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Web Accessibility : What Your Campus Needs to Know Diane Kubarek, Tracy Mitrano, Cyndi Rowland, Sharon Trerise
Overview of Laws Affecting Web Accessibility Cyndi Rowland, Ph.D. WebAIM, Utah State University
A Little about myself . . . <ul><li>Cyndi Rowland, Ph. D. </li></ul><ul><li>Associate Director-CPD </li></ul><ul><li>Natio...
SUMMARY <ul><li>Rehabilitation Act (Sec 504 & 508) </li></ul><ul><li>ADA of 1990  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>see 28 C.F.R. Part...
Review <ul><li>Rehabilitation Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Section 504  (all federally funded programs) </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act   “ no otherwise qualified individual with a disability in the United States… shall,...
Review <ul><li>Rehabilitation Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Section 504  (all federally funded programs) </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
<ul><li>Reactive, rather than proactive, model </li></ul><ul><li>Native access can be achieved in many cases, yet the mode...
Section 508 <ul><li>Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1997 provides the legislative language for accessible electro...
Review <ul><li>Rehabilitation Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Section 508   (federal agencies) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Al...
<ul><ul><li>ADA of 1990   </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Civil Rights Legislation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Word...
ADA may help us think about  electronic access <ul><li>Right to access entire building </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rights to ind...
<ul><li>Telecommunications Act  (see Sec 255) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Applies to hardware,  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exclu...
<ul><li>States </li></ul><ul><ul><li>17 with laws that cover Web </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8 with policies </li></ul></ul...
Don’t forget international accessibility laws Globalization realities in distance education  (a.k.a. The world is flat)
Questions or comments?
Policy, Process, and History of Web Accessibility at Cornell Tracy Mitrano Director of IT Policy and  Computer Policy and ...
Big “P” and Little “p” Policy <ul><li>Big “P” policy involves external issues, such as national security, electronic surve...
<ul><li>Graphic representation of Laurence Lessig’s foundational concept of the principle influences on the Internet, as d...
Big “P” and Little “p” Policy <ul><li>Little “p” policy is institutional policy. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preservation and pr...
Take Aways about Institutional Policy <ul><li>Policy is integral part of the culture and traditions of each individual ins...
Cornell’s Policy Process <ul><li>This process boils down to three steps: an introductory step, where a responsible office ...
References <ul><li>Information Technology Framework </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.cit.cornell.edu/oit/policy/framework-...
Defining Scope for Cornell’s Proposed Policy on Web Accessibility Diane Kubarek Director, Office of Web Communications [em...
Cornell’s scope definition (to-date) <ul><li>New definitions categorize Cornell Web sites </li></ul><ul><li>Most (not all)...
“Sticky Wickets” <ul><li>Which standard? </li></ul><ul><li>How do we define the University Web space? (Scope step 1) </li>...
Which standard:  Why Section 508? <ul><li>508 is less “fluid” (W3C is under active revision) </li></ul><ul><li>Tools exist...
Defining the Web space: basic definitions (see Impact Statement  <ul><li>Defining a site (p.2) </li></ul><ul><li>Categoriz...
Defining the Web space: sites for special consideration <ul><li>Course sites </li></ul><ul><li>Archival sites </li></ul><u...
Defining the Web space: sites for special consideration <ul><li>Sites developed to experiment with new technologies </li><...
Defining priorities: hard questions <ul><li>Internal vs. external </li></ul><ul><li>Retrofit vs. redesign (from this day f...
Defining priorities: policy questions answered  by your culture <ul><li>How will exemption requests be reviewed? </li></ul...
Current Cornell challenges <ul><li>Research sites (collaboration, data-gathering) </li></ul><ul><li>Faculty issues, especi...
Web accessibility = usability <ul><li>All audiences benefit </li></ul><ul><li>Content easier to access with portable devic...
Web Accessibility Policy  Implementation Sharon Trerise [email_address]
Project: Evaluate accessibility of CC websites <ul><li>Diagram depicting relationship between 4 evaluation methods includi...
<ul><li>Overall <5% of all pages evaluated complied with all Section 508 criteria </li></ul><ul><li>Notable results: </li>...
Guidelines governing web design <ul><li>Guidelines governing web design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>71% of colleges have guideli...
Survey*:   50% of institutions with  Web Accessibility Requirements Website Evaluations**:   <5% Web Pages met Section 508...
