Tendering and Construction Law Update

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Tendering and Construction Law Update

  1. 1. Tendering and Construction Law Update Local Government Administration Association Workshop Calgary: May 31, 2006 Presented by Joanne Klauer and Paul Stocco
  2. 2. A. Are You Getting the “ Ron ” Around <ul><li>The A’s and B’s of Tendering </li></ul><ul><li>Reading Between the Lines </li></ul><ul><li>Applying “Unfair” Terms Fairly </li></ul><ul><li>Return to the Dark Ages </li></ul>
  3. 3. A. Are You Getting the “ Ron ” Around <ul><li>5. Preferred Contractors </li></ul><ul><li>6. Oops, I Did It Again </li></ul><ul><li>7. Ten Tendering Tidbits </li></ul>
  4. 4. B. RFP’s: Bidding Goodbye to Traditional Tendering <ul><li>Hallmarks of RFP’s </li></ul><ul><li>Judicial Treatment of RFP’s </li></ul>
  5. 5. C. Construction Contract Conundrums <ul><li>Written Contacts </li></ul><ul><li>Scope of Work/Change Orders </li></ul><ul><li>Penalty/Bonus Clauses </li></ul><ul><li>Force Majeure Clauses </li></ul>
  6. 6. C. Construction Contract Conundrums <ul><li>5. Default and Termination </li></ul><ul><li>6. Dispute Resolution </li></ul><ul><li>7. Limits on Liability and Limitation Periods </li></ul>
  7. 7. D. Performance Bond Anxiety <ul><li>Insurance and Bonds </li></ul><ul><li>Four Types of Bonds </li></ul><ul><li>Limits and Exclusions </li></ul><ul><li>More Than Sticks and Bricks? </li></ul>
  8. 8. E. Tendering “AIT” What It Used To Be <ul><li>What is the AIT </li></ul><ul><li>Annex 502.4 </li></ul><ul><li>What’s included and what’s not </li></ul><ul><li>Prohibited practices </li></ul><ul><li>Dealing with disputes </li></ul>
  9. 9. F. MUNICIPAL PURCHASING POLICIES <ul><li>Expenditure Requirements of the MGA </li></ul><ul><li>Budgets </li></ul><ul><li>Emergency Expenditures </li></ul><ul><li>Checklist for Municipal Purchasing Policy </li></ul><ul><li>Delegating Purchasing Authority </li></ul><ul><li>Set Monetary Guidelines </li></ul>
  10. 10. F. MUNICIPAL PURCHASING POLICIES <ul><li>Establish Purchasing Procedure </li></ul><ul><li>General Considerations </li></ul><ul><li>Ongoing </li></ul>
  11. 11. Questions <ul><li>At any time or at the end </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>A. Are You Getting the “ Ron ” Around </li></ul>
  13. 13. 1. The A’s and B’s of Tendering <ul><ul><li>Ron Engineering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contract A </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a tendering contract is created when a bidder submits a bid in response to a tender call </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. 1. The A’s and B’s of Tendering <ul><ul><li>Hallmarks of Contract A </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the bid is irrevocable once it is submitted </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>terms of the tender call are very important </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>owner can include any terms it wants </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Hallmarks of Contract A (cont’d) <ul><ul><ul><li>terms of the tender call dictate which tenders can be accepted </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>if bidder fails to comply, the bid is deemed non-compliant </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>bidders need not bid if they find the terms are too onerous </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Hallmarks of Contract A (cont’d) <ul><ul><ul><li>no bid shopping or negotiation is allowed after the tender closing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>integrity of the tendering process must be protected to the extent that the law of contract allows </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. 1. The A’s and B’s of Tendering <ul><ul><li>Contract B </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the actual construction contract </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>awarded to bidder that best responds to requirements of tender call </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. 2. Reading Between the Lines <ul><li>MJB and Martel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>implied obligations on an owner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>implied obligations can be read into Contract A based on custom and usage </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. 2. Reading Between the Lines <ul><ul><li>duty of fair and equal treatment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>only compliant tenders can be accepted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>implied duties can only be defined with due regard to express terms of tender call </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>damages for breaching this duty include loss of profit and costs of preparing the tender </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. 3. Applying “Unfair” Terms Fairly <ul><li>Graham Industrial, Kinetic, Chandos, Double N, NAC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>conflict between implied duties and express terms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>duty of fairness and equal treatment vs. ability of an owner to define the terms for the tender call </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>can an owner’s privilege clause be used to accept non-compliant bids? </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. 