Policy responses to multiculturalism, integration and diversity - part 2
Migration in Europe: Old hosts,Recent Hosts and Countries in Transition Prof. Anna Triandafyllidou, Part 2, Joint Executive Training Seminar
Old Host Countries • France • Germany • Britain
FRANCE Main features France has been a country of immigration since the mid 19th century. French immigration management policy was motivated by the necessity to meet the labour market needs French integration policy ◦ Followed the Republican ideology of a common civic culture – cultural and ethnic diversity is only for the private sphere ◦ Generous naturalisation policy
The population of France• In 2007, 61,795,000 people living in France: – 89.9% were French by birth, – 4.3 % were French by naturalisation, – 5.8% were Foreigners.• Eurostat in 2009, – foreigners made up 5.8 % (i.e. some 3,675,000) – 2% came from the EU27 countries – 3.8% from outside EU27• The fact that official statistics only record nationality results in statistically concealing the diversity of the population after a few generations.
Main immigrant groups in France 608 2,000 (40%): Europe (Belgium, 12% Germany, Italy, Netherlands, 222 Poland, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland 5% and United Kingdom). 2 000 40% 1,500 (31%): North Africa (Algeria,57012% Morocco and Tunisia) 570 (12%): Sub-Saharan Africa (Cameroon, Congo, Côte d’Ivoire, Senegal and Mali) 222 (5%): Turkey 1 500 608 (12%): Rest of the World 31% (including China)
Nationality Laws in France• 1986: the Chirac government (right-wing) introduced a new bill to bring automatic naturalisation of second generation immigrants to a halt (n.b. the case of children of Algerian parents born in France)• 1993: the Pasqua laws were passed (right-wing government), including the requirement that second generation immigrants actively declare their desire to be French.• 1998: the Guigou law (left-wing government) suppressed the requirement for the second generation to make an express declaration that they desired to be French.• In 2007, the government created a Ministry of Immigration and National Identity, clearly articulating the link between the two notions. The same year, it introduced a New Reception and Integration Contract for newly arrived migrants to follow (it consists in language learning and knowledge acquisition).• In 2010, however, having launched a series of debates over national identity and having received many criticisms, this Ministry was dissolved (tasks reassigned to the Ministry of the Interior)
Naturalisation• The number of people receiving French citizenship had been falling – 2004 approx. 170,000 people per year – 2007 approx. 132,000 – 2008, 137,000 naturalisations (clearing backlog)• Requirements: 5 years legal residence,• average rate of acceptance from 2000 to 2004 was 78% approx.• ‘Assimilation criteria’: knowledge of French language, stable financial resources, current residence in France, Republican values
New measures on integration and family reunification• Implementation of the 2007 law on immigration, integration and asylum - 30 Oct 2008 France passed a decree on the preparation for integration in France of non-EU nationals who want to settle in the country. – New procedure for family reunification. Family members of an immigrant who fulfils all the requirements have to pass a test of their knowledge of the French language and culture when still in their origin country. – Those who do not pass the test must attend language training for up to 2 months before they can obtain a long-term visa. – A contrat d’accueil et d’intégration pour la famille (CAIF) to be signed by TCNs who have been granted family reunification, should they have children in France, was also introduced – Also assessment of skills to encourage family members to enter the labour market
Republican Assimilationism in crisis?• Republican Assimilationism – It is up to individuals to integrate – Citizenship acquisition relatively open – Integration inextricably linked to equality at the individual level• Problematic issue: the affaire du foulard – and the law on ostentatious religious symbols 2004
GERMANY: Major issues• Post war co-ethnic flows• The partition of Germany and East to West migration during Cold War• Guest worker migration• Deutschland ist kein Einwanderungsland• Change in citizenship law (2000)• Recent initiatives for integration and the question of Muslims
Early post war migrations and until 1989• Early post war period 1945-1949 – 12 million Germans/Ethnic Germans fled to Germany from former German territories/other parts Eastern Europe. 2/3s went to western Germany (FRG).• 1950-1989 – Before the Berlin Wall (1961) 3.8 million Germans moving from West to East Germany – 400 000 people migrating from the GDR to the FRG despite closed borders. Another 1.4 million ethnic Germans migrated from Eastern Europe to the FRG
The ‘Guest Workers’• The guest workers (till 1973) – Late 50s labor shortage in the economically recovering Germany – Bilateral agreements with several southern European states altogether 14 million workers came to Germany and most of them left again. – Plan: let them work for 1-2 years and then exchange them for other guest workers this process was stopped in 1973, but workers who had a job were allowed to remain 2.7 million rested and gained long term or permanent residence permits this fact was not intended in the beginning. – Those were in large extend followed by family members from their country of origin.