What do the web accessibility requirements cover? <ul><li>Of the 50% who have web accessibility requirements, </li></ul><u...
Barriers to implementation <ul><li>Costs </li></ul><ul><li>Staffing </li></ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul><ul><li>Technical...
WebAIM* 8-Step Implementation Model <ul><li>Gather baseline information </li></ul><ul><li>Gain top level support </li></ul...
The worst thing that could happen is  a policy that  sits on the shelf <ul><li>Legally vulnerable </li></ul><ul><li>Not sh...
Every institution is different <ul><li>Your starting point: </li></ul><ul><li>Size of website </li></ul><ul><li>Number & j...
So you have a policy… <ul><li>What’s Next? </li></ul>
Step 5: Implementation Plan <ul><li>Establish timelines </li></ul><ul><li>Set priorities </li></ul><ul><li>Delegate respon...
<ul><li>Document!!! </li></ul><ul><li>Example: http://www.wact.missouristate.edu/plan.htm </li></ul>During Implementation…...
Step 6: Training & Technical Support <ul><li>Training </li></ul><ul><li>Short term:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Awareness of th...
Step 6: Training & Technical Support <ul><li>Training: Questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In-house or outsource </li></ul></u...
Step 6: Training & Technical Support <ul><li>Technical Support </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Add to job responsibilities of existi...
Step 7: Monitor Conformance <ul><li>Compliance testing procedures & frequency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Automated </li></ul></...
Step 7: Monitor Conformance <ul><li>Plan for sustainability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Include in job description of webmaster,...
Step 8: Remain flexible <ul><li>Changes in: </li></ul><ul><li>standards </li></ul><ul><li>personnel </li></ul><ul><li>tech...
LEADERSHIP <ul><li>The most obvious person may not be the best person </li></ul><ul><li>Passionate </li></ul><ul><li>Under...
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Web Accessibility : What Your Campus Needs to Know

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  • Note: Images Data table headers Frame titles Scripts Forms Skip Navigation
  • Guidelines governing web design 71% of colleges have guidelines for web design 28% either don&apos;t have guidelines or don&apos;t know Requirements regarding web accessibility 50% reported having web accessibility requirements 29% do not have web accessibility requirements 49% either don&apos;t have requirements or don&apos;t know if they do Of the 29% who do not have web access. reqmts, 30% plan to implement them in next year 36% do not plan to implement in next year POINT: A surprising 50% of colleges have some sort of web accessibility policy or statement of intent.
  • Why the discrepancy?
  • Of the 50% who have web accessibility requirements, 84% of policies cover student services pages 66% of policies cover individual department/ faculty pages 75% cover online course content including distance learning courses 82% cover ALL college web pages POINT: More directly under control of central administration (webmaster), more likely to be covered by web policy; as opposed to under control of departments or individual faculty
  • Your implementation strategy need to address all of these real and perceived barriers Easier to address: Costs Staffing Training Technical support More difficult: Awareness Attitude Administrative support Faculty Involvement
  • If you have a policy, you may already have completed some of these steps: Baseline information Gain support Committee Standard If not, it is important to go back and give them full consideration before proceeding.
  • The worst thing that could happen is A policy that sits on the shelf - legally vulnerable - Not showing a good faith effort
  • Implementation at each institution will be different. Use the model as a guide and adjust to fit your situation.
  • Document process and actions at every step - you are showing a good faith effort even if you fall behind schedule
  • Short term Need to sell them on need Understanding User Perspective helps convince them of need and gives them a basis of knowledge for interpreting and applying the standards to their work Long term Should not be treated as an add-on Should be part of the whole concept of design
  • Frequency: how often will training be offered Topics: who designs the training and determines what topics will be included Updating: who will be in charge of updating materials as standards change.