3. Applying “Unfair” Terms Fairly <ul><ul><li>Law in British Columbia is unclear! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Graham Industrial says that owner can’t </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kinetic says that owner can </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. 3. Applying “Unfair” Terms Fairly <ul><ul><li>In Alberta, the law says “yes, but….” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No inviolable rule against parties agreeing to let owner accept a non-compliant bid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All depends on the specific wording of the privilege clause </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Courts will read a privilege clause narrowly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Duty of fairness still very important </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protection of the tendering process is still very important </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. 4. Return to the Dark Ages <ul><ul><li>Have owners created a tendering system with no rules at all? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Or is it just the natural evolution in the tendering process? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Will the market find its own equilibrium? </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. 4. Return to the Dark Ages <ul><ul><li>Suggestions: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Privilege clause to permit material and immaterial non-compliance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific evaluation criteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limitation on damages clause </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. 5. Preferred Contractors <ul><li>The cases of: </li></ul><ul><li>Tarmac Canada (Ontario) </li></ul><ul><li>Sound Contracting (BC) and </li></ul><ul><li>Cox Brothers (Alta.) </li></ul>
  26. 26. 6. Oops, I Did It Again <ul><li>The cases of: Gottardo Construction and Derby Holdings </li></ul>
  27. 27. 7. Ten Tendering Tidbits <ul><li>Closing Time </li></ul><ul><li>Reference all plans, specifications, and addenda </li></ul><ul><li>Include tender form and draft contract </li></ul><ul><li>Privilege clause </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation criteria </li></ul>
  28. 28. 7. Ten Tendering Tidbits <ul><li>6. AIT requirements </li></ul><ul><li>7. Bid bond and consent of surety </li></ul><ul><li>8. No negotiation after tender close </li></ul><ul><li>9. Beware non-compliant tenders </li></ul><ul><li>10. Tenders exceeding budget </li></ul>
  29. 29. A. Are You Getting the “ Ron ” Around <ul><li>Questions </li></ul>
  30. 30. B. RFP’s: Bidding Goodbye to Traditional Tendering
  31. 31. 1. Hallmarks of RFP’s <ul><li>Tender and RFP at ends of the procurement spectrum </li></ul><ul><li>Some overlap </li></ul><ul><li>“ Labels don’t count” </li></ul><ul><li>But proper terminology is important! </li></ul>
  32. 32. 1. Hallmarks of RFP’s <ul><li>Negotiation is the key! </li></ul><ul><li>Parties are free to withdraw </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility vs. Irrevocable tender </li></ul>
  33. 33. 1. Hallmarks of RFP’s <ul><li>Owner’s information package provided to firms that are pre-qualified by RFEI </li></ul><ul><li>RFP sets out general requirements of the owner’s concept </li></ul><ul><li>Details are left to the proponent </li></ul>
  34. 34. 1. Hallmarks of RFP’s <ul><li>Draft construction contract or other agreement is the subject of negotiation </li></ul><ul><li>RFP contains a privilege clause and evaluation clause </li></ul><ul><li>Owner picks who it will negotiate with </li></ul>
  35. 35. 1. Hallmarks of RFP’s <ul><li>One proposal per party </li></ul><ul><li>Minimum requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Proposal must remain open for a period of time </li></ul><ul><li>Security deposit is optional </li></ul><ul><li>Closing date for proposals </li></ul>
  36. 36. 2. Judicial Treatment of RFP’s <ul><li>The cases of: Mellco (Manitoba) and Buttcon (Ontario) </li></ul>
  37. 37. B. RFP’s: Bidding Goodbye to Traditional Tendering <ul><li>QUESTIONS </li></ul>
  38. 38. <ul><li>C. Construction Contract Conundrums </li></ul>
  39. 39. 1. Written Contracts <ul><li>Eliminate disagreements over parties’ responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Preferred over oral contracts </li></ul><ul><li>Creates record of a construction project </li></ul><ul><li>eg. site instructions, meeting minutes, inspections, daily reports, schedule changes </li></ul>
  40. 40. 1. Written Contracts <ul><li>Importance of paper trail </li></ul><ul><li>If it is important enough to say, then it is important enough to put in writing! </li></ul>