Migrant population and naturalisationMigrant population• In 1991 – 5.9 million• In 1996 till 2003 – 7.3 million• In 2004 – 6.7 million• Between 1994 and 2003, 1.2 million people received German citizenship. Hence there is a modest positive net migration balance which is levelled out by naturalisations.• Among foreigners, over 5 million were foreign born in mid 2000s. But of those under 17 years of age less than 1/3rd were foreign born.• Average duration of residence for foreign nationals in 2005 was 17 years.
Citizenship and immigration law• Citizenship law – Children of non-German citizens born in Germany have access to German citizenship, legal and unlimited residence permit of at least one of the parents for at least 8 years. When aged 18–23, the child has to decide on German or another nationality. – Mistrust towards Muslims. Differential approach to c/ship by different national groups.• Immigration law 2002 – A point system but then scrapped – fear of liberalising migration management – Introduction of obligatory integration courses for new entrants (600 hours lang.lessons and 30 hours civics)
Current migration challenges in Germany• Negative opinion about Islam – “parallel societies” – But segregation related to Germany’s non-immigration policy for more than 30 years no one wanted to integrate foreigners, because they were not supposed to stay.• Emphasis on integration – socio-economic more than cultural-religious – Countering higher unemployment and welfare dependence among immigrants and their descendants. This is the main focus.
BRITAIN: Major issues• The British empire legacy• An outward looking economy• Multicultural Britain• Super diversity• What role for and in Europe?• Where do we go from here?
The size of the immigrant population in BritainInflows per category Major national groups• 60 million resident population according to LFS, 2008 – In 2008, 6.6 million foreign • Poles 521,000 born • Irish 357,000• In 2006, 30% entered on a work permit, 32% on family • Indians 284,000 reunification, 9% on • Pakistanis 175,000 humanitarian reasons, the rest as • US citizens 134,000 free movement within EU (about 30%). • French 120,00
Ethnic minorities and race relations• The British integration model: – Race relations since 1965 – anti discrimination but also measures to integrate communities not only individuals – Since 2000 with EU directives against discrimination the framework strengthened. Further more on 2006 The Racial and Religious Hatred Act.• Territorial concentration of ethnic minorities. – Census 2001: Half of them resided in the Greater London Area accounting for 20% of its populationo. 95% resided in England (only 5% in Scotland and Wales). Similar percentages for asylum seekers and refugees
Prejudice and acceptance• [T]he English seemed to display more hostility towards the West Indians because they sought a greater degree of acceptance than the English wished to accord; in more recent times there seemed to have been more hostility towards Asians because they are insufficiently inclined to adopt the English ways. (Michael Banton 1972)• “Whereas Asians are perceived to be integrating positively into Britain, contributing a welcome spiciness and novelty to British culture, Muslims are regarded as an alienated, problematic minority.” (Pnina Werbner 2004)
Multiculturalism in crisis?• 9/11 and 2005 London bombings –problems of social cohesion• Multiculturalism needs to be overhauled and reformed - The 2001 crisis – driven by the summer 2001 violence in northern English cities – also 1997 victory of New Labour – emphasis on social cohesion – Emphasis in civic integration – Citizenship ceremonies – Requirement to learn the language• Conservatives in power 2010 – “muscular” liberalism – emphasis on citizenship values and civic integration but communities remain important
Question for discussion• Which model would you see your country fitting in? – Republican assimilationism (France) – Segmented integration (Germany) – Multiculturalism (Britain)