  • Results from training may be immediate, but often are temporary because organizations do not implement systemic change
  • The most obvious person may not be the best person. May already be too overwhelmed with leadership responsibilities
  • Transcript of "Web Accessibility : What Your Campus Needs to Know"

    1. 1. Web Accessibility : What Your Campus Needs to Know Diane Kubarek, Tracy Mitrano, Cyndi Rowland, Sharon Trerise
    2. 2. Overview of Laws Affecting Web Accessibility Cyndi Rowland, Ph.D. WebAIM, Utah State University
    3. 3. A Little about myself . . . <ul><li>Cyndi Rowland, Ph. D. </li></ul><ul><li>Associate Director-CPD </li></ul><ul><li>National Center on Disability & Access to Education </li></ul><ul><li>WebAIM (Web Accessibility In Mind) </li></ul><ul><li>Utah State University </li></ul><ul><li>Although an accessibility expert, I am NOT a lawyer. If you seek legal advice, please contact institutional counsel or an attorney </li></ul>
    4. 4. SUMMARY <ul><li>Rehabilitation Act (Sec 504 & 508) </li></ul><ul><li>ADA of 1990 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>see 28 C.F.R. Part 35 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dept of Justice ruling (9/9/96): ADA accessibility requirements apply to Internet web pages (10 NDLR 240) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Telecommunications Act (see Sec 255) </li></ul><ul><li>Responses from U.S. Dept of Ed, OCR (see docket numbers 09-95-2206; 09-97-2002) </li></ul><ul><li>NIMAS (in IDEA) </li></ul>
    5. 5. Review <ul><li>Rehabilitation Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Section 504 (all federally funded programs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Section 508 (federal agencies) </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act “ no otherwise qualified individual with a disability in the United States… shall, solely by reason of his disability, be excluded from the participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity receiving federal financial assistance. . .” (29 U.S.C. Section 794)
    7. 7. Review <ul><li>Rehabilitation Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Section 504 (all federally funded programs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Affirmative obligation to plan in advance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Courts knocking down post-hoc accommodations </li></ul></ul></ul>
    8. 8. <ul><li>Reactive, rather than proactive, model </li></ul><ul><li>Native access can be achieved in many cases, yet the model reinforces “accommodation” </li></ul><ul><li>Mindset of many is to go to DSO or SpEd and they’ll do it. They may not have the expertise or see the big picture. </li></ul>504 Model for working with students may not fit Web
    9. 9. Section 508 <ul><li>Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1997 provides the legislative language for accessible electronic information technology, including the Internet Took effect: June 21, 2001 </li></ul>
    10. 10. Review <ul><li>Rehabilitation Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Section 508 (federal agencies) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All the buzz years ago, lost it’s luster </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interpreted NOT to apply to states with Tech Act monies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used to define floor of access (16 standards) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emerging in federal RFP’s and contracts, emerging as procurement language </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>VPAT’s continue to be problematic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Monitoring is poor, (benign neglect?) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“Access” still means different things (e.g., FAFSA) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    11. 11. <ul><ul><li>ADA of 1990 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Civil Rights Legislation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Word “Internet” not in ADA </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Employment discrimination </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Title II: effective communication </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Title III: place of public accommodation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sample court cases </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MARTA, Southwest, Utah DOJ </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CSU Fullerton, UC Berkeley, Cappella College </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Target </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Current draft of ADAAG guidelines do not include any mention of electronic information (other than ATM’s and Kiosks) </li></ul></ul></ul>Review
    12. 12. ADA may help us think about electronic access <ul><li>Right to access entire building </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rights to independence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Back doors problematic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Could not go around ADA by “renting” inaccessible buildings </li></ul><ul><li>Remodel “springs” law into place </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Legacy pages </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Written transition plan necessary </li></ul><ul><li>Regulations began to inform professions (e.g., architects, engineers, building inspectors) </li></ul>
    13. 13. <ul><li>Telecommunications Act (see Sec 255) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Applies to hardware, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excludes the Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What will happen to telecom as VoIP takes a place in the market? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>IDEA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NIMAS / NIMAC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Could this foot in the door creep to NCLB? (AYP could help) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Higher Ed Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t get your hopes up </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Miscellaneous legislation that may assist in making the case </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Air Carrier Act </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HAVA </li></ul></ul>Review
    14. 14. <ul><li>States </li></ul><ul><ul><li>17 with laws that cover Web </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8 with policies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most using 508 or hybrid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vendors nightmare </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many do not include education </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lots of models & good work being done </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Postsecondary policies all over (See WebAIM) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>K-12 (e.g., Texas, Oklahoma, Kentucky, CoSN) </li></ul></ul></ul>Review
    15. 15. Don’t forget international accessibility laws Globalization realities in distance education (a.k.a. The world is flat)
    16. 16. Questions or comments?