  41. 41. 2. Scope of Work/Change Orders <ul><li>Largest area of dispute on construction project </li></ul><ul><li>a. Owner’s perspective on change orders: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drawings should be complete </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contractor makes $ on changes </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. 2. Scope of Work/Change Orders <ul><ul><li>Not willing to pay for extras at end especially if project over budget! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>b. Contactor’s perspective on change orders: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Should not bear risk of poorly drafted plans and specs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Financing of changes until the end of the job </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. 2. Scope of Work/Change Orders <ul><li>c. Solutions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t leave resolution of change orders to end of project! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Extra set of eyes” at the start </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requirement for written authorization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dispute resolution mechanism </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. 3. Penalty/Bonus Clauses <ul><li>a. Penalty Clauses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clause can’t really impose a penalty for delayed completion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be reasonable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must bear some relation to actual costs incurred due to delay </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. 3. Penalty/Bonus Clauses <ul><ul><li>Concurrent delay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Owner caused delay </li></ul></ul><ul><li>b. Bonus clauses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar to penalty clauses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Savings shared on sliding scale </li></ul></ul>
  46. 46. 4. Force Majeure <ul><ul><li>Party is relieved of contractual obligations in whole or in part </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specified event triggers clause </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Event is beyond party’s control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No measure could have avoided the event </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. 4. Force Majeure <ul><li>Onus on party relying on clause </li></ul><ul><li>How long are contractual obligations suspended? </li></ul><ul><li>What about direct losses/damages? </li></ul><ul><li>What about consequential losses/damages? </li></ul>
  48. 48. 5. Default and Termination <ul><li>Notice of default </li></ul><ul><li>Particulars required </li></ul><ul><li>Notice of termination </li></ul><ul><li>Remedies upon termination </li></ul>
  49. 49. 6. Dispute Resolution <ul><li>Mediation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Good faith negotiations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Full and frank disclosure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Works if parties want it to work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not required to attend </li></ul></ul>
  50. 50. 6. Dispute Resolution <ul><li>Arbitration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More formal than mediation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hire a “private judge” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Binding on parties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited appeal rights </li></ul></ul>
  51. 51. 7. Limits on Liability and Limitation Periods <ul><li>Beware liability limited to maximum amount </li></ul><ul><li>Contractual time limit for advancing a claim </li></ul><ul><li>Exclusions for certain risks </li></ul><ul><li>Court has final say on enforceability </li></ul>
  52. 52. 7. Limits on Liability and Limitation Periods <ul><li>Alberta Limitations Act limits right of action to 2 years </li></ul>
  53. 53. C. Construction Contract Conundrums <ul><li>Questions </li></ul>
  54. 54. <ul><li>D. Performance Bond Anxiety </li></ul>
  55. 55. 1. Insurance and Bonds <ul><li>Insurance </li></ul><ul><li>i. Property damage </li></ul><ul><li>Designed to protect against damage to property on site: Builders Risk or All Risk </li></ul><ul><li>Limited to property used in the course of construction </li></ul>
  56. 56. 1. Insurance and Bonds <ul><li>ii. Liability </li></ul><ul><li>Protects parties involved in construction when their work does damage to another party not connected to project </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial General Liability </li></ul>
  57. 57. 2. Four Types of Bonds <ul><li>Bonds </li></ul><ul><li>Bid bond </li></ul><ul><li>Performance bond </li></ul><ul><li>Labour and Material payment bond </li></ul><ul><li>Lien bond </li></ul>
  58. 58. 3. Limits and Exclusions <ul><li>Beware exclusions and notice provisions! </li></ul>
  59. 59. 4. More Than Sticks and Bricks? <ul><li>Whitby Landmark says yes </li></ul><ul><li>Lac La Ronge says no </li></ul>
  60. 60. D. Performance Bond Anxiety <ul><li>Questions </li></ul>
  61. 61. Contact Information : <ul><li>Paul V. Stocco </li></ul><ul><li>Brownlee LLP </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>(780) 497-4884 (b) </li></ul><ul><li>(780) 424-3254 (fax) </li></ul>
  62. 62. E. Tendering AIT What It Used To Be
