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AN ANALYSIS OF THE APPLICATION OF BALANCED SCORECARD PERFORMANCE-MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES TO INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SERVICES DELIVERY FOR UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS.
AN ANALYSIS OF THE APPLICATION OF BALANCED SCORECARD PERFORMANCE-MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES TO INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SERVICES DELIVERY FOR UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS.
AN ANALYSIS OF THE APPLICATION OF BALANCED SCORECARD PERFORMANCE-MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES TO INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SERVICES DELIVERY FOR UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS.
AN ANALYSIS OF THE APPLICATION OF BALANCED SCORECARD PERFORMANCE-MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES TO INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SERVICES DELIVERY FOR UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS.
AN ANALYSIS OF THE APPLICATION OF BALANCED SCORECARD PERFORMANCE-MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES TO INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SERVICES DELIVERY FOR UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS.
AN ANALYSIS OF THE APPLICATION OF BALANCED SCORECARD PERFORMANCE-MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES TO INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SERVICES DELIVERY FOR UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS.
AN ANALYSIS OF THE APPLICATION OF BALANCED SCORECARD PERFORMANCE-MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES TO INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SERVICES DELIVERY FOR UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS.
AN ANALYSIS OF THE APPLICATION OF BALANCED SCORECARD PERFORMANCE-MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES TO INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SERVICES DELIVERY FOR UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS.
AN ANALYSIS OF THE APPLICATION OF BALANCED SCORECARD PERFORMANCE-MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES TO INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SERVICES DELIVERY FOR UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS.
AN ANALYSIS OF THE APPLICATION OF BALANCED SCORECARD PERFORMANCE-MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES TO INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SERVICES DELIVERY FOR UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS.
AN ANALYSIS OF THE APPLICATION OF BALANCED SCORECARD PERFORMANCE-MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES TO INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SERVICES DELIVERY FOR UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS.
AN ANALYSIS OF THE APPLICATION OF BALANCED SCORECARD PERFORMANCE-MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES TO INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SERVICES DELIVERY FOR UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS.
AN ANALYSIS OF THE APPLICATION OF BALANCED SCORECARD PERFORMANCE-MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES TO INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SERVICES DELIVERY FOR UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS.
AN ANALYSIS OF THE APPLICATION OF BALANCED SCORECARD PERFORMANCE-MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES TO INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SERVICES DELIVERY FOR UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS.
AN ANALYSIS OF THE APPLICATION OF BALANCED SCORECARD PERFORMANCE-MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES TO INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SERVICES DELIVERY FOR UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS.
AN ANALYSIS OF THE APPLICATION OF BALANCED SCORECARD PERFORMANCE-MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES TO INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SERVICES DELIVERY FOR UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS.
AN ANALYSIS OF THE APPLICATION OF BALANCED SCORECARD PERFORMANCE-MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES TO INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SERVICES DELIVERY FOR UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS.
AN ANALYSIS OF THE APPLICATION OF BALANCED SCORECARD PERFORMANCE-MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES TO INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SERVICES DELIVERY FOR UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS.
AN ANALYSIS OF THE APPLICATION OF BALANCED SCORECARD PERFORMANCE-MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES TO INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SERVICES DELIVERY FOR UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS.
AN ANALYSIS OF THE APPLICATION OF BALANCED SCORECARD PERFORMANCE-MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES TO INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SERVICES DELIVERY FOR UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS.
AN ANALYSIS OF THE APPLICATION OF BALANCED SCORECARD PERFORMANCE-MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES TO INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SERVICES DELIVERY FOR UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS.
AN ANALYSIS OF THE APPLICATION OF BALANCED SCORECARD PERFORMANCE-MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES TO INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SERVICES DELIVERY FOR UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS.
AN ANALYSIS OF THE APPLICATION OF BALANCED SCORECARD PERFORMANCE-MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES TO INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SERVICES DELIVERY FOR UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS.
AN ANALYSIS OF THE APPLICATION OF BALANCED SCORECARD PERFORMANCE-MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES TO INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SERVICES DELIVERY FOR UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS.
AN ANALYSIS OF THE APPLICATION OF BALANCED SCORECARD PERFORMANCE-MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES TO INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SERVICES DELIVERY FOR UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS.
AN ANALYSIS OF THE APPLICATION OF BALANCED SCORECARD PERFORMANCE-MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES TO INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SERVICES DELIVERY FOR UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS.
AN ANALYSIS OF THE APPLICATION OF BALANCED SCORECARD PERFORMANCE-MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES TO INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SERVICES DELIVERY FOR UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS.
AN ANALYSIS OF THE APPLICATION OF BALANCED SCORECARD PERFORMANCE-MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES TO INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SERVICES DELIVERY FOR UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS.
AN ANALYSIS OF THE APPLICATION OF BALANCED SCORECARD PERFORMANCE-MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES TO INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SERVICES DELIVERY FOR UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS.
AN ANALYSIS OF THE APPLICATION OF BALANCED SCORECARD PERFORMANCE-MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES TO INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SERVICES DELIVERY FOR UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS.
AN ANALYSIS OF THE APPLICATION OF BALANCED SCORECARD PERFORMANCE-MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES TO INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SERVICES DELIVERY FOR UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS.
AN ANALYSIS OF THE APPLICATION OF BALANCED SCORECARD PERFORMANCE-MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES TO INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SERVICES DELIVERY FOR UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS.
AN ANALYSIS OF THE APPLICATION OF BALANCED SCORECARD PERFORMANCE-MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES TO INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SERVICES DELIVERY FOR UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS.
AN ANALYSIS OF THE APPLICATION OF BALANCED SCORECARD PERFORMANCE-MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES TO INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SERVICES DELIVERY FOR UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS.
AN ANALYSIS OF THE APPLICATION OF BALANCED SCORECARD PERFORMANCE-MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES TO INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SERVICES DELIVERY FOR UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS.
AN ANALYSIS OF THE APPLICATION OF BALANCED SCORECARD PERFORMANCE-MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES TO INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SERVICES DELIVERY FOR UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS.
AN ANALYSIS OF THE APPLICATION OF BALANCED SCORECARD PERFORMANCE-MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES TO INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SERVICES DELIVERY FOR UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS.
AN ANALYSIS OF THE APPLICATION OF BALANCED SCORECARD PERFORMANCE-MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES TO INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SERVICES DELIVERY FOR UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS.
AN ANALYSIS OF THE APPLICATION OF BALANCED SCORECARD PERFORMANCE-MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES TO INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SERVICES DELIVERY FOR UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS.
AN ANALYSIS OF THE APPLICATION OF BALANCED SCORECARD PERFORMANCE-MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES TO INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SERVICES DELIVERY FOR UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS.
AN ANALYSIS OF THE APPLICATION OF BALANCED SCORECARD PERFORMANCE-MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES TO INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SERVICES DELIVERY FOR UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS.
