Towards the Internet of Things: An introduction to RFID

606 views
441 views

Published on

Published in: Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
606
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
13
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Towards the Internet of Things: An introduction to RFID

  1. 1. 4th International Workshop onRFID Technology - Concepts, Applications, Challenges Miguel.Pardal@ist.utl.pt Instituto Superior Técnico, Technical University Lisbon, Portugal
  2. 2. Towards the Internet of Things: An introduction to RFID Miguel Pardal José Alves Marques4th International Workshop on RFID Technology - Concepts, Applications, Challenges June 8th 2010
  3. 3. The Internet of Things http://www.flickr.com/photos/crispyfried/76719715/
  4. 4. The Internet of Things [Elgar Fleisch 10]• Machine-centric• Connects low-end devices• Trillions (1012) rather than billions (109) of nodes• Universal Identification – EPC• Universal Addressing – IPv6
  5. 5. From local to global scope
  6. 6. Business applications• Track & Trace – Monitor physical goods and keep history• Industries: – Warehousing – Maintenance – Pharmaceuticals – Medical Devices – Agriculture – Food – Retailing – Defense [ Sybase.pt ]
  7. 7. Supply Chains
  8. 8. Automatic data capture
  9. 9. Other RF technologies[ How stuff works ] [ PWKits ]
  10. 10. RFID tags •UHF(Ultra-High Frequency): [300..3 000] MHz •MW (Microwaves): [2,5 .. 5,8 GHz] •Wave coupling•LF (Low Frequency): [30 .. 300] kHz •Backscatter•HF (High Frequency): [3 ..30] MHz•Inductive coupling•Load modulation
  11. 11. RFID antennas and readers
  12. 12. RFID in action [Roussos06]
  13. 13. RFID supply chain = EPC supply chain
  14. 14. Architecture Framework
  15. 15. NOT RFID middleware is easy… • All readerscannot • Read all tags • At all times Credits: Carlos Perdigão, IST
  16. 16. Why? Credits: Christian Floerkemeier, MIT
  17. 17. Subscribe, Configure, Notify, Publish [Floerkemeier07a]
  18. 18. Simulation Credits: Carlos Perdigão, IST
  19. 19. Experimental setup Credits: Nova Ahmed, Georgia Tech
  20. 20. Trials Credits: Schuitema supermarkets, RFID Journal
  21. 21. NOT RFID security is easy… • All readersshould not • Read all tags • At all times Credits: Metro Group, RFID Journal
  22. 22. Threats [Garfinkel05]
  23. 23. Security• Privacy – Misbehaving readers, well-behaving tags• Authentication – Well-behaving readers, misbehaving tags• Basic tags versus Advanced tags – Attack model• Infrastructure security – ONS, EPCIS
  24. 24. Privacy approaches [Ari Juels 06]• Physical protection – Shielded containers – Personal jamming devices – Downgrading tag abilities• Killing and sleeping• Renaming – Discarding serial numbers – Pseudonyms – Re-encryption by trusted partners• Proxying – “transparent” readers – audit / watchdog• Distance measurement – Distance as a measure of trust
  25. 25. Conclusions• RFID is a set of technologies – No “one-size-fit-all” tag and reader• All readers cannot read all tags at all times – RFID middleware challenges – Physical layout matters• All readers should not read all tags at all times – RFID security challenges – Trade-offs have to be carefully considered• Towards the Internet of Things – RFID allows things and places in the physical world to automatically generate data for information systems
  26. 26. 4th International Workshop onRFID Technology - Concepts, Applications, Challenges Miguel.Pardal@ist.utl.pt Instituto Superior Técnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Portugal
  27. 27. Extras
  28. 28. Internet of Things @ IST
  29. 29. Completed work• Nuno Rodrigues – RFID Logistics integration with Navision ERP• Guilherme Pereira – Open-source RFID track and trace
  30. 30. Ongoing work• Ricardo Carapeto – Smart luggage security• Pedro Ferreira – BizTalk EPCIS interface• Carlos Perdigão – Federated track & trace
  31. 31. Ongoing work• Miguel Pardal – Scalable and secure Discovery services
  32. 32. Future work• RFID Toys – Robot warehouse control• RFID Virtual Lab – IDE integration
  33. 33. Radio• ISM radio bands – Frequencies differ in world regions • Europe, Americas, and Asia• LF/HF RFID or UHF RFID? – Operating principles are different – Near-field far-field boundary • Lambda / 2 PI
  34. 34. Near-field RFID• LF (Low Frequency): [30 .. 300] kHz• HF (High Frequency): [3 ..30] MHz• Inductive coupling• Load modulation
  35. 35. Shower Analogy
  36. 36. Far-field RFID• UHF(Ultra-High Frequency): [300..3 000] MHz• MW (Microwaves): [2,5 .. 5,8 GHz]• Wave coupling• Backscatter
  37. 37. Lighthouse Analogy
  38. 38. Range Credits: C. Floerkemeier, MIT
  39. 39. Tag components Credits: Rafsec OY, [Sarma01]
  40. 40. Manufacturing trade-off• Cost• Range Pick 2• Functionality
  41. 41. Tag categories• Passive or battery-less – Use only power provided by the RFID reader’s signal – Smaller, more flexible – $ 0.20• Semi-passive or battery-assisted – Use a battery to boost response signal – $5• Active or battery-powered – Have additional processing capabilities and autonomy because they have more power e.g. sensors – Longer range – $ 30
  42. 42. Legal ownership ≠ Physical possesion
  43. 43. Software Layers
  44. 44. Discovery: follow-the-chain vs directory
  45. 45. Authentication approaches [Ari Juels 06]• Password – Use kill secret key to authenticate• Yoking – Read sets of tags at same time and record – Evidence tracks in a trusted third party.

×