  63. 63. 1. What is the AIT <ul><li>An intergovernmental agreement signed by the federal and provincial, and territorial governments in 1995 </li></ul><ul><li>Designed to facilitate free trade within Canada </li></ul><ul><li>Applies to various sectors of the economy including MASH sector </li></ul>
  64. 64. 2. Annex 502.4 <ul><li>A. GENERAL </li></ul><ul><li>MASH sector includes municipalities and any organizations owned or controlled by a municipality </li></ul><ul><li>Threshold requirements are:$100,000 for goods and services and $250,000 for construction goods and services </li></ul>
  65. 65. 2. Annex 502.4 <ul><li>If procurement is below threshold limits, entities are encouraged to observe the spirit of the AIT! </li></ul>
  66. 66. 3. What’s included and what’s not <ul><li>FAIR ACQUISITION PROCESS </li></ul><ul><li>Applies to all types of procurement: RFF, tender, RFQ, quotes, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic advertising </li></ul><ul><li>Required information for advertising </li></ul><ul><li>Non-discriminatory practices </li></ul>
  67. 67. 3. What’s included and what’s not <ul><li>EXCLUSIONS </li></ul><ul><li>Annex 502.4L </li></ul><ul><li>EXCEPTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>For exceptional circumstances only </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regional economic development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sole sourcing </li></ul></ul>
  68. 68. 4. Prohibited practices – Appendix B <ul><li>Local registration requirement </li></ul><ul><li>Biasing of specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Favouring local content </li></ul><ul><li>Price discounts </li></ul><ul><li>Requirement to use local supplies, labour, etc. </li></ul>
  69. 69. 5. Dealing with Disputes <ul><li>Non-judicial complaint process </li></ul><ul><li>Complaint to contact point </li></ul><ul><li>Formal panel </li></ul>
  70. 70. E. TENDERING AIT WHAT IT USED TO BE <ul><li>QUESTIONS </li></ul>
  71. 71. F. MUNICIPAL PURCHASING POLICIES
  72. 72. 1. Expenditure Requirements of the MGA <ul><li>In accordance with Section 248 of the MGA, municipalities can only make expenditures that are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>included in an operating budget, interim operating budget, or capital budget; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>for an emergency; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>legally required to be paid; or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>otherwise authorized by Council. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pursuant to Section 248 of the MGA, it is mandatory for Council to establish procedures to authorize and verify expenditures that are not included in a budget. </li></ul>
  73. 73. 2. Budgets <ul><li>Wherever possible, include expenditures in a budget to ensure compliance with Section 248. </li></ul>
  74. 74. 3. Emergency Expenditures <ul><li>Include an emergency contingency fund in the annual budget. </li></ul><ul><li>Define emergency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a situation in which the municipality must expend money in order to protect people or property and which there is inadequate time for Council to give its prior authorization for the expenditure. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Delegate power to an officer to declare when an emergency has taken place and to make expenditures pending ratification by Council. </li></ul>
  75. 75. Emergency Expenditures Cont’d <ul><li>Impose a duty on that person to report to Council within a reasonable time after making the emergency expenditure. </li></ul><ul><li>Define the required contents of the report: ie. nature of the threat posed by the emergency, the reasons the delegated officer believed there was inadequate time for Council to give prior authorization, the nature and amounts of each expenditure. </li></ul>
  76. 76. 4. Checklist For Municipal Purchasing Policy <ul><li>Preliminary considerations: </li></ul><ul><li>Review capital and operating budgets to determine areas in which purchasing is undertaken, the usual dollar amount of purchases, and the type of purchases (ie. what type of goods and services). </li></ul><ul><li>Confirm who in the organization is responsible for purchasing. Identify what type of approval is required for that individual to make a purchase. </li></ul>
  77. 77. <ul><li>Review relevant bylaws, policies and procedures already in place that impact purchasing, i.e. unbudgeted expenditure policy, RFP and tendering policies/procedures, etc. and identify what works, what doesn’t work, and where the gaps are. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify what purchasing processes are currently being utilized, i.e. RFP or tendering? What process are being used in what circumstances? </li></ul>Checklist cont’d
  78. 78. <ul><li>Policy / Purpose statement: </li></ul><ul><li>In order to ensure compliance with Section 248 of the MGA, AIT and other relevant legislation. </li></ul><ul><li>Specify other purposes and goals </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>maintain financial flexibility, viability and efficiency; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>fairness and equal application of the policy; </li></ul></ul></ul>Checklist cont’d