    17. 17. Policy, Process, and History of Web Accessibility at Cornell Tracy Mitrano Director of IT Policy and Computer Policy and Law Programs
    18. 18. Big “P” and Little “p” Policy <ul><li>Big “P” policy involves external issues, such as national security, electronic surveillance laws, digital copyright or disability law. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rehabilitation Act </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Americans with Disability Act </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How many tax dollars should be spent on people with disabilities? </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. <ul><li>Graphic representation of Laurence Lessig’s foundational concept of the principle influences on the Internet, as described in his book, Code , published in 1999. This graph is offered with the suggestion that institutional policy is similarly influenced by market, social norms, technology, and the law. </li></ul>The four major influences on institutional policy Market Architecture Norms Law Policy
    20. 20. Big “P” and Little “p” Policy <ul><li>Little “p” policy is institutional policy. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preservation and protection of institutional interests and assets -- including reputation! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Any person, any study” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Cornell Model </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Centralized University Policy Office </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.policy. cornell . edu / </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Famous “policy on policies!” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.policy. cornell . edu /vol4_1. cfm </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Take Aways about Institutional Policy <ul><li>Policy is integral part of the culture and traditions of each individual institution. </li></ul><ul><li>Matters less who or how institutional policy is developed than that some process exists… </li></ul><ul><li>Process breaks down into three parts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Initial high level send off with guidance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Middle level review and/or stakeholders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Executive sign off </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Cornell’s Policy Process <ul><li>This process boils down to three steps: an introductory step, where a responsible office brings a policy concept to the Executive Policy Review Group, which represents the highest level of the University administration. This group reviews the policy as a concept, offers direction where needed, and either approves or denies the responsible office to go forward to draft and vet a policy throughout the University community. The second step is review by the Policy Advisory Group, which represents mid-level administrators whose principle role is to determine optimal implementation, and therefore the focus is largely on procedures. The Policy Advisory Group is not allowed to reject the policy as a concept, and only in extreme situations could they reject the policy for failure of appropriate implementation. Given their role in reviewing all University policy, PAG also assists in harmonizing policies into the University policy library. The third and final step is review by the EPRG to assure that the policy meets their original expectations, has been reviewed by the PAG and all other relevant stakeholders, and is in final draft form in order for the University policy office to promulgate it to the entire University . </li></ul>
    23. 23. References <ul><li>Information Technology Framework </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.cit.cornell.edu/oit/policy/framework-chart.html This diagram illustrates the development of IT policy in the period from 2002 projected into 2007. It breaks down the original responsible use policy, promulgated in 1995, and one of the first IT policies at the University level in the country, into discrete digestible full-text policies. The left-hand side of the diagram represents, in the main, security policies, and the right hand side, privacy policies, augmented by other IT issues to be resolved at the University level through policy, such as domain name conventions and Web accessibility. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Impact Statement for University Policy 5.11, Accessibility of Cornell Web Sites </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.cit.cornell.edu/policy/drafts/WAis.pdf </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Defining Scope for Cornell’s Proposed Policy on Web Accessibility Diane Kubarek Director, Office of Web Communications [email_address]
    25. 25. Cornell’s scope definition (to-date) <ul><li>New definitions categorize Cornell Web sites </li></ul><ul><li>Most (not all) official sites must be compliant, eventually </li></ul><ul><li>Unofficial sites are encouraged to comply </li></ul><ul><li>Some sites have as long as 5 years to come into compliance (mitigation of impact) </li></ul><ul><li>There will be a process for undue burden exemption requests </li></ul>
    26. 26. “Sticky Wickets” <ul><li>Which standard? </li></ul><ul><li>How do we define the University Web space? (Scope step 1) </li></ul><ul><li>How do we define priorities within that Web space? (Scope step 2) </li></ul>
    27. 27. Which standard: Why Section 508? <ul><li>508 is less “fluid” (W3C is under active revision) </li></ul><ul><li>Tools exist to assess 508 compliance (hybrids imply tools require more interpretation) </li></ul><ul><li>Future legal actions more likely to be based on 508 than W3C or hybrids </li></ul>
    28. 28. Defining the Web space: basic definitions (see Impact Statement <ul><li>Defining a site (p.2) </li></ul><ul><li>Categorizing sites as “official” (pp.2-3) or “unofficial” (p.5) </li></ul><ul><li>Capturing all the major types of sites </li></ul><ul><li>Deciding on appropriate exemptions (p.3) </li></ul>