AN ANALYSIS OF THE APPLICATION OF BALANCED SCORECARD PERFORMANCE-MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES TO INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SERVICES DELIVERY FOR UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS.
AN ANALYSIS OF THE APPLICATION OF BALANCED SCORECARD PERFORMANCE-MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES TO INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SERVICES DELIVERY FOR UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS.
AN ANALYSIS OF THE APPLICATION OF BALANCED SCORECARD PERFORMANCE-MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES TO INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SERVICES DELIVERY FOR UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS.
AN ANALYSIS OF THE APPLICATION OF BALANCED SCORECARD PERFORMANCE-MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES TO INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SERVICES DELIVERY FOR UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS.
AN ANALYSIS OF THE APPLICATION OF BALANCED SCORECARD PERFORMANCE-MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES TO INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SERVICES DELIVERY FOR UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS.
AN ANALYSIS OF THE APPLICATION OF BALANCED SCORECARD PERFORMANCE-MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES TO INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SERVICES DELIVERY FOR UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS.
AN ANALYSIS OF THE APPLICATION OF BALANCED SCORECARD PERFORMANCE-MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES TO INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SERVICES DELIVERY FOR UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS.
AN ANALYSIS OF THE APPLICATION OF BALANCED SCORECARD PERFORMANCE-MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES TO INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SERVICES DELIVERY FOR UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS.
AN ANALYSIS OF THE APPLICATION OF BALANCED SCORECARD PERFORMANCE-MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES TO INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SERVICES DELIVERY FOR UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS.
AN ANALYSIS OF THE APPLICATION OF BALANCED SCORECARD PERFORMANCE-MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES TO INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SERVICES DELIVERY FOR UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS.
AN ANALYSIS OF THE APPLICATION OF BALANCED SCORECARD PERFORMANCE-MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES TO INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SERVICES DELIVERY FOR UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS.
AN ANALYSIS OF THE APPLICATION OF BALANCED SCORECARD PERFORMANCE-MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES TO INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SERVICES DELIVERY FOR UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS.
AN ANALYSIS OF THE APPLICATION OF BALANCED SCORECARD PERFORMANCE-MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES TO INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SERVICES DELIVERY FOR UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS.
AN ANALYSIS OF THE APPLICATION OF BALANCED SCORECARD PERFORMANCE-MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES TO INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SERVICES DELIVERY FOR UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS.
AN ANALYSIS OF THE APPLICATION OF BALANCED SCORECARD PERFORMANCE-MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES TO INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SERVICES DELIVERY FOR UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS.
AN ANALYSIS OF THE APPLICATION OF BALANCED SCORECARD PERFORMANCE-MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES TO INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SERVICES DELIVERY FOR UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS.
AN ANALYSIS OF THE APPLICATION OF BALANCED SCORECARD PERFORMANCE-MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES TO INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SERVICES DELIVERY FOR UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS.
AN ANALYSIS OF THE APPLICATION OF BALANCED SCORECARD PERFORMANCE-MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES TO INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SERVICES DELIVERY FOR UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS.
AN ANALYSIS OF THE APPLICATION OF BALANCED SCORECARD PERFORMANCE-MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES TO INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SERVICES DELIVERY FOR UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS.
AN ANALYSIS OF THE APPLICATION OF BALANCED SCORECARD PERFORMANCE-MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES TO INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SERVICES DELIVERY FOR UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS.
AN ANALYSIS OF THE APPLICATION OF BALANCED SCORECARD PERFORMANCE-MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES TO INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SERVICES DELIVERY FOR UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS.
AN ANALYSIS OF THE APPLICATION OF BALANCED SCORECARD PERFORMANCE-MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES TO INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SERVICES DELIVERY FOR UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS.
AN ANALYSIS OF THE APPLICATION OF BALANCED SCORECARD PERFORMANCE-MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES TO INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SERVICES DELIVERY FOR UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS.
AN ANALYSIS OF THE APPLICATION OF BALANCED SCORECARD PERFORMANCE-MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES TO INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SERVICES DELIVERY FOR UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS.
AN ANALYSIS OF THE APPLICATION OF BALANCED SCORECARD PERFORMANCE-MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES TO INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SERVICES DELIVERY FOR UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS.
AN ANALYSIS OF THE APPLICATION OF BALANCED SCORECARD PERFORMANCE-MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES TO INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SERVICES DELIVERY FOR UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS.
AN ANALYSIS OF THE APPLICATION OF BALANCED SCORECARD PERFORMANCE-MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES TO INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SERVICES DELIVERY FOR UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS.
AN ANALYSIS OF THE APPLICATION OF BALANCED SCORECARD PERFORMANCE-MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES TO INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SERVICES DELIVERY FOR UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS.
AN ANALYSIS OF THE APPLICATION OF BALANCED SCORECARD PERFORMANCE-MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES TO INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SERVICES DELIVERY FOR UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS.
AN ANALYSIS OF THE APPLICATION OF BALANCED SCORECARD PERFORMANCE-MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES TO INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SERVICES DELIVERY FOR UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS.
AN ANALYSIS OF THE APPLICATION OF BALANCED SCORECARD PERFORMANCE-MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES TO INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SERVICES DELIVERY FOR UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS.
AN ANALYSIS OF THE APPLICATION OF BALANCED SCORECARD PERFORMANCE-MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES TO INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SERVICES DELIVERY FOR UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS.
AN ANALYSIS OF THE APPLICATION OF BALANCED SCORECARD PERFORMANCE-MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES TO INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SERVICES DELIVERY FOR UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS.
AN ANALYSIS OF THE APPLICATION OF BALANCED SCORECARD PERFORMANCE-MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES TO INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SERVICES DELIVERY FOR UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS.
AN ANALYSIS OF THE APPLICATION OF BALANCED SCORECARD PERFORMANCE-MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES TO INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SERVICES DELIVERY FOR UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS.
AN ANALYSIS OF THE APPLICATION OF BALANCED SCORECARD PERFORMANCE-MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES TO INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SERVICES DELIVERY FOR UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS.
AN ANALYSIS OF THE APPLICATION OF BALANCED SCORECARD PERFORMANCE-MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES TO INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SERVICES DELIVERY FOR UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS.
AN ANALYSIS OF THE APPLICATION OF BALANCED SCORECARD PERFORMANCE-MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES TO INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SERVICES DELIVERY FOR UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS.
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AN ANALYSIS OF THE APPLICATION OF BALANCED SCORECARD PERFORMANCE-MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES TO INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SERVICES DELIVERY FOR UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS.

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Copy of my dissertation for my MSc in International Management.

Copy of my dissertation for my MSc in International Management.