  79. 79. <ul><li>Formulate goals for the purchasing policy, i.e. ensure compliance with MGA, AIT requirements and provide for uniform and transparent purchasing process. </li></ul><ul><li>Consult with affected personnel to identify any areas of concern and obtain feedback on current purchasing procedures. </li></ul>Checklist cont’d
  80. 80. <ul><li>openness, transparency and accountability in purchasing </li></ul><ul><li>identify when it’s appropriate to undertake “sole sourcing” of a supplier, as opposed to a competitive process </li></ul><ul><li>identify whether or not preference will be given to local suppliers or contractors. </li></ul>Checklist cont’d
  81. 81. 5. Delegating Purchasing Authority <ul><li>Delegating Purchasing Authority: </li></ul><ul><li>Council may delegate its authority to make an expenditure. </li></ul><ul><li>Delegation provisions should include: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>to whom – e.g. staff members in each department; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>how delegation to be exercised – e.g. in writing; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>to whom written authority is to be provided – e.g. CAO, Director of Finance, Accounts Payable ; </li></ul></ul></ul>
  82. 82. <ul><ul><ul><li>person(s) responsible for supervising and approving purchasing activities to ensure compliance with legislation, policies, process, ethics. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Set limits that reflect certain authorization boundaries such as the higher the level of expenditure, the higher the level of purchasing authority required to authorize the expenditure. For the highest levels of spending, prior specific approval by Council may be required regardless if amount is included in annual budget. </li></ul>Delegating Purchasing Authority cont’d
  83. 83. <ul><li>Include provision for removing or amending the purchasing authority of any individual. </li></ul>Delegating Purchasing Authority cont’d
  84. 84. 6. Set Monetary Guidelines <ul><li>Set Monetary Guidelines: </li></ul><ul><li>Set levels of purchasing, depending on monetary value – e.g. $500 or less; $500 to $5,000; $5,000 to $10,000, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Include rules for how to calculate dollar value. </li></ul><ul><li>For each level of spending, outline the applicable purchasing authority, delegation provisions (see above) and purchasing procedure (see below). </li></ul>
  85. 85. <ul><li>Ensure that AIT provisions are reflected in the monetary guidelines: i.e. AIT requirements apply to MASH procurement contracts for goods and services which are $100,000.00 or greater or $250,000.00 for construction . </li></ul>Set Monetary Guidelines cont’d
  86. 86. 7. Establish Purchasing Procedure <ul><li>Establish Purchasing Procedure: </li></ul><ul><li>Requirements for making purchase – e.g. whether by telephone, in person, by competitive process, etc. (for example, verbal quotations for low level purchases, written quotations for mid-level purchases; and formalized competitive process for high-level purchases). </li></ul><ul><li>Whether quotations required, and if so, how many and in what form. </li></ul><ul><li>Whether purchase order required, and if so, process for completing, processing, and record-keeping . </li></ul>
  87. 87. <ul><li>When a competitive process is required, identify the policy for each process (request for proposal, request for quotation, tender). </li></ul><ul><li>When payment for goods and services will be made – e.g. when the municipality is satisfied that meet specifications. </li></ul><ul><li>What warranty and guarantee periods must be supplied by the provider. </li></ul>Establish Purchasing Procedure cont’d
  88. 88. 8. General Considerations <ul><li>General Considerations: </li></ul><ul><li>Must comply with all applicable legislation, including MGA, Agreement on Internal Trade, Freedom of Information and Protection of Privacy Act. </li></ul><ul><li>Must be consistent with other municipal policies and procedures. </li></ul><ul><li>Purchasing policy must be adopted by bylaw or resolution (MGA, s. 180). </li></ul>
  89. 89. General Considerations cont’d <ul><li>Periodic reporting of expenditures to Council. </li></ul><ul><li>Policy should be broad enough to provide the flexibility required to meet Council’s day-to-day needs, yet be detailed enough to provide adequate controls on expenditures. </li></ul><ul><li>Should be clear, understandable and unambiguous . </li></ul>
  90. 90. 9. Ongoing <ul><li>Ongoing: </li></ul><ul><li>Periodically review the policy to determine whether it is achieving the municipality’s goals. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the areas that have not worked or presented problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Determine what revisions are required and implement where necessary. </li></ul>
  91. 91. F. MUNICIPAL PURCHASING POLICIES <ul><ul><li>QUESTIONS </li></ul></ul>
  92. 92. Contact Information : <ul><li>Joanne M. Klauer </li></ul><ul><li>Brownlee LLP </li></ul><ul><li>jklauer @brownleelaw.com </li></ul><ul><li>(403) 260-5303 (b) </li></ul><ul><li>(403) 232-8408 (fax) </li></ul>

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