND or Ticketek outlets THE HURRICANES Tickets available from Unexpected 0800 HURRICANE 0800 487 742 or Ticketek outlets THE FORCE BEHIND THE HURRICANES Go to next page
Mike & Zac Every person shown is a member of Bodyworks J A N U A R Y S S M T W T Fprint work 1 BW Open Hours 3-6pm 2 3 Cricket One Day International NZ V Zimbabwe WTS 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 BW Returns To Cricket Shell Trophy Cricket Shell Trophy Cricket Shell Trophy Cricket Shell Cup Normal Hours Wellington V Wellington V Wellington V Wellington V Auckland BR Auckland BR Auckland BR Auckland BR Cricket Shell Trophy $5 Wellington V Auckland BR 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Cricket Shell Cup Returning to Summer Cricket Shell Cup Wellington V Otago BR Aerobic Timetable Wellington V Northern $5 Districts BR $5 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 C Wellington BW Creche Re-opens Surprise Offer Day Cycle Club Anniversary Get a friend to call Love us – Road 8am today for a surprise offer to join BW. 27 28 29 30 31 C C Term 1 Begins Special Class Clubbing BBQ Adventure Club – Primary and Kick Start 2001 Kayak 9am Intermediate FIT 2 0 0 1 or leave us F E B R U A R Y S S M T W T F Trial 3 months membership & 3 personal training sessions. Now only $229, save $226. FOR LIFE 1 Term 1 Begins – Secondary 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 C C Waitangi Day Rejoin today and Cycle Club – Road 8am Running Club 6pm you can ﬂip a coin run/walk for a prize. Cricket Day/Night New Zealand V Sri Lanka WTS 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 C C Valentines Day Cycle Club – Road 8am Running Club 6pm Special classes, dress run/walk in red, prizes apply. Cricket Shell Trophy If the shoe fits, 17 C 18 Wellington V Otago 19 BR C 20 Special Class 21 Surprise Offer Day 22 C 23 Cricket Shell Trophy Cycle Club – Road 8am Running Club 6pm Team Teach Get a friend to call Adventure Club Wellington V Northern it’s yours! run/walk today for a surprise Wind Surf 6pm Districts BR offer to join. Cricket Day/Night New Zealand V Pakistan WTS 24 25 26 27 28 C C Cycle Club – Road 8am Running Club 6pm Join Bodyworks before 13 April and you can save Hurricanes V Reds run/walk BW Open Hours 8am-7.30pm WTS WestpacTrust Stadium C Clubbing @ Bodyworks $5 BR Basin Reserve BW members – present membership card and pay only $5 @ Brisbane 8pm $100 (no joining fee), or pick up a free pair of NO! Avia cross-trainers worth $150 from NOTES Phone 499 4488 w w w. b o d y w o r k s . c o . n z If you want to join Bodyworks, the answer is NO contract NO commitments NO parking hassles Offer closes Friday 15th June 2001 Go to next page
Mike & Zac print work Pelorus Trust presents Love the Fringe Persuasion 30070 Sevens TELECOM NEW ZEALAND INTERNATIONAL 8-9 Feb 2002 It’s the biggest party of the year – the Telecom New Zealand International Sevens – and rugby is only part of the action. It starts on Friday, 8 February and it’s not going to stop for two whole days. Last year was a sell-out and this year’s event is going to be even bigger and better. Tickets on THE INTERISLAND LINE Discover a city devoted to the art of living! Treat yourself to a pre-Christmas Summer sale from December 7 at all Post Shops and Books & More outlets or by calling 0800 000 575. weekend and send yourself to Wellington. You’ll love the new galleries, cafés and restaurants and your Christmas shopping will be a dream! And for great rates City 2002 31 Dec 2001-24 Feb 2002 at Wellington’s best hotels check out our website. Wellington