    29. 29. Defining the Web space: sites for special consideration <ul><li>Course sites </li></ul><ul><li>Archival sites </li></ul><ul><li>Student organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Student project sites (class assignments) </li></ul><ul><li>Sites about individuals - personal, professional </li></ul><ul><li>Affiliated organizations - e.g. alumni classes & clubs </li></ul><ul><li>Testing or staging sites </li></ul><ul><li>“ Live” sites (e.g. Webcasts) </li></ul>
    30. 30. Defining the Web space: sites for special consideration <ul><li>Sites developed to experiment with new technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Sites you host for the “general good” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WWW Virtual Library catalog sites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Professional organizations or associations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mirror sites </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Dot Orgs”, “Dot Coms”, and other official sites outside of your domain name space, or hosted externally </li></ul>
    31. 31. Defining priorities: hard questions <ul><li>Internal vs. external </li></ul><ul><li>Retrofit vs. redesign (from this day forward) </li></ul><ul><li>Password protected vs. not </li></ul><ul><li>Is traffic volume a consideration? </li></ul><ul><li>What’s realistic at your institution? </li></ul><ul><li>All reflected in implementation schedule </li></ul>
    32. 32. Defining priorities: policy questions answered by your culture <ul><li>How will exemption requests be reviewed? </li></ul><ul><li>In your policy process, who bears the burden of enforcement? </li></ul><ul><li>Can you influence purchasing decisions? </li></ul><ul><li>Can you promote skill elevation in job descriptions during Web developer hires? </li></ul><ul><li>How will you define success? </li></ul><ul><li>How will you monitor success? </li></ul>
    33. 33. Current Cornell challenges <ul><li>Research sites (collaboration, data-gathering) </li></ul><ul><li>Faculty issues, especially course sites </li></ul><ul><li>Central administrative systems </li></ul><ul><li>Purchasing requirements, vendor relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Open source projects </li></ul><ul><li>Enforcement and consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Accessibility alongside accommodation </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation timeline not complete </li></ul>
    34. 34. Web accessibility = usability <ul><li>All audiences benefit </li></ul><ul><li>Content easier to access with portable devices </li></ul><ul><li>Content easier to re-use </li></ul><ul><li>Content better organized </li></ul><ul><li>Simpler links, digestible chunks </li></ul><ul><li>Download times reduced </li></ul>
    35. 35. Web Accessibility Policy Implementation Sharon Trerise [email_address]
    36. 36. Project: Evaluate accessibility of CC websites <ul><li>Diagram depicting relationship between 4 evaluation methods including </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Automated 508 evaluation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manual 508 evaluation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simulated user evaluation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Actual user evaluation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Automated and manual 508 evaluation procedures are page-based evaluations </li></ul><ul><li>Simulated user evaluation and actual user evaluations are process-based </li></ul><ul><li>All methods evaluate both accessibility and, to some degree, usability </li></ul>
    37. 37. <ul><li>Overall <5% of all pages evaluated complied with all Section 508 criteria </li></ul><ul><li>Notable results: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>35% of images lacked meaningful alt text </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>100% of data tables lacked headers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>100% of frames lacked titles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>87% of use of scripts was not accessible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>91% of forms objects were not labeled </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>97% of pages lacked skip navigation links </li></ul></ul>Graph of Section 508 Manual Evaluation Results
    38. 38. Guidelines governing web design <ul><li>Guidelines governing web design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>71% of colleges have guidelines for web design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>28% either don't have guidelines or don't know </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Requirements regarding web accessibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>50% reported having web accessibility requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>29% do not have web accessibility requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>49% either don't have requirements or don't know if they do </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Of the 29% who do not have web access. requirements, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>30% plan to implement them in next year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>36% do not plan to implement in next ye </li></ul></ul><ul><li>POINT: A surprising 50% of colleges have some sort of web accessibility policy or statement of intent. </li></ul><ul><li>Sample=701 Community Colleges </li></ul>Sample = 701 Community Colleges Requirements regarding web accessibility
    39. 39. Survey*: 50% of institutions with Web Accessibility Requirements Website Evaluations**: <5% Web Pages met Section 508 Web Accessibility Standards *N = 701 community colleges **N = 150 web pages from 30 community college websites
