An introduction to RFID

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An introduction to RFID

  1. 1. An introduction to RFID (for computer science engineers) Miguel.Pardal@IST .utl.pt June 21st 2010
  2. 2. Outline • RFID Technology • Business Applications – Software and standards • Challenges • @IST
  3. 3. Outline • RFID Technology • Business Applications – Software and standards • Challenges • @IST
  4. 4. RFID tags
  5. 5. RFID antennas and readers
  6. 6. RFID in action [Roussos06]
  7. 7. Radio• ISM radio bands – Frequencies differ in world regions • Europe, Americas, and Asia• LF/HF RFID or UHF RFID? – Operating principles are different – Near-field far-field boundary • Lambda / 2 PI
  8. 8. Near-field RFID• LF (Low Frequency): [30 .. 300] kHz• HF (High Frequency): [3 ..30] MHz• Inductive coupling• Load modulation
  9. 9. Shower Analogy
  10. 10. Far-field RFID• UHF(Ultra-High Frequency): [300..3 000] MHz• MW (Microwaves): [2,5 .. 5,8] GHz• Wave coupling• Backscatter
  11. 11. Lighthouse Analogy
  12. 12. Tag components Credits: Rafsec OY, [Sarma01]
  13. 13. Manufacturing trade-off• Cost• Range Pick 2• Functionality
  14. 14. Tag categories• Passive or battery-less – Use only power provided by the RFID reader’s signal – Smaller, more flexible – $ 0.20• Semi-passive or battery-assisted – Use a battery to boost response signal – $5• Active or battery-powered – Have additional processing capabilities and autonomy because they have more power e.g. sensors – Longer range – $ 30
  15. 15. Outline • RFID Technology • Business Applications – Software and standards • Challenges • @IST
  16. 16. Business applications• Track & Trace – Monitor physical goods and keep history• Industries: – Warehousing – Maintenance – Pharmaceuticals – Medical Devices – Agriculture – Food – Retailing – Defense Credits: Sybase.pt
  17. 17. Video
  18. 18. Software Layers
  19. 19. Architecture Framework
  20. 20. Outline • RFID Technology • Business Applications – Software and standards • Challenges • @IST
  21. 21. RFID middleware is easy…• All readers• Read all tags• At all times Credits: Carlos Perdigão, IST
  22. 22. NOT RFID middleware is easy… • All readerscannot • Read all tags • At all times Credits: Carlos Perdigão, IST
  23. 23. Simulation Credits: Carlos Perdigão, IST
  24. 24. Experimental setup Credits: Nuno Correia, IST & Link Consulting
  25. 25. Field trials Credits: Schuitema supermarkets, RFID Journal
  26. 26. Cloud deployment+ Reliable network
  27. 27. NOT RFID security is easy… • All readersshould not • Read all tags • At all times Credits: Metro Group, RFID Journal
  28. 28. Threats [Garfinkel05]
  29. 29. Security• Privacy – Misbehaving readers, well-behaving tags• Authentication – Well-behaving readers, misbehaving tags• Infrastructure security – Network – Servers • ONS, EPCIS
  30. 30. Conclusions• RFID is a set of technologies – No “one-size-fit-all” tag and reader• All readers cannot and read all tags at all times – RFID middleware challenges• All readers should not read all tags at all times – RFID security challenges• RFID allows things and places in the physical world to automatically generate data – An Internet of Things
  31. 31. Outline • RFID Technology • Business Applications – Software and standards • Challenges • @IST
  32. 32. Completed• Nuno Rodrigues – RFID Logistics integration with Navision ERP• Guilherme Pereira – Open-source RFID track and trace
  33. 33. Completed• Ricardo Carapeto – Segurança de bagagens inteligentes• Pedro Ferreira – Interface EPCIS para BizTalk• Carlos Perdigão – Rede federada de rastreio de bens
  34. 34. Ongoing• Miguel Pardal – Scalable and secure Discovery services
  35. 35. Ongoing• Nuno Correia – RFID Toys - Sistema de controlo de armazém robótico – Fosstrak/Java, Arduino
  36. 36. Proposals• C-Apps: RFID Capture Applications framework – Componentes (ex. OSGi) – Conveyors, gates, portals, … – C-App “store”• Cloud of Things – Virtualization of RFID software – Fosstrak / Java / Cloud provider – Virtual machine provisioning Credits: trendsupdates.com
  37. 37. Miguel.Pardal@IST .utl.pt
  38. 38. Extras
  39. 39. Other RF technologiesHow stuff works PWKits
  40. 40. Range Credits: C. Floerkemeier, MIT
  41. 41. Supply Chains
  42. 42. Automatic data capture
  43. 43. Legal ownership ≠ Physical possesion
  44. 44. Why? Credits: Christian Floerkemeier, MIT
  45. 45. Subscribe, Configure, Notify, Publish [Floerkemeier07a]
  46. 46. Internet of Things @ IST

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