celebrates Summer. The Interisland Line Summer City 2002 is a summer-long festival of free outdoor entertainment for the whole family. With more than 60 events including a New Year’s Eve celebration, Gardens Magic Concerts, Dell Sundays, kids pantomime and beach blasts, there’s something for everyone. For events details call (04) 801 3500. A CITY OF festivals Rota: Companhia de Dança Deborah Colker. The 2002 New Zealand Festival. If you love the arts there is only one place to be in February and March next year. And that is in Wellington. Three No visit to Wellington would be complete without a visit to Te Papa’s festivals, at one time, in one city. The TV2 Cuba Street Carnival (22-24 February) – New Zealand’s largest and new galleries – a celebration of visual arts spread over three floors. most spectacular free street festival with a vibrant global mix of music and dance. Fringe NZ (14 February – 16 March) – the open access arts Festival held annually where the emphasis is on the cutting edge, the experimental, the innovative and the plain old wacky. And, of course, starting 22 February and going through until 17 March, The scarred couch, the Auckland experience, 1978. Philip Clairmont. Reproduced courtesy of Rachel Power. Tiger Woods there is the internationally renowned celebration of arts and culture, The 2002 New Zealand Festival. Three festivals, in all their fun, passion and glory, over three weeks. Send yourself to festival heaven. Persuasion 30072 See arguably the greatest player in the history of golf. IS COMING! Tiger Woods in the flesh in the Wellington Region! Tickets from Ticketek. 2002 Telstra Hyundai New Zealand Open, 8-13 Jan 2002 Where to stay $139 $145 THE TERRACE VILLAS Spacious apartments in character villas – walk to shops. MUSEUM HOTEL DE WHEELS 0800 843 837 0800 994 335$89 HOTEL WILLIS LODGE 0800 249 4678 Opposite Te Papa – harbour views – perfect visitor location. $89 any night of the week and four nights for only $299. $149 CITYLIFE WELLINGTON 0800 368 888$99 BAY PLAZA HOTEL 0800 857 799 Boutique city centre apartment hotel – parking free. Oriental Parade, harbour view, Courtenay Place, perfect. $149 JAMES COOK HOTEL GRAND CHANCELLOR 0800 699 500$99 QUALITY HOTEL WILLIS STREET 0800 808 228 Free bubbly, breakfast and parking – CBD location and superb service. Affordable, convenient, comfortable, gym, indoor pool. $169 DUXTON WELLINGTON 0800 655 555$108 WEST PLAZA HOTEL 0800 731 444 A view and a bottle of bubbly in every room. The City is at your door when you stay at West Plaza Hotel. $195 HOTEL INTER-CONTINENTAL WELLINGTON 0800 442 215$115 CENTRAL CITY APARTMENT HOTEL 0800 804 255 Pool, spa, sauna, gym, central location, great shopping. www.centralcityhotels.co.nz$119 QUALITY HOTEL ORIENTAL BAY 0800 808 228 *Accommodation listed is not available the nights of the 8th & 9th February 2002 and Enjoy spectacular views of the harbour and cityscape. airfares and hotel rates may not be available for all events listed.$129$139 HOTEL MERCURE WELLINGTON Indoor pool, gym, sauna & parking. Kids bed & bfast free. COPTHORNE HOTEL WELLINGTON PLIMMER TOWERS 0800 808 228 0800 288 880 *All room rates subject to availability. Rates are per room night, based on a double/twin room on a Friday, Saturday or Sunday night. Two breakfasts and a late checkout of 1pm are included in this rate. Rates are GST inclusive and valid until 3 March 2002. Go to next page Elegant and spacious suites in the heart of the city. *Please note Air New Zealand’s airfares must be purchased at least 21 days in advance.