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  • 1. 1 AN ANALYSIS OF THE APPLICATION OF BALANCEDSCORECARD PERFORMANCE-MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES TOINFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SERVICES DELIVERY FOR UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS. By Mark A. Polan e S id: 15023860 A DISSERT ATION Submit t ed t o In part ial fulfillment of t he requirement s for t he degree o f MASTER OF SCI ENCE INTERNATIONAL MANAGEMENT 2012
  • 2. 2 A Dissertation: Entitled AN ANALYSIS OF THE APPLICATION OF BALANCED SCORECARD PERFORMANCE-MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES TO INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SERVICES DELIVERY FOR UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS. By Mark A. PolaneWe hereby certify that this Dissertation submitted by Mark A. Polane conforms to acceptablestandards, and as such is fully adequate in scope and quality. It is therefore approved as thefulfillment of the Dissertation requirements for the degree of Master of Science inInternational Management. Approved:Dissertation Advisor Date
  • 3. 3 CERTIFICATION STATEMENTI her e b y cer t i f y t h at t h is p ap er co n st it u t e s m y o w n p r o d u ct , t hatw her e t he la n g u ag e o f o t her s is set fo r t h , q u o t at io n ma r k s soi n d ic at e, a n d t hat ap p r o p r iat e cr ed it is g i v e n w h er e I ha v e u se dt he la n g u ag e, id ea s, e x p r e s s io n s o r wr it in g s o f a no t h er .SignedMar k A. Po lane
  • 4. 4 ABSTRACTThis dissert at io n aimed t o find out if t he ICT organizat io n for t he Unit edNat ions Peacekeeping Operat ions could improve it s ser vice deliver y b y“running IT as a bus iness”, and if adopt ing such ICT deliver y frameworkswould offer per for mance impro vement s. Using an elect ronic sur ve y andfocused unst ruct ured int erviews wit h a select number o f member s of t he UNICT organizat io n t he aut hor aimed t o d et er mine what and how ICT deliver ycan be improved and overa ll organizat ional per for mance enhanced.The Balanced Scorecard is examined as to it s applicabilit y in t hepeacekeeping operat ions as an alt er nat ive or addit io n t o t he much cr it ic ized“r esult s based budget ing” and “result s based management ” t hat is current lypract iced in t he UN.BSC is being adopt ed successfully in var ious not -for-profit and publicorganizat io ns (Chan, 2004; Niven, 2008). The ke y operat io nal ar m o f t he ICTorganizat io n for t he p eacekeeping operat ions, t he Unit ed N at ions Glo balService Cent er has recent ly adopt ed and imple ment ed a Balanced Scorecard inorder to adequat ely define and measure success.Inspired by t he ICT organizat io n “IVENT” t hat provides ICT ser vices t o t heNet her lands defense forces, t he aut hor examines if t he organizat io nal modeladopt ed t here could be applied to t he ICT organizat io n for t he peacekeepingoperat ions. The research findings show t hat in fact t he ICT organizat ion fort he peacekeeping operat ions is slo wly t ransit io ning int o a model t hat is moreser vice and business or ient ed similar t o t he one developed in t he Net her landsdefense forces. I t remains t o be seen how far it could t ransit io n int o a model
  • 5. 5t hat act ually runs IT as a business, given the r igidit y and bureaucracy o f t heUnit ed Nat io ns.
  • 6. 6 AcknowledgementsThe author wishes to acknowledge all the instructors and fellow students that he worked withover the course of the last three years as part of the various Modules studied, the wealth ofknowledge gained has truly been invaluable to me.In addition he wishes to acknowledge the help of his dissertation advisor who despite dealingwith tremendous personal hardship managed to provide valuable input and did not give up onme despite the whole process “coming down to the wire”, thank you very much !Furthermore I wish to thank my colleagues and friends at the United Nations that have helpedme in one way or another with the research conducted, your assistance has been very valuableto me and your insights helped me gain a much better understanding of the organization that Ithought I understood reasonably well already.Finally I wish to thank my wife Samia, who has endured the years of pressures, thewithdrawal of social activities, and the mood swings as well as the victories of achieving goodgrades. Also Amir and Sally who so many times were cut off from their TV because I neededpeace and quiet to do my studies, thank you all for enduring me and supporting me! Thank you !
  • 7. 7Tab le of Contents CERTIFICATION STATEMENT .................................................................................................................................. 3 ABSTRACT........................................................................................................................................................................... 4 Acknowledgements ........................................................................................................................................................ 6 Chapter One: ...................................................................................................................................................................... 9 AIMS OF THE DISSERTATION .................................................................................................................................. 9 1.1) Introduction ............................................................................................................................................................9 1.2) Organizational context ........................................................................................................................................9 1.3) Background Information ................................................................................................................................. 10 1.4) Research contribution ...................................................................................................................................... 12 1.5) Research Questions ........................................................................................................................................... 13 Chapter Two: .................................................................................................................................................................. 14 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE ............................................................................................................................. 14 2.1 The Evolving Role of ICT.................................................................................................................................... 14 2.2) Performance management and measurement. ........................................................................................ 14 2.3) ITIL and running IT as a business. ................................................................................................................ 17 2.4) Alignment of strategies .................................................................................................................................... 24 2.5) Summary: .............................................................................................................................................................. 26 Chapter Three: ............................................................................................................................................................... 28 METHODOLOGY AND RESEARCH DESIGN ..................................................................................................... 28 3.1) Introduction ......................................................................................................................................................... 28 3.2) Research methodology rationale .................................................................................................................. 28 3.3) Data collection methods................................................................................................................................... 29 3.4) Case Study rationale .......................................................................................................................................... 30 3.5) Population and Sampling ................................................................................................................................. 31 3.6) Development of survey questions ................................................................................................................ 32 3.7) Analytical methods ............................................................................................................................................ 33 3.8) Reliability and Validity of the Data ............................................................................................................... 33 3.5) Weaknesses .......................................................................................................................................................... 34 3.6) Summary ............................................................................................................................................................... 34 Chapter Four:.................................................................................................................................................................. 36 PRESENTATION OF RESULTS................................................................................................................................ 36 4.1) Results of the E-Survey: ................................................................................................................................... 