    40. 40. What do the web accessibility requirements cover? <ul><li>Of the 50% who have web accessibility requirements, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>84% of policies cover student services pages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>66% of policies cover individual department/ faculty pages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>75% cover online course content including distance learning courses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>82% cover ALL college web pages </li></ul></ul><ul><li>POINT: More directly under control of central administration (webmaster), more likely to be covered by web policy; as opposed to under control of departments or individual faculty </li></ul>
    41. 41. Barriers to implementation <ul><li>Costs </li></ul><ul><li>Staffing </li></ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul><ul><li>Technical support </li></ul><ul><li>Awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Attitude </li></ul><ul><li>Administrative support </li></ul><ul><li>Faculty Involvement </li></ul>Costs & Staffing Lack of technical support Lack of knowledge / training Lack of awareness Attitude; Disregard Lack of support from administration Lack of Faculty Involvement
    42. 42. WebAIM* 8-Step Implementation Model <ul><li>Gather baseline information </li></ul><ul><li>Gain top level support </li></ul><ul><li>Organize a web accessibility committee </li></ul><ul><li>Define a standard </li></ul><ul><li>Create an implementation plan </li></ul><ul><li>Provide training and technical support </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor conformance </li></ul><ul><li>Remain flexible through the changes </li></ul><ul><li>*www.webaim.org </li></ul>
    43. 43. The worst thing that could happen is a policy that sits on the shelf <ul><li>Legally vulnerable </li></ul><ul><li>Not showing a good faith effort </li></ul>
    44. 44. Every institution is different <ul><li>Your starting point: </li></ul><ul><li>Size of website </li></ul><ul><li>Number & job roles of designers & contributors </li></ul><ul><li>Administrative structure & support </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes </li></ul><ul><li>Will affect: </li></ul><ul><li>Sequence of events </li></ul><ul><li>Timeline </li></ul><ul><li>Who gets involved </li></ul><ul><li>??? </li></ul>
    45. 45. So you have a policy… <ul><li>What’s Next? </li></ul>
    46. 46. Step 5: Implementation Plan <ul><li>Establish timelines </li></ul><ul><li>Set priorities </li></ul><ul><li>Delegate responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor progress </li></ul>
    47. 47. <ul><li>Document!!! </li></ul><ul><li>Example: http://www.wact.missouristate.edu/plan.htm </li></ul>During Implementation… Document Document Document Example
    48. 48. Step 6: Training & Technical Support <ul><li>Training </li></ul><ul><li>Short term: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Awareness of the need </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding of the User Perspective* </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design techniques – Know your audience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Different skill levels </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Different needs (faculty, staff, web designers, students) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Long term </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incorporate accessibility into existing training programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>*www.webaim.org </li></ul></ul>
    49. 49. Step 6: Training & Technical Support <ul><li>Training: Questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In-house or outsource </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Live or online; Delivery format </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Target audiences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Topics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Updating </li></ul></ul>
    50. 50. Step 6: Training & Technical Support <ul><li>Technical Support </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Add to job responsibilities of existing staff (performance evaluation criteria) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Web designers, technical support specialists, web managers, instructional designers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Services (in-house, contract) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Video captioning, transcription </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Compliance testing / user testing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Listserv </li></ul></ul>
    51. 51. Step 7: Monitor Conformance <ul><li>Compliance testing procedures & frequency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Automated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>User testing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Let everyone know about your commitment to accessibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Add statement to your home page </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide avenue for user to report accessibility barriers </li></ul></ul>
    52. 52. Step 7: Monitor Conformance <ul><li>Plan for sustainability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Include in job description of webmaster, CIO or hire accessibility consultant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Schedule yearly checks of all web content & distribute reports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be sure accessibility criteria is included in all procurement contracts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish relationship with Disability Services Office </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aim for Systemic Change </li></ul></ul>
    53. 53. Step 8: Remain flexible <ul><li>Changes in: </li></ul><ul><li>standards </li></ul><ul><li>personnel </li></ul><ul><li>technologies </li></ul><ul><li>May necessitate: </li></ul><ul><li>new training </li></ul><ul><li>new leadership </li></ul><ul><li>revised implementation plan </li></ul>
    54. 54. LEADERSHIP <ul><li>The most obvious person may not be the best person </li></ul><ul><li>Passionate </li></ul><ul><li>Understands disability issues </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership qualities </li></ul>
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