EU policies on migration and         mobility in a global context            Executive training on migration in the Easter...
Outline• Main approaches to analysis of migration  policy• Migration vs. mobility• Migration and mobility EU-way• EU chall...
Main approaches to analysis of            migration policywww.migrationpolicycentre.eu   MPC
What is a migration policy?   Migration policy concerns state’s policies of entry, stay and   exit of own and foreign popu...
Types of migration policiesMigration policy regime        Cases (in various periods of history!)Migrant-exporters         ...
Migration policy in the current scholarship• Main unit of analysis: behaviour of the State (national level), but more  and...
Do the States lose control?• The national States can no longer exercise their sovereignty in the times  of globalization. ...
Why do the States allow for unwanted                      immigration?• Domestic vested interests of different groups (emp...
How does it all translate to the EU experience?• Migration policy in the EU means immigration policy• EU consists of vario...
MIGRATION                                  VS                                MOBILITYwww.migrationpolicycentre.eu         ...
What is the difference?• Intuitive: mobility is positive, migration is negative  (mobility is perpetual, migration is fina...
Migration and mobility                     EU-waywww.migrationpolicycentre.eu     MPC
Internal EU mobility• Freedom of Movement:    – Economic interest of Implicit migrant-exporter of 1960’s:      Italy• From...
Mobility and enlargement• In 1990’s all EU states abolished visa obligation for the citizens  of the 8 post-communist stat...
EU migration vs. mobility in migration policy documentsII. Legal Migration and Mobility           II.3. IntegrationII.1. P...
EU migration vs. mobility in migration policy documents   “The EU concept of mobility covers two categories of persons:   ...
EU migration policy…… does not really exist.• Levels of governance:   – Prerogative of EU Member States   – EU level (what...
EU challenges                              in                    external cooperation                             on      ...
Challenges• International cooperation on migration is a  major challenge for sovereign States in  bilateral relations• EU ...
Main challenges in external dimension of the EU                   migration policy:    1) the limited ability of the EU to...
Conclusions• Discourse on migration policy has been gradually skewed to limit the  concept to immigration policy.• The sta...
Thank you for attention!                          www.carim-east.eu                       agnieszka.weinar@eui.euwww.migra...
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EU policies on migration and mobility in a global context

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Executive Training Migration in the EU and its Neighbourhood

Florence, 21 January 2013
by Agnieszka Weinar

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EU policies on migration and mobility in a global context