36 4.1.1) Questions and Responses: ........................................................................................................................... 36 Q1. What is your opinion on the alignment of ICT services and ICT service strategies with the strategy/mandate and operational goals of the mission/organization?............................................... 36 Q2. What do you believe should/could be done to optimize ICT service delivery to the various stakeholders/clients within the mission/organization? ............................................................................. 37 Q3. Do you believe that ICT service delivery has an impact on organizational performance, could you describe why and how. .................................................................................................................................. 37 Q4. If you were asked to find ways to improve organizational performance what would you focus on, which areas of support elements for peacekeeping operations would you consider prime candidates for performance improvement...................................................................................................... 38 Q5. Are you satisfied that an adequate performance management system is in place to measure and manage performance of support elements such as ICT within PKOs, please elaborate. .......... 38 Q6. What is your opinion on the "Global Field Support Strategy" and its likely impact on the performance of Service delivery? ....................................................................................................................... 39 Q7. What is your opinion on the implementation of "IPSAS" (International Public Services Accounting Standards) and how would you assess its impact on organizational performance. ... 39 Q8. Please describe what you know about the "Balanced Scorecard" approach to linking strategy with performance management and measurement. .................................................................................... 40 4.2) Results and synthesis of Interviews: ........................................................................................................... 40 4.2.1) Balanced Scorecard at the UN Global Service Center ......................................................................... 41 4.2.2) BSC and ITIL ..................................................................................................................................................... 42 4.2.3) Performance Management/Measurement ............................................................................................. 42 4.2.4) ICT Service Delivery Model ......................................................................................................................... 43
  • 8. 8 4.2.5) Global Field Support Strategy ..................................................................................................................... 45 4.3 Summary ................................................................................................................................................................. 46Chapter Five:................................................................................................................................................................... 47ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS .................................................................................................... 47 5.1) Analysis of Questionnaire:............................................................................................................................... 47 5.1.1) ICT Strategy alignment: ................................................................................................................................ 47 5.1.2) ICT Service delivery and Organizational Performance: ..................................................................... 47 5.1.3) Centralization and Standards ..................................................................................................................... 48 5.1.4) The Balanced Scorecard ............................................................................................................................... 48 5.2) Analysis and interpretation of the interview data .................................................................................. 49 5.3) Relationship of results to the objectives set out in the research Questions. .................................. 50 5.4) Weaknesses in the data collected. ................................................................................................................ 53 5.6) Effect on professional practice....................................................................................................................... 54Chapter Six: ..................................................................................................................................................................... 55CONCLUSIONS................................................................................................................................................................ 55 6.1) Conclusions .......................................................................................................................................................... 55 6.2) Future research and suggestions for management. ............................................................................... 57REFERENCES .................................................................................................................................................................. 58APPENDICES:.................................................................................................................................................................. 68Participant Information Sheet ............................................................................................................................... 68Survey Questions – Annex “A” ............................................................................................................................... 69Interview Transcripts and notes:......................................................................................................................... 70
  • 9. 9 Chapter One: AIMS OF THE DISSERTATION1.1) IntroductionA case st udy by Gart ner of t he IT operat ions o f t he Minist r y o f Defense in t heNet her lands highlight s t he value and feasibilit y o f t he adopt io n of a businesslike approach for Infor mat io n Co mmunicat ions Techno logy (ICT) Ser vices ’deliver y wit hin a large an d co mplex gover nment organizat ion ( Curt is &Govekar, 2009). The aim o f t his dissert at ion is t o invest igat e t he feasibilit y o fa radically differ ent approach t o t he deliver y o f ICT ser vices t o Unit edNat ions Peacekeeping Miss io ns glo bally. And to det ermine whet hersignificant organizat io nal per for mance enhancement s can be der ived fro m t headopt ion o f an ICT ser vice deliver y model based o n co mmer cial businesspract ices and recognized st andards and frameworks for ser vice managementand per for manc e management .1.2) Organizational contextThe Unit ed Nat ions Depart ment of Peacekeeping Operat io ns (DP KO)current ly has 17 act ive peacekeeping and po lit ical operat ions glo bally. Thest rat egic management o f t he support funct io ns and ele ment s o f t heseoperat ions lies wit h t he Depart ment of Fie ld Support (D FS) in UNHeadquart ers New York. Field support consist s o f var ious ele ment s rangingfro m Logist ics, HR Management , Air Operat ions support, Vehicle FleetSupport , Finance and Budget , Administ rat ive and Manag ement support as wellas I nfor mat io n Co mmunicat io ns Techno logy (ICT) Support. The I nfor mat ionCo mmunicat ions and Techno logy Divis io n (ICTD) in UN Headquart ers New
  • 10. 10York provides t he st rat egic management for t he provis io n o f ICT ser vices t ot he peacekeeping operat ions and deliver s polic y guidance and ent erpr ise wideICT init iat ives. T he Unit ed Nat ions Glo bal Ser vice Cent er (UNGS C) basedjo int ly in Br indis i, It aly, and Valencia, Spain, is t he operat io nal ar m o f t heICTD, providing I CT ser vices t o all peacekeeping and po lit ical miss io ns int he fie ld, ser ving as t he main hub for all connect ivit y bet ween missio ns andUN Headquart ers as well as connect ivit y t o t he world t hrough int er net ser viceprovisio n and sat ellit e co mmun icat ions. Each peacekeeping operat io n/ missio nhas it s own ICT Sect ion/ Depart ment , whic h is responsible for t he provis io n o fICT ser vices t o missio n perso nnel. Curr ent ly t he t ot al number o f per sonne l(bot h milit ar y and c ivilian) ser ving in 1 7 DP KO/ DFS manag ed operat io ns ismore t han 120.000. T he approved budget for t hese operat ions for t he per io dof July, 2011, t hrough June, 2012, is approximat ely $7.84 billio n, whic hdespit e t he fact t hat t his amount s t o “ less than half of one percent of worldmilitary expenditures” (UN, 2012) is under increasing scrut iny by memberst at es, demanding t hat t he UN does more wit h less ( UN, 2012 a; Torsella,2011).1.3) Background InformationThrough a co mparat ive analys is of cur rent organizat ional st ruct ures anddeliver y models used, as well as a review of budget ar y and per for mancemanagement pract ices wit h applied models in t he co mmer cial ent erpr ise a natt empt will be made t o demonst rat e pot e nt ial efficiency gains as well asper for mance enhancement of t he over all provisio n of ICT ser vices t o t hePeace Keeping Operat io ns (P KO’s). This analys is will be conduct ed wit hint he cont ext of t he pronounced “ICT St rategy” by t he UN Secret ar y Gener al in
