An introduction to RFID

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  • 1. An introduction to RFID Miguel.Pardal@IST .utl.pt June 7th 2010
  • 2. Outline • RFID Technology • Business Applications – Software and standards • Challenges • @IST
  • 3. Outline • RFID Technology • Business Applications – Software and standards • Challenges • @IST
  • 4. RFID tags
  • 5. RFID antennas and readers
  • 6. Other RF technologiesHow stuff works PWKits
  • 7. RFID in action [Roussos06]
  • 8. Radio• ISM radio bands – Frequencies differ in world regions • Europe, Americas, and Asia• LF/HF RFID or UHF RFID? – Operating principles are different – Near-field far-field boundary • Lambda / 2 PI
  • 9. Near-field RFID• LF (Low Frequency): [30 .. 300] kHz• HF (High Frequency): [3 ..30] MHz• Inductive coupling• Load modulation
  • 10. Shower Analogy
  • 11. Far-field RFID• UHF(Ultra-High Frequency): [300..3 000] MHz• MW (Microwaves): [2,5 .. 5,8 GHz]• Wave coupling• Backscatter
  • 12. Lighthouse Analogy
  • 13. Range Credits: C. Floerkemeier, MIT
  • 14. Tag components Credits: Rafsec OY, [Sarma01]
  • 15. Manufacturing trade-off• Cost• Range Pick 2• Functionality
  • 16. Tag categories• Passive or battery-less – Use only power provided by the RFID reader’s signal – Smaller, more flexible – $ 0.20• Semi-passive or battery-assisted – Use a battery to boost response signal – $5• Active or battery-powered – Have additional processing capabilities and autonomy because they have more power e.g. sensors – Longer range – $ 30
  • 17. Outline • RFID Technology • Business Applications – Software and standards • Challenges • @IST
  • 18. Business applications• Track & Trace – Monitor physical goods and keep history• Industries: – Warehousing – Maintenance – Pharmaceuticals – Medical Devices – Agriculture – Food – Retailing – Defense Credits: Sybase.pt
  • 19. Software Layers
  • 20. Architecture Framework
  • 21. RFID middleware is easy…• All readers• Read all tags• At all times Credits: Carlos Perdigão, IST
  • 22. NOT RFID middleware is easy… • All readerscannot • Read all tags • At all times Credits: Carlos Perdigão, IST
  • 23. Outline • RFID Technology • Business Applications – Software and standards • Challenges • @IST
  • 24. NOT RFID middleware is easy… • All readerscannot • Read all tags • At all times Credits: Carlos Perdigão, IST
  • 25. Why Credits: Christian Floerkemeier, MIT
  • 26. Subscribe, Configure, Notify, Publish [Floerkemeier07a]
  • 27. Simulation Credits: Carlos Perdigão, IST
  • 28. Experimental setup Credits: Nova Ahmed, Georgia Tech
  • 29. Trials Credits: Schuitema supermarkets, RFID Journal
  • 30. NOT RFID security is easy… • All readersshould not • Read all tags • At all times Credits: Metro Group, RFID Journal
  • 31. Threats [Garfinkel05]
  • 32. Security• Privacy – Misbehaving readers, well-behaving tags• Authentication – Well-behaving readers, misbehaving tags• Infrastructure security – Network – Servers • ONS, EPCIS
  • 33. Conclusions• RFID is a set of technologies – No “one-size-fit-all” tag and reader• All readers cannot and read all tags at all times – RFID middleware challenges• All readers should not read all tags at all times – RFID security challenges• RFID allows things and places in the physical world to automatically generate data – An Internet of Things
  • 34. Outline • RFID Technology • Business Applications – Software and standards • Challenges • @IST
  • 35. Internet of Things @ IST
  • 36. Completed• Nuno Rodrigues – RFID Logistics integration with Navision ERP• Guilherme Pereira – Open-source RFID track and trace
  • 37. Ongoing• Ricardo Carapeto – Segurança de bagagens inteligentes• Pedro Ferreira – Interface EPCIS para BizTalk• Carlos Perdigão – Rede federada de rastreio de bens
  • 38. Ongoing• Miguel Pardal – Scalable and secure Discovery services
  • 39. Proposals• RFID Toys – Sistema de controlo de armazém robótico• RFID Virtual Lab – Simulador RFID
  • 40. Miguel.Pardal@IST .utl.pt