Margaret’s work have your say! Recreation – Council has a large number of projects to undertake Porirua City Council this year. Included in these are: • The development of the Ulric Street Sports Ground. This will increase the number of sports fields in ANNUAL REPORT Plimmerton, which is underprovided for, and will compensate for the loss to the State Highway Upgrade of the field on Plimmerton Domain; • The development in Whitby of a hard area suitable for activities such as skateboarding, basketball, netball, rollerblading or BMXing. The aim is to provide a recreational centre point for the youth of Whitby; 2000/01 • Promote the City through festivals and other events; • Continue upgrading and maintaining the children’s play equipment in the City and spend $50,000 on new equipment. What do you think? If you have a view about these activities, let us know. We welcome your submission on this or any other issue highlighted in this year’s Draft Annual Plan 2002/2003 and the Draft Funding Policy 2002/2003 (available free from the Council and Porirua City Public Libraries and on the Council’s website www.pcc.govt.nz). Also available are two supplementary documents, Discretionary Projects and Financial Supplement. Submissions can be delivered to the offices of the Porirua City Council, or posted to Annual Plan Submissions, c/- Chief Executive, Porirua City Council, PO Box 50-218, Porirua City. Submissions may also be sent by e-mail to: firstname.lastname@example.org. Porirua City Council All submissions must be received by 4pm 24 May 2002. ME-6967/4 km Go to next page
Margaret’s work F IRST BR EWED I R ST BR E W E D WHE N WHEN SAIL o RS SA IL RS T HOUG H T THOUGHT THE THE W oR L D WoRLD WAS WAS F L AT F LAT Go to next page
Margaret’s work Under the Health and Safety in Employment Act 1992 there is a requirement to warn you about the potential dangers of working at a race track. You know You have a legal duty to look after yourself the odds, and your fellow employees too. This booklet provides information on procedures to follow under various situations you may encounter while working now at a race track. beat them! Health & Safety Booklet A helpful guide for avoiding accidents and work related injury in the workplace. Go to next page
Margaret’s work Forest ENTERPRISES Investors Newsletter February 2002 Proposed tax changes will not affect your forestry investments! Business Director, Steve Wilton reports on the ‘Mass-marketed tax schemes’ discussion paper recently released by the Inland Revenue Department. Some of the headlines in the business press on the ‘Mass- marketed tax schemes’ discussion paper recently released by the Inland Revenue Department may have caught your attention. Not surprising with language like ‘forestry and film investment schemes to be closed down’ being used and when big name corporate tax specialists are quoted as saying ‘forestry investment schemes to be axed by the IRD’. As is usually the case, the disquieting headline and the substance of the matter are some distance removed. The Forest Enterprises Ltd investment structure, based around a partnership of qualifying companies that allows the deduction by shareholders of the annual forestry losses, is specifically outside of the targeted catchment of the proposed legislative changes. In fact, our structure used for the last decade although not referred to by name, is described in some detail in the paper as an example of a legitimate forestry investment scheme. Over the last 6 years a number of investment schemes using a similar structure, some based around forestry, Rata Hills Forest I N V E S T M E N T have been developed as tax avoidance and tax erosion S T A T E M E N T 3 r d D e c e m b e r 1 9 9 9 vehicles. The principal characteristic of these schemes is 3 r d D e c e m b e r 1 9 9 9 that investors are credited with very large tax losses during the first 3 years resulting in cumulative tax refunds Last year we were notified by IRD that they were revisiting exceeding the sum they have invested. Many of the the subject. The managers undertaking the review schemes are never intended to generate a taxable profit, arranged to meet us in Masterton for further discussions. instead being nothing but devices to deliberatively milk This proved unnecessary, as before the scheduled meeting the tax system. The discussion paper reports that about they contacted us again to advise that they already had a $436 million in tax credits had been claimed in relation to full appreciation of our use of LAQC’s and understood why these schemes by the end of the 2000 income year, little we wished to continue to use the investment structure. wonder the IRD has been spurred into action. The discussion paper clearly reflects this. We are both At the centre of our investment structure and also many of pleased and relieved that our efforts over a number of the ‘mass marketed tax schemes’ are what are called ‘loss years have contributed to what we regard as a very attributing qualifying companies’ (LAQC’s). Concern about sensible and reasonable solution, namely the the abuse of LAQC’s is not new. The 1998 IRD Tax specific targeting of the tax abusers Compliance Report included quite wide coverage on the