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  • Library automation is older than the computer. It started already in the 30thies and the 40thies with pre-computer equipment, such as punched cards, papertape and sorting machines. These early applications were mainly dealing with circulation, for the simple reason that it was easier ... the analysts and programmers of the early days were familiar with commercial applications and circulation of books was closer to stock management and other administrative applications... Catalogue systems required a familiarity with bibliographic activities and therefore librarians had to be involved in the technical development. About 10 years after the appearance of the first commercial computer - the Univac in 1951- many universities in the US started isolated and partial library projects. The first big catalogue projects started in the 60thies with the Library of Congress card conversion in 1960, and Universities making catalogue cards via batch processing e.g. in Yale and Toronto. However, the first milestone in library automation was the project of the Library of Congress that would lead to the distribution of the MARC II record exchange format in 1968. It was the first important standard in library automation and from than on MARC compatibility became an absolute goal or requirement for most projects. An other important phenomenon was the establishment of library networks (WLN, RLIN, UTLAS) of which OCLC in 1971became a global player of an incredible size (comprising today almost 40.000 libraries of more than 70 countries
  • Slide 1 - Universiteitsbibliotheek - Katholieke Universiteit ...

    1. 1. Library systems : types, integrated systems, software selection and criteria Alberic Regent K.U.Leuven
    2. 2. Content <ul><li>historical introduction on library automation </li></ul><ul><li>types of library management systems </li></ul><ul><li>integrated library systems </li></ul><ul><li>commercial versus open source systems </li></ul><ul><li>planning process for software selection </li></ul><ul><li>RFP </li></ul><ul><li>evaluation and arguments for selection </li></ul><ul><li>future trends </li></ul>
    3. 3. Historical introduction <ul><li>pre 1940 : mechanized and pre-computer based applications  circulation </li></ul><ul><li>1946 : ENIAC (Univ. of Pennsylvania) </li></ul><ul><li>1951 : UNIVAC (first commercial computer) </li></ul><ul><li>1960 : Library of Congress card conversion </li></ul><ul><li>1966-1968 : MARC I & MARC II (1968 - ) </li></ul><ul><li>- 1970 : partial systems (mainly by univ.) </li></ul><ul><li>1970 - : online/integrated systems ( id.) </li></ul><ul><li>1971 : OCLC as ‘Union Catalogue’ </li></ul>
    4. 4. Historical introduction (cont.) <ul><li>1980 : growth of commercial vendors </li></ul><ul><li>1990 - : mainly commercial products (+ 50) </li></ul><ul><li>taking advance of the technology boost : </li></ul><ul><li>PC as personal multifunctional workstation </li></ul><ul><li>move from central mainframe based systems to client-server technology, local area networks, ... </li></ul><ul><li>open systems & inter-connectivity </li></ul><ul><li>internet: allows global access from anywhere at anytime  the virtual library </li></ul><ul><li>introduction of multimedia </li></ul>
    5. 5. Global networking - OCLC <ul><li>founded 1967, became the OCLC Online Computer Library Center Inc. in 1971 </li></ul><ul><li>works as a ‘cooperative’ global consortium </li></ul><ul><li>governed by members </li></ul><ul><li>44.000 libraries of 86 countries </li></ul><ul><li>many services and databases </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Worldcat (48 Mio records / 873 Mio loc.) </li></ul><ul><li>incorp. other networks : UTLAS, PICA, WLN, ... </li></ul><ul><li>research (locally and externally) </li></ul>
    6. 6. Library Management Systems <ul><li>functional </li></ul><ul><li>partial systems (specific area’s) </li></ul><ul><li>multifunctional integrated systems (all major library functions) </li></ul><ul><li>organisational & technical </li></ul><ul><li>standalone systems (one institution) </li></ul><ul><li>networks (sharing resources, mainly for cataloguing with increased importance of end-user search capacities and ILL) </li></ul>
    7. 7. Integrated systems <ul><li>‘ is one that computerizes a multiplicity of library functions using one common database’ (1992, Cohn, Kelsey & Fiels) </li></ul><ul><li>today much broader scope: integrated systems include the traditional library functions, but incorporate access to the internet, to bibliographic and full-text databases, to other library systems and networks, to image repositories, etc. </li></ul>
    8. 8. Some ‘commercial’ systems <ul><li>vendors </li></ul><ul><li>Innovative </li></ul><ul><li>VTLS </li></ul><ul><li>Ex Libris </li></ul><ul><li>Sirsi </li></ul><ul><li>Endeavor </li></ul><ul><li>AIS </li></ul><ul><li>Dynix (form. Epixtech) </li></ul><ul><li>Geac </li></ul><ul><li>Follet </li></ul><ul><li>CMC </li></ul><ul><li>products </li></ul><ul><li>Innopac, Millenium </li></ul><ul><li>VTLS-2001, Virtua, RFID, ... </li></ul><ul><li>Aleph 500, Metalib, SFX, ... </li></ul><ul><li>Unicorn, ... </li></ul><ul><li>Voyager, ... </li></ul><ul><li>Adlib </li></ul><ul><li>Dynix, Notis, Horizon </li></ul><ul><li>Advance, Plus, Vubis </li></ul><ul><li>various </li></ul><ul><li>ILIB </li></ul>