  1. 1. EU policies on migration and mobility in a global context Executive training on migration in the Eastern Neighbourhood, Florence, 21-23 January 2013 Agnieszka Weinar Migration Policy Centre, European University Institutewww.migrationpolicycentre.eu MPC
  2. 2. Outline• Main approaches to analysis of migration policy• Migration vs. mobility• Migration and mobility EU-way• EU challenges in external cooperation on migrationwww.migrationpolicycentre.eu MPC
  3. 3. Main approaches to analysis of migration policywww.migrationpolicycentre.eu MPC
  4. 4. What is a migration policy? Migration policy concerns state’s policies of entry, stay and exit of own and foreign population on its territory (e.g. Zolberg 1999, Brettel and Hollifield 2000)Migration, immigration, emigration… A purely semantic issue?-> Myron Weiner, 1987, International Emigration and the Third World.What does the use of the word “migration” have to say about the balance of power and discourse-creation?www.migrationpolicycentre.eu MPC
  5. 5. Types of migration policiesMigration policy regime Cases (in various periods of history!)Migrant-exporters Implicit: e.g. Jordan, India, Poland, China; Explicit: Philippines, MexicoRefugee-producers Deliberate or spontaneous: ex-Yugoslavia, Rwanda, Afghanistan, Iraq, SyriaEmigration-restrainers European states (till late 1700s); USSR, China, North Korea, CubaImmigration-promoters Australia, Canada, New Zealand, but also Gulf States, Russian FederationEntry-regulators All statesOut-migration restrainers Economic policies: EU migration and development (but CAP); US (but Sugar Program); Military intervention: Kosovo, Haiti Source: Michael S. Teitelbaum, 2002www.migrationpolicycentre.eu MPC
  6. 6. Migration policy in the current scholarship• Main unit of analysis: behaviour of the State (national level), but more and more often scholars look at the governance of migration, i.e. interactions between international level and the State (especially in the case of the EU studies) or local level and the State (specific to integration policy studies). !!!! THE STATE = LIBERAL WESTERN DEMOCRACY !!!!• Main areas of policy action under scrutiny: – Border policy – Legal migration policy (including labour migration, but also e.g. students) – Visa policy – Asylum policy – Integration policy – External dimension• Main debates in political science: – Do the States lose control? – Why do the States allow for unwanted immigration? www.migrationpolicycentre.eu MPC
  7. 7. Do the States lose control?• The national States can no longer exercise their sovereignty in the times of globalization. They are too strongly interconnected and bound by international level. (e.g. S. Sassen, Losing control? Sovereignty in An Age of Globalization, 1998)• The States try to avoid domestic constraints (e.g. policy scrutiny by courts) and thus move cooperation on migration to an upper level – in the case of Europe it is European Union. (e.g. S. Lavenex, Shifting Up and Out: the Foreign Policy of European Immigration Control, 2006)• The States do not lose control, they only change the means of this control, from traditional repressive visible instruments (as physical borders) to more sophisticated, invisible tools (as new technologies employed for inland detection or remote control strategies). (e.g. S. Mau et al., Liberal States and the Freedom of Movement, 2012) www.migrationpolicycentre.eu MPC
  8. 8. Why do the States allow for unwanted immigration?• Domestic vested interests of different groups (employers, business lobby) change State’s preference. Assumption: low skilled migrants compete with lower strata of society (less powerful). (e.g. G. Freeman, Modes of Immigration Politics in Liberal Democratic States, 1995)• Liberal economy argument or “gap hypothesis” has it that there is an implementation gap as regards the restrictive stated objectives and policy implementation. (e.g. W. Cornelius et al. Controlling immigration, 2004)• States can no longer freely implement restrictions as they are bound by judicial system and the human rights regime. (Ch. Joppke, Immigration and the Nation State, 1999) www.migrationpolicycentre.eu MPC
  9. 9. How does it all translate to the EU experience?• Migration policy in the EU means immigration policy• EU consists of various types of migration policy regimes: migrant-exporters, ex-emigration restrainers, immigration- promoters…• EU is usually treated as a synonym for Liberal Western Democratic regime, but EU-27 is varied. Not all can be analyzed according to the prevailing scholarship.www.migrationpolicycentre.eu MPC
  10. 10. MIGRATION VS MOBILITYwww.migrationpolicycentre.eu MPC
  11. 11. What is the difference?• Intuitive: mobility is positive, migration is negative (mobility is perpetual, migration is final)• Applied to different categories of people: e.g. students and researchers don’t migrate, they are mobile;• Applied in different policy settings: e.g. intra-regional mobility, but inter-regional migration• Applied to different policies: e.g. visa policy can enhance mobility while labour migration policy supports migration.www.migrationpolicycentre.eu MPC
  12. 12. Migration and mobility EU-waywww.migrationpolicycentre.eu MPC
  13. 13. Internal EU mobility• Freedom of Movement: – Economic interest of Implicit migrant-exporter of 1960’s: Italy• From Migrant Workers to EU citizens in less than 30 years (Maastricht Treaty 1992); coordination of social security – 1 May 2010!• the Directive 2004/38/EC on freedom of movement - one of the most often breached EU law• Non-EU citizens only relatively recently allowed to access this right (2004) but EEA + EFTA are in.www.migrationpolicycentre.eu MPC
  14. 14. Mobility and enlargement• In 1990’s all EU states abolished visa obligation for the citizens of the 8 post-communist states. De facto open borders for tourists and visitors. Effects?• Enlargement of 2004: transition period for full access to labour markets. Effects?• More mobility = access to labour markets or visa liberalisation? www.migrationpolicycentre.eu MPC
  15. 15. EU migration vs. mobility in migration policy documentsII. Legal Migration and Mobility II.3. IntegrationII.1. Promoting legal migration channels II.3.1 Promoting and exchangingII.2 Economic migration information on integrationII.1.1 Satisfying labour market needs II.3.2 Mainstreaming in other policy areasII.1.2 Skills recognition II.3.3 Involving other stakeholdersII.1.3 Global Approach to Migration and II.3.4 Promoting values and cohesionMobility II.4. Managing Migration and MobilityII.1.4 Mobility Partnerships and other II.4.1 Visa Policy(bilateral) agreements with third II.4.2 Frontexcountries II.4.3 Schengen GovernanceII.1.5 Highly qualified workers II.4.4 Agreements with third countriesII.1.5 Students and Researchers II.4.5 Use of modern technologyII.2. Family Reunification II.4.6 Training of Border Guards COM SWD 3rd Report on Immigration and Asylum, 2011www.migrationpolicycentre.eu MPC
  16. 16. EU migration vs. mobility in migration policy documents “The EU concept of mobility covers two categories of persons: people who stay in their countries of destination for up to three months as well as so-called short-term migrants. In any event, it seems that every person who legally moves to a Member State up to 12 month period regardless the purpose of the stay is for the EU a mobile person as opposed to a migrant who takes up a residence for the period of 12 months and beyond.”S. Mananshvili, 2013.www.migrationpolicycentre.eu MPC
  17. 17. EU migration policy…… does not really exist.• Levels of governance: – Prerogative of EU Member States – EU level (what is EU???) – regional level (Regional Consultative Processes: transgovernmentalism) – international level (UN Lisbon effect)• Limited topics of exclusive competence• Similar levels: Canada and the US.www.migrationpolicycentre.eu MPC
  18. 18. EU challenges in external cooperation on migrationwww.migrationpolicycentre.eu MPC
  19. 19. Challenges• International cooperation on migration is a major challenge for sovereign States in bilateral relations• EU as an actor of external policy – Objectives, actors, implementation• Global Approach to Migration and Mobility – Outside of the external policy – One-sector approach – No external toolswww.migrationpolicycentre.eu MPC
  20. 20. Main challenges in external dimension of the EU migration policy: 1) the limited ability of the EU to define its migration policy with its 27 sovereign States; 2) tensions between the national and supranational level in the EU as regards international cooperation on migration; 3) the diverging interests and priorities of sending regions and/or partner countries; 4) the limited implementation capacities of the EU and its Member States, as well as of partner countries.www.migrationpolicycentre.eu MPC
  21. 21. Conclusions• Discourse on migration policy has been gradually skewed to limit the concept to immigration policy.• The states usually go through different migration policy regimes in different historical periods.• EU is a collation of various migration policy regimes but unifies them under the labels Out-migration-restrainers and entry-regulators.• EU policies on migration and mobility are not clearly divided. Traditionally mobility is seen as a prerogative of EU nationals but analysis of EU documents and language proves that the two concepts are more intermingled, especially recently, and for a reason: to add a positive tone.• EU policies on migration and mobility face challenges both internally and externally, but the weaknesses are more visible in the external action. www.migrationpolicycentre.eu MPC
  22. 22. Thank you for attention! www.carim-east.eu agnieszka.weinar@eui.euwww.migrationpolicycentre.eu MPC

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