rather than the removal of LAQC’s for subject. Their suggested solution was to remove LAQC’s investment purposes. Legendary All Black from the Tax Act. In April of 1999, Forest Enterprises sent A copy of the full a detailed submission to Bill English, the then Minister of Issues Paper and our Finance and Revenue. In this submission and at a submission in support subsequent meeting with the Minister and senior IRD of the proposals can officials, we pointed out the very desirable and reasonable be downloaded from Legendary All Black use that reputable forestry investment promoters were our web site under employing LAQC’s for. At the time the IRD indicated an Investor News. www.forestenterprises.co.nz understanding and acceptance of our position and This Newsletter is entitled to the full protection afforded by the Copyright Act 1994. Reproduction of any undertook to keep us appraised of their on-going substantial passage without written authorisation of Forest Enterprises Ltd is specifically prohibited. investigation into this matter. While every effort has been made to ensure the information in this Newsletter is accurate, Forest Enterprises Ltd accepts no liability for mistakes or omissions. 5 Papawai Place, PO Box 128, Masterton Ph: (06) 370 5060. Fax: (06) 370 5069. Email: email@example.com Go to next page
Margaret’s THE OFFICIAL NEW ZEALAND work THE OFFICIAL NEW ZEALAND 2 .3 GIVING WAY U n c o n t ro l l e d i n t e r s e c t i o n s Turning right 2 .3 GIVING WAY C o n t ro l l e d i n t e r s e c t i o n s A controlled intersection is an intersection where there are GIVE WAY signs, STOP signs or traffic signals. When turning right at an intersection, you must give way to: Includes Test Questions GIVE WAY sign At an intersection controlled by a 2002 EDITION GIVE WAY sign: • slow down and be ready to stop • you must give way to all other vehicles, except those that have • all vehicles coming straight • all vehicles coming straight • all vehicles coming straight stopped at a STOP sign through from your left through from your right towards you • if you and another vehicle are coming towards each other and you are both at GIVE WAY signs, use the give way rules • all right-turning vehicles • you must not go until it is safe coming from your right for you and all other traffic Two white lines are marked on sealed roads to help you stop where you can best see other traffic. Two vehicles coming towards each other STOP sign3 3 .1 KEY RIDING SKILLS .1 KEY RIDING SKILLS and turning right At an intersection controlled by a STOP sign: • you must stop, not just slow down When two vehicles are coming towards each other at an • stop where you can see vehicles coming from Pa s s i n g M e rg i n g intersection and both are turning right, no one has to give way. all directions • stay stopped and give way to all other vehicles This is because neither vehicle will cross the other’s path. Passing on the right at an intersection with lanes There are times when two lanes merge into one lane. Where the broken lane lines stop, you (including bicycles, motorcycles etc) Both vehicles can therefore turn safely. OFFICIAL ROAD CODE must make sure that all vehicles have plenty of space in which to merge safely. on your side of the road • if you and another vehicle are coming towards each other and you are both at STOP signs, Leaving the path of the centre line use the give way rules Take this tip – merge like a zip • you must not go until it is safe for you and all You can pass on the right if you The best way to merge is ‘one on one’ – like a zip. If you are leaving the path of the centre line, you must give way to other traffic are turning right or going vehicles following the centre line. As you merge, let one vehicle in then go. Two yellow lines are marked on sealed roads straight ahead. Includes Test Questions Vehicles leaving the path of the centre line are said to be turning. Therefore, the give way rules apply. to help you stop where you can best see other traffic. 2002 EDITION Remember, stop means stop! 48 49 Leaving a merge lane after turning right at an intersection Show you want to merge by using your indicator. Move into a gap in the traffic. Leaving the path of the centre line at an intersection Adjust your speed and following distance. You can leave the path of the centre line to pass another vehicle if you can see that: • the way in front of you is clear, and Entering and leaving a motorway • there are no vehicles coming out of any side roads When entering a When leaving a motorway: motorway: Be very careful that the vehicle you’re passing is not slowing to • change your speed to • watch for exit signs match the speed of turn right. The driver may have the motorway traffic • signal left early andOFFICIAL ROAD CODE OFFICIAL ROAD CODE forgotten to indicate. move into the left- • use the whole length hand lane as soon as of the on-ramp to possible adjust your speed – don’t change speed • keep up with the suddenly just as you traffic flow until enter the motorway you are on the off-ramp • signal right early and move carefully into a gap • don’t leave the in the traffic motorway at a sharp angle • don’t enter the motorway at a sharp angle70 71 Go back to beginning