    9. 9. Some ‘open source’ systems <ul><li>developer </li></ul><ul><li>Katipo Comm. Ltd </li></ul><ul><li>Technology Resource </li></ul><ul><li>Foundation </li></ul><ul><li>... </li></ul><ul><li>Unesco </li></ul><ul><li>products </li></ul><ul><li>Koha </li></ul><ul><li>OpenBook </li></ul><ul><li>CDS/ISIS ( º late 60’s !) </li></ul><ul><li>Micro CDS/ISIS (1985)... </li></ul><ul><li> isis </li></ul>
    10. 10. Open source systems cost also ... <ul><li>server </li></ul><ul><li>hardware & operating system </li></ul><ul><li>database support </li></ul><ul><li>support for the open source software </li></ul><ul><li>installation, software and data loading </li></ul><ul><li>staff for implementation and maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>possible subcontracting </li></ul><ul><li>danger for incompatible versions ... </li></ul>
    11. 11. Various solutions <ul><li>stand-alone solution (one library) </li></ul><ul><li>shared solution (network within one institution, e.g. large university) </li></ul><ul><li>shared solution (consortium-network of many institutions, e.g. international, national, regional, by library type, ...) </li></ul><ul><li>application service providers (subcontract a specific service, e.g. a LMS exploitation, to a providor ) </li></ul>
    12. 12. Steps in the planning process <ul><li>justification </li></ul><ul><li>set-up organisation </li></ul><ul><li>consultancy ? </li></ul><ul><li>specifications </li></ul><ul><li>bidding process * </li></ul><ul><li>(Beverley K. Duval, Automated Library Systems, 1992) </li></ul><ul><li>selection of an automated system * </li></ul><ul><li>benchmarking </li></ul><ul><li>contract </li></ul><ul><li>installation </li></ul><ul><li>training </li></ul><ul><li>activation </li></ul>
    13. 13. Bidding <ul><li>Request for Quotation (RFQ) </li></ul><ul><li>Request for Bid (RFB) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>product is identified </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>various suppliers possible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>price only criteria </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Request for Proposal (RFP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>various products possible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>various suppliers possible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>many criteria (cfr Jo Rademakers, Leuven RFP case) </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Evaluation <ul><li>one time cost (purchase) </li></ul><ul><li>recurrent cost (maintenance) </li></ul><ul><li>functionality </li></ul><ul><li>ease / user friendliness </li></ul><ul><li>adaptability (parametr.) </li></ul><ul><li>documentation </li></ul><ul><li>scalability </li></ul><ul><li>reliability </li></ul><ul><li>performance </li></ul><ul><li>vendor quality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>maintenance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>financial stability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>number of staff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>references (...) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>and others ... </li></ul><ul><li>weight coefficients </li></ul>
    15. 15. Top 10 arguments for selection <ul><li>ease of use for patrons </li></ul><ul><li>availability of modules and submodules </li></ul><ul><li>completeness of these sub / modules </li></ul><ul><li>cost of the system </li></ul><ul><li>cost of the hardware </li></ul><ul><li>need for local programming staff </li></ul><ul><li>reputation of the vendor </li></ul><ul><li>ease of use by staff </li></ul><ul><li>comparable reference site </li></ul><ul><li>previous experience with vendor </li></ul><ul><li>(Peggy Johnson. Automation and Organization Change in Libraries, 1991) </li></ul>
    16. 16. New type of OPACs (sample)
    17. 17. New type of OPACs (cont.)
    18. 18. Future trends of LMS <ul><li>more separation of ‘public access catalog’ and ‘staff functions’ (Leigh Watson Healy, 1998) </li></ul><ul><li>tendency towards several systems in parallel ??? </li></ul><ul><li>more interest and more demand for users aspects and services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>increased multilingual aspects (Unicode) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>more interoperability (linking with databases /full text) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>more resource sharing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>more ILL (including electronic document delivery) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>self-circulation (reserve, check-out/in, renew, ILL, ...) </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Conclusion <ul><li>selection of a LMS should be based on real needs </li></ul><ul><li>user needs are predominant </li></ul><ul><li>needs may evolve and systems are not for eternity (use of standards are a condition for compatibility and for future migration) </li></ul><ul><li>take into account limitations in staff and finances </li></ul><ul><li>open source software may be interesting </li></ul><ul><li>identify the real - in particular the recurrent – cost and support needed for all solutions (continuity !) </li></ul><ul><li>cooperation is essential (networks, shared actions) </li></ul>
    20. 20. Thank you ! <ul><li>Alberic Regent </li></ul><ul><li>LIBIS-Net </li></ul><ul><li>c/o University Library </li></ul><ul><li>Mgr. Ladeuzeplein 21 </li></ul><ul><li>B-3000 Leuven (Belgium) </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>