  • 11. 112002 and t he progress made t o dat e in t he imple ment at ion o f t his st rat egy(UN, 2002). It will also look in part icular at t he published “Gl obal FieldSupport Strat egy” (GFSS) published in 2010 and a recent report by t heSecret ar y-General out lining I CT init iat ives, which envisio ns organizat ionalchanges t o t he ICT organizat io n in peacek eeping missio ns (UN, 2011, UN,2010a).The app licabilit y o f per for mance management models such as t he “ BalancedScorecard” (BSC) will be examined and co mpared t o t he current ly applied“r esult s based budget ing” (RBB) which for ms part of t he “result s basedmanagement ” (RBM) framework which has been under imp lement at ion forso me t ime in t he UN. The RBM and RBB framework cent er around t heest ablishment o f defined expect ed acco mplishment s and st at ed ind icat ors o fachievement all for ming part of an effort to implement a co mprehensiveaccount abilit y fra mework . The imp lement at io n o f t hese frameworks have metcr it icism bot h fr o m wit hin t he UN syst em, i. e. t he Jo int Inspect ion Unit andt he advisor y co mmit t ee on administ rat ive and budget ar y quest io ns (ACABQ)as well as fro m ext ernal sources such as Lipson (2010) who argues t hat “ RBBis inherently unable to cope with the challenge s of perf ormance ambi guity”(Ort iz & I no mat a, 2006; Lipson, 2010 ; UN, 2012b). S ince infor mat ionmanagement and ICT are considered crucial in t he deliver y o f a per for mancemanagement syst em as is evidenced by t he expect at io ns o f t he implement at io nof an E nt erpr ise Resource P lanning (ERP) syst em t o provide t he m eans t odeliver t he RBM framework, t he aut hor aims t o invest igat e if t he BSC couldprovide for a bet t er perfor mance management framework in P KO’s and helpto align I CT st rat egies wit h var ious ot her st a t ed strat egies such as t he GFSS,
  • 12. 12towards ser vice deliver y in t he P KO’s (UN, 2012b; UN, 2010a). T he researc hwill invest igat e if proposed organizat ional and management model s for ICTService Deliver y t o Peacekeeping missio ns could be ext ended and used as aframework for t he provisio n o f ot her support services t hat are crucia l t o t heoperat ions o f Peacekeeping missio ns and which are managed by t he“Depart ment of Fie ld Support ” (DFS).1.4) Research contributionWit h t he wor ld in an econo mic downt urn and t he peacekeeping operat ions in aper iod o f cont ract ion and conso lidat io n as is evidenced by t he downsiz ing andclosing down o f var io us P KO’s t he need t o define and measure success aswell as deliver ing success fu lly wit h dimi nished resources is beco ming moreand more apparent . The acquired knowledge gained fro m t his resear ch may beof value t o ICT and no n ICT managers in t he peacekeeping operat ionsglo bally as well as senior management bot h in ICTD and DFS. It couldprovide for a different perspect ive on per for m ance management and allo w fort he deve lopment of success cr it er ia and per for mance measures t hat aret angible and achievable . E nhancing t he abilit y t o t ranslat e st rat egies int oact ionable goals t hat consist of Cr it ical Success Fact ors (CSF) and Ke yPer for ma nce I ndicat ors (KPI) t hat are meaningful and underst andable. T her ema y also be benefit s for ot her I nt ernat ional and Non-Pro fit Organizat ionsseek ing t o improve overall organizat ional per for mance wit hin t he cont ext ofexist ing or increasing financial co nst r aint s in t he face o f mount ing pressuresfor organizat io ns “t o do more wit h less” as demanded by donors and me mberst at es while t hey t hemselves co nt inue t o ent er eras o f a ust er it y and econo micdownt urns (Torsella, 2011) . The research aims t o cont ribut e to t he body o f
  • 13. 13work t hat exist s on t he implement at io n and use o f t he Balanced S corecard innot -for-profit and public organizat ions wit h a focus on ICT ser vice deliver ymodels which ma y make use o f t he BS C more relevant when ICT ser vicedeliver y is being “run l ike a business” wit hin a large organizat ion.1.5) Research QuestionsThe resear ch will fo cus on answer ing t he fo llo wing quest ions:1) Does t he current organizat ional st ruct ure of ICT management and deliver y model pro vide for t he mo st effic ient and cost effect ive met hod under t he “Result s Based Budget ing” (RBB) framework adopt ed by t he UN ( Kumar, n.d.) ?2) Is it feasible and pr act ical t o run ICT operat ions and t he ICT S er vice deliver y t o PKO’s o n “Business” pr inciples and will t his approach o ffer per for mance enhance ment s and efficiencies for t he client as well as t he organizat io n?3) Are st rat egic and per for mance management models such as t he “Balanced Scorecard” applicable in t he UN I CT organizat io n and could t hey o ffer improved organizat ional and ser vice deliver y per for mance?4) Can t he proposed “business - like” model for ICT ser vice deliver y be ext ended t o incorporat e t he full range of Support Services required in Peacekeeping operat ions? A nd will it provide a met hod t o “do more wit h less” as a glo bal per spect ive (Torsella, 2011)?
  • 14. 14 Chapter Two: REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE2.1 The Evolving Role of ICTThe ro le and funct io ns of I nfor mat io n Techno logy (IT) or Infor mat io nCo mmunicat ions Techno logy (ICT) as it is also r eferred t o has been evo lvingand chang ing awa y fro m t he mere co ncept of provisio n o f hardware andso ft ware t o enable a co mpany or an ind ividual t o carr y out it s day t o dayact ivit ies int o a funct ion t hat fost ers st rat egic advant ages by analyz ing,manipulat ing and supplying vit a l infor mat ion t hat enables infor med dec isio nmaking which in t urn enhances organizat ional per for mance . Chun and Mooneyhighlight t est imo ny t o t his evo lving ro le in t heir review o f t he ro les andresponsibilit ies o f t he CIO o ver t he p ast t went y- five year s (Chun & Mooney,2009). More recent ly t he Financia l T imes in a specia l report ent it led “ It’ sabout Inf ormati on, not T echnology” highlight s t he chang ing nat ure and ro leof t he CIO (Taylor, 2011). Just as t he ro le o f I CT is evo lving in t he businessworld so t oo is t here a need for t he adopt io n o f new at t it udes t owards I CT int he Unit ed Nat ions P KO’s and what ro le it fulfills t owards t he successfulimple ment at ion o f missio n mandat es and t he support of management dec isio nst hat are geared t o wards per for mance improvement s and t he r ealizat ion o fefficiencies.2.2) Performance management and measurement.Lipson (2010) argues t hat it is difficult t o define and assess t he per for manceof UN peacekeep ing operat ions ma inly due to t he ambiguit y t hat exist s wit hint hem and t he applicat ion o f t he Result s Based Budget ing (RBB) framework
  • 15. 15(Lipso n, 2010). The UN Jo int inspect ion unit t oo has cr it ic ized andhighlight ed t he short comings o f t he RBB framework and it s applicat io n in t hePKO’s part icular ly t he fact t hat only RBB is being implement ed and not ot herelement s o f RBM, t hey also highlight t he need t o improve and bet t er definet he “expected accomplishment s” as well as t he abilit y t o measur e out put s(Ort iz & I no mat a, 2006) . “Result s Based Budget ing”, which for ms part of t heUN’s effort s t o imple ment “Result s Based Managemen t ” (RBM), has alsobeen met wit h cr it icis m fro m t he Office of I nt ernal Over sight Services(OIOS), which is an int er na l UN body t hat conduct s audit s and providesmanagement o versight funct io ns for t he UN at large (UN, 2008) . In a rat herscat hing report t he OIOS highlight s t he fact t hat t he UN’s r igid rules andbureaucr acy do not facilit at e t he development o f RBM, t hey find t hatst at ement s o f result s are o ft en vague making t he measurem ent o f successdifficult , st at ing furt her t hat “perf ormance measures f requently lack baselinesand targets and many are not tracked” (UN.2008).The “Balanced Scorecard ” ( BSC) met hodology for per for mance managementcan be ut ilized when t he var ious “semi i ndependent ” ICT organizat ionst hroughout t he PKO’s ar e t ransfor med int o a cent ralized “business like”organizat io n t hat operat es as a “ser vice pr ovider”, focusing on so -called “E ndto End” ser vice deliver y as descr ibed in a st udy co nduct ed by t he “CI OExecut ive Board” (CIO Execut ive Board , 2011).A case st udy conduct ed by Sundin, Granlund & Brown examines t he use o ft he BS C t o manage mult iple co mpet ing st rat egic object ives. T his is relevantto t he role t he BS C could play in P KO’s and could help in demyst ifying t he
  • 16. 16“ambiguit y” r elat ed t o per for mance ment ioned ear lier ( Sundin, Gr anlund &Brown, 2010). These challenges t o perfor mance analys is o f I nt ernat io nalOrganizat ions are not ed by Gut ner and T ho mpson r eferr ing t he “ multipl e andsomet imes conf licting goals”( Markus & P feffer, 1983, Perrow 1986: chapt er7, Moe, 1989 cit ed in Gut ner & T ho mpson, 2010, p.232 ).The Balanced Scorecard , int roduced by Kaplan and Norton in t heir semina lart icle, “The Balanced Scorecard: M easures That Drive Perf ormance” firstpublished in 1992 int roduced t he co ncept of “linking per for mance measures”based on four specific st rat egic per spect ives allowing business st rat egy andvis io n t o be placed at t he cent er and not cont rol. T he four per spect ivesint roduced by Kaplan and Norton are: Financia l P erspect ive; I nt er nalBusiness perspect ive; Inno vat io n and Lear ning Per spect ive and; Cust omerperspect ive. T he image be low shows how t hese per spect ives are linkedtoget her. The process beco mes cyclical , and t here is a clear fo cus o n“cont inuous impro vement ”, a concept adopt ed wit hin t he ITIL framework aswell. One could argue t hat ITIL and BS C o ffer co mplement ar it y in t er ms o fassessing and impro ving organizat ional per for mance ( Kaplan & Norton,2005).
  • 17. 17 Figur e 1. The Balanced Score Card Links Per for mance Measures. Source: Kaplan and Norton, The Balanced Scorecard: Measures t hat dr ive per for mance. HBR, 2005, p.22.3) ITIL and running IT as a business.By applying ITIL co ncept s and fr ameworks relat ed t o a business/ser viceorient ed approach t here ma y yet be appli c abilit y o f t he BSC approach in orderto measure and improve per for mance despit e t he fact t hat Kong (2008) arguest hat applicat io n o f t he “BS C” in t he no n -profit environment creat es confusio nand is ult imat ely not compat ible in t he “ unique non-prof it envi ronment in theknowl edge economy”( Ko ng, 2008, pp.287 -289). Research quest ion 3 aims t oest ablish t he valid it y and viabilit y o f t he BSC in t he UN P KO environment ,which is unique in it s own r ight .
  • 18. 18In a case st udy o f t he IT operat ions o f t he Dut ch Minist r y o f Defense, Curt isand Govekar (2009) out line in a Gart ner s t udy how t hrough t he applicat ion o fICT business pr inciples based on “Inf ormation T echnology Inf rastructureLibrary” (ITIL) st andards significant efficiencies were achieved wit hinexist ing resources (Curt is & Go vekar, 2009). This case st udy has relevance t ot he aut hor’s research, which seeks t o est ablish t he applicabilit y o f similarorganizat io nal st ruct ures as well as ser vice deliver y models based on ITILst andards for t he UN P KO’s.ITIL is a co llect io n ( librar y) o f books descr ibing best pract ices in a n umberof areas relat ed t o IT service management , t he ITIL libr ar y was fir stpublished in t he UK in t he 1980’s and ha s seen a number o f revisio ns, t helat est being ITIL v.3 which was published in 2007. The lat est ver sio nexpanded it s scope by incorporat ing life-cycle perspect ives on t he ser vicest rat egy, t he ser vice design, t ransit io n as well as ser vice operat ions andcont inuous improvement while placing st rat egy in t he cent er which ar econcept s t hat exist wit hin t he BSC as well, providing for a dual frameworkt hat is bot h syner gist ic and co mp lement ar y ( Winniford, Conger & Er ickson-Harr is, 2009, p154).
  • 19. 19 Figur e 2. The ITIL v3 Lifecycle. Source: IT Service Manage ment & ITIL Applicat io n Support, ITIL V3 Life Cycle, Anderson, B. 2009.Var ious research has been carr ied out relat ed to t he applicabilit y o f t he BSCin not -for-profit organizat ions such as gover nment al and non -gover nment a lorganizat io ns which appear t o support t he feas ibilit y o f t he adopt ion o f t heBSC in such environment s. Chan (2004) who conduct ed a sur vey amo ngstCanadian and US municipal gover nment s concluded t hat of t he feworganizat io ns t hat succe ssfully imple ment ed t he BSC t he benefit s hadout weighed t he cost s, however in order to successfully imple ment a BSC t hefact ors t hat were cit ed most were: commit ment and buy - in fro m seniormanagement and leadership; bu y- in fr om emplo yees and managers; anorganizat io nal cult ur e t hat embraces per for mance excellence; lear ning andt raining; keep t hings easy t o underst and and use; clear sense o f vis io n,st rat egy and resu lt s; incent ives t o be linked t o t he BSC; and having t herequir ed resources t o imp lement a BSC syst em (Chan, 2004). Kap lan and
  • 20. 20Norton t hemselves provided det ails about how t he BSC can be adapt ed for usein Non-Pro fit and Gover nment organizat ions suggest ing a modifiedarchit ect ure t hat t akes int o considerat io n t he dualit y definit io n o f “who t hecust omer is”, i.e. Donors ( member st at es) and const it uent s, consider ing t hatin not -for-profit and public organizat ions t he financial perspect ive does notsit at t he top of t he hierar chy ( Kaplan & Norton, 2001, pp.97 -101).The figur e belo w depict s t his adapt ed scorecard hier archy indicat ing t hedualit y o f who t he cust o mer is, t he financial do nor or t he re cipient o f t heser vice provided.Figur e 3: Adapt ing the Ba lanced Scor ecar d Fr amewor k t o N onpr of it Or ga nizations Source: Kaplan & Norton, 2001, p.100
  • 21. 21Ver beet en (2007) in a resear ch st udy invo lving Dut ch Public sect o rorganizat io ns examines per for mance management pract ices in suchorganizat io ns and t he impact t hey have on per for mance, suggest ing t hat “ thedef inition of clear and measureable goals are positivel y associat ed withquantity perf ormance as well as qualit y p erf ormance” (Ver beet en, 2008,p.442). Furt her mor e Paul R. Niven in his book “Balanced S corecard step-b y-step f or Government and Nonprof it Agencies” , provides for specific guidanceon t he implement at io n o f a BSC wit hin t he Non -Pro fit sect or offer ing var iousexamples o f successful imp lement at ion of t he BS C as a per for mancemanagement syst em wit hin t he non-pro fit or public sect or (Niven, 2008) . T hisdissert at ions aims t o est ablish t he applicabilit y o f t he BS C as a per for mancemanagement s yst em in t he P KO ICT organizat io n, gaining an under st andingof t he concept s of who by definit io n is t he cust omer is relevant to t heresear ch quest ion 3.While t he Unit ed Nat io ns is st r iving t o creat e an organizat ional cult ure o fcont inuous lear ning t hrough it s perso nal per for mance and develop mentpolic ies, it is o ft en difficult t o det ermine t he linkages bet ween per sona lper for mance o f st aff and organizat io nal per for mance. T he adopt ion o f BS Ccould provide for t he tool t hat links st rat egic organizat io nal goals such asmissio n mandat es and organizat ional per for mance wit h individualper for mance while fac ilit at ing t he emergence o f a lear ning organizat io n (UN,2010 b).St andard ized int egrat ed ICT Ser vice deliver y t o PKO’s will facilit at e t hefurt her development of Knowledge Management S yst ems t hat cont ribut e to
  • 22. 22enhanced po licy and decis io n making capabilit ies for Manager s in t he field, apoint made by Bo lisani and Damiani in t he ir art icle o n KnowledgeManagement in t he P KO’s ( Bo lisani & Damiani, 2010). I mproved knowledgemanagement s yst ems t hat facilit at e and enhance infor mat io n flo w toemplo yees in t he field has t he pot ent ial t o improve jo b sat isfact ion, which int urn has been proven t o provide for enhanced effic iencie s and improvedser vice deliver y (Bo nt is, Richards & Serenko, 2011) . Improvement s inper for mance o f t asks, po lic ies and procedures t hat are linked t o t he st rat egicand po lit ical goals o f P KO’s ( i.e . implement at io n o f miss io n mandat es)t hrough improved ICT ser vice deliver y could be framed in t he “ pyrami d ofperf ormance” as proposed by Gut ner and Tho mpson (Gut ner & Tho mpso n,2010, pp.227-248). It is import ant to underst and t he impact of improveddeliver y and capacit y t o use and analyze infor mat io n for t he cust omer s of t heICT organizat io n. Beco ming more ser vice orient ed and cust omer cent r ic ar epart of “running IT as a business”. T his is be ing explored in t he researchquest io ns 2 and 3. Figur e 3. P yra mid o f per for mance: Fro m process t o out comes.
  • 23. 23Source: Gut ner and Tho mpso n, The po lit ics o f IO per for mance: A framework , 2010, p.236.In a co llect ion o f resear ch papers by Gart ner which deals wit h t heopt imizat io n o f IT -ser vice- management a different iat ion is made bet ween “ITOperating Models” and “Deli very Model s” t he cho ice o f which as is argueddepends o n t he “Business Expectations” of IT (Young, 2011 a, p5). T heseexpect at ions ar e descr ibed as “ Utilit y Ori ented” in which case IT behaves asa “Cost Cent er” and t he deliver y model cent ers on “Asset and Process modeloptimization” using a cent ralized operat ing model. “Enhancement Oriented”where IT behaves as a “Service Provider” wit h a deliver y mo del fo cused o nser vice per for mance as defined in cont ract s using a “f ederated” operat ingmodel. Fina lly t here is t he “T ransf ormat ion-Oriented” business expect at io nwhich p laces IT in a ro le t hat “Drives the Company” behaving as a “revenuepartner” cent ered o n a value dr iven deliver y model which is run in eit her a“decent rali zed or increasingly cent rali zed” operat ing model. T he figur ebelow shows t he IT Model Hierar chy as descr ibed (Young, 2011 a). Figur e 4. IT Model Hier archy
  • 24. 24 Source: Young, St rat egic dec isio ns for opt ima l IT ser vice management , Gart ner, 2011, p5In t he same co llect io n of art icles Young descr ibes how t he “ A sset-opti mizing”IT deliver y model has beco me obso let e because it is not able t o provide t omoder n ent erpr ises t he t ype o f ser vices it requires (Young, 2011c, p1).Reco mmendat ions are made for IT organizat ions t o t ransit io n int o a so -called“Service-Optimi zing” deliver y model in order to posit io n IT at st rat egiclevels o f t he business where it helps t o “ build the business” cont r ibut ingsignificant ly t o t he bottom line o f t he business ( Young, 2011b). Anunderst anding o f mo der n evo lut io n o f ICT deliver y models is import ant fort his resear ch in order to draw co mpar is ons wit h t he current st at e of ICTdeliver y models in t he P KO’s.2.4) Alignment of strategiesIn Januar y, 2010, t he Unit ed Nat io ns Depart ment o f Field Support (DFS)proposed a new st rat egy for Glo bal Field Support . This st rat egy, named“Global Field Support St rategy” (GFSS), aims t o st andardize and mo ve anumber o f funct ions and processes away fro m missio ns t o “ regional servi cecenters” and fro m UN Headquart ers to “Global and Regional Servi ceCenters” (UN, 2010 a). The imp lement at ion and development o f t his st rat egybears direct relevance t o t he aut hor’s r esearch since it s aims ar e t o provideenhanced efficiencies and improved effect iveness o f ser vice deliver y t o t hefield (P KO’s) t hrough g lo bal and regio nal cent ralizat io n and co nso lidat io n.These development s import ant in t he development of t his dissert at io n, whichseeks t o est ablish t he benefit s o f a differ ent or ganizat io nal st ruct ure such as
  • 25. 25t he creat ion of a cent ralized ICT, ser vice pro vider organizat ion for t hePKO’s. I n addit io n t he research is int ended t o build upon t he ICT st rat egyadopt ed by t he UN General assembly, which seeks t o “ move f rom adecent rali zed to a f ederated model” (UN, 2011, p.21).Wit h a clear int ent to shift t he Depart ment o f Field Support towards a fo cuson t he deliver y o f ser vices in t he field t he aut hor aims t o est ablish t hat aco mprehensive and fundament al shift in ment alit y and organizat ional cult ureneeds t o be cult ivat ed which embraces t he concept s o f a “World Class Servi ceDelivery” co mpany (Chase & Hayes, 1991, p.20) of a so -called “Stage 4f irm” embr acing operat ion s excellence and cont inuous improvement o f t het ypes and deliver y o f ser vices t o client s in t he P KO’s (Chase & Hayes, 1991) .Cheung and To (2010) argue t hat in order to achieve enhanced organizat iona lout comes and impro ved percept ions o f service per for manc e by client s it isimport ant to ensur e t hat organizat ions for mulat e a c lear “servi ce vi sion,provi de t raini ng and empower employees” (Cheung & To, p.267), furt heremphasizing t he r equirement for emplo yee invo lvement t hrough effect iveinfor mat io n shar ing an d emplo yee feedback mechanis ms in order t o facilit at esuch organizat io nal change.The applicat io n o f t he BSC and concept s such as t he “ closed loopmanagement syst em” ( Kaplan & Norton, 2008) could prove t o be applicable ift he approach t o providing ICT ser vices t o t he P KO’s cent ers aroundembr acing t he co ncept o f operat ing like a ICT ser vice provider t hat is semi -aut onomous wit hin t he UN Depart ment of Field Support and endeavors tocreat e st rat egic goals t hat are aligned wit h t h e needs o f t he o veral l
  • 26. 26subst ant ive/po lit ical and humanit ar ian goals dict at ed by t he miss io n mandat e ,est ablishing missio n mandat e program deliver y ele ment s as t he main clientbase for t he ICT ser vice provisio n while not forgett ing ot her missio n supportelement s at t he same t ime . T he inclusio n of no nfinancial measures t o evaluat eorganizat io nal per for mance in t he proposed cont ext of ICT ser vice deliver y t oPKO’s may prove t o be useful for t he development of a n impro vedper for mance management framework t hat i s bet t er able t o link st rat egies wit hout put allowing for bet t er ways t o for mulat e per for mance indicat ors.2.5) Summary:This chapt er reviewed published academic and UN specific document s relat edto subject s t hat are der ived fro m t he research quest io ns. I t highlight s t heevo lving ro le o f I CT in t he ent erpr ise and t he requir ement of t he I CTorganizat io n in t he P KO’s t o do t he same. It ident ifies t rends in t he t ransit io nand mat urat ion o f IT service deliver y mo dels and t he need for IT to posit ionit self at a st rat egic level o f t he business where it provides value t o t he bott omline o f t he business. T he lit erat ure provides ins ight s in t he use andapplicabilit y o f t he BSC in not -for-profit and public organizat io ns, indicat ingt hat t here is real pot ent ial for t h ese syst ems t o be applied in suchorganizat io ns and br ing benefit s. The use of ITIL in ICT organizat io ns hasproven pot ent ial t o enhance per for mance by focusing in ser vice deliver y t ot he cust omer and embr acing a cult ur e of cont inual ser vice improvement . Itfurt her mor e highlight s t he import ance of infor mat io n and knowledgemanagement in t he P KO’s in t he pur suit of miss io n mandat e implement at io n.ICT ser vice de liver y should at t he core have a clear infor mat io n managementst rat egy wit h which it is closely ali gned. Defining, underst anding and
  • 27. 27support ing t he implement at io n of organizat io nal st rat egies such as t he GFSSare crucial for t he ICT ser vice deliver y to be successful and enable it t oenhance organizat ional per for mance.Fro m t he lit er at ure and t he review o f UN document s an emergent t heor yar ises t hat t he UN ICT organizat io n and t he UN P KO’s should expectimproved per for mance by:1. Adopt ion o f ITIL v3 as a framework to shift t he I CT deliver y mode l t o onet hat is ser vice or ient ed and cust o mer focuse d.2. Development o f Balanced Scorecard s that are based o n exist ing st rat egiesand t ake int o considerat io n missio n mandat es and st rat egies t hat are der ivedfro m t hem in order to ensure alignment of st rat egies.3. Est ablishing meaningfu l met r ics t hat are ba sed on achievable goals andt arget s developed wit h t he BS C, which uses per spect ives relevant t o t he UNPKO’s.It is furt her more hypot hesized t hat t he development o f a Balanced Scorecar dapproach could help t o impro ve and expand on t he heavily cr it icized “Result sBased Management” and “Results Based Budgeting” frameworks.
  • 28. 28 Chapter Three: METHODOLOGY AND RESEARCH DESIGN3.1) IntroductionThe research t hat will be co nduct ed as part of t his dissert at ion is o f a nexplorat ory nat ure, which was deemed most appropr iat e for seeking t oident ify t he why and how issues surrounding t he ICT deliver y t o t he PKO’sand per for mance manage ment and measur ement exist and not part icular ly ho woft en or how many. Fro m t he lit erat ure review it has beco me clear t hatper for mance management and measureme nt in t he Unit ed Nat io ns cont inues t obe a cont ent ious and debat ed issue wit h member st at es and int er nal o vers ightbodies expressing t heir dissat isfact io n. The research aims t o suggest possibleso lut ions t hrough an swer ing t he st at ed resear ch quest ions and t o proposefurt her research int o t he development o f per for mance management syst e msfor t he P KO’s.Research met hodo logy is defined by Whit e as t he “ philosophi cal basi s onwhich research is f ounded” ( Whit e, 2000, pp.20-21) while specific t echniquesused t o gat her dat a and infor mat ion are referred t o as “ methods”.3.2) Research methodology rationaleThe research examines t he ICT organizat ion t hat for ms part of t he Unit edNat ions Peacekeeping organizat io ns, which fa lls under t he Depart ment o fField Support . The aut hor’s int ent is t o ext ract r ich infor mat ion fro m aspec ific sample o f me mber s o f t hat organizat ion. Use o f qualit at ive dat a isdeemed mo st suit able given t he fact t hat capt ur ing opinio ns, exper iences and
  • 29. 29knowledge o f t he subject s is import ant in for mulat ing an opinio n o f t hecurrent st at e of t he I CT organizat ion and it s effect iveness as well as t est ingt he validit y o f t he t heor y hypot hesized as part of t he lit er at ure review . Whit e,(2000) st at es t hat researchers support qualit at ive met hods since research t akesplace in “actual everyday settings” invest igat ing “the way peopl e react, workand manage”, dat a is t herefore co llect ed and int erpr et ed in a “ descripti ve,non-numerical way” ( Whit e, 2000, p28) . While quant it at ive dat a in man ycases for ms part of t he dat a co llect ed in case st udies it is most o ft enqualit at ive dat a t hat is predo minant (Patton & Appelbaum, 2003). Given t hefact t hat t his research is explorat ory in nat ure seeking t o det ermine “why” and“how” issues relat ed t o ICT deliver y and per for mance management occur andhow t hey might be addressed, a lot more infor mat io n in t he shape o f ideas andexper iences can be acquired t hrough qualit at ive met hods o f dat a co llect ion.3.3) Data collection methodsAn o nline quest ionna ir e o f a qua lit at ive nat ure will be submit t ed to a tot al o f8 senior manager s bot h in t he ICT fie ld and in t he general administ rat ion andfinance depart ment s o f bot h UN -HQ offices as well as P KO and ot her fieldbased offices. The qualit a t ive elect ronic sur vey is administ er ed using t heInt ernet (ht t p://www.surveygiz mo.co m), which was chosen because t he aut horis familiar wit h t his ser vice and because it offer s easy t o under st andint er faces and ext ensive help and support in develo ping o nline quest io nnaire,it also has ver y good automat ed report ing t ools built int o t he syst em. T hesur vey consist s o f 8 open quest ions in essay st yle in order t o so licit t hought sand opinio ns fro m t he r esearch subject s. The develo pment and rat ionale o f t he
  • 30. 30sur vey quest ions is discussed below and a list o f survey quest ions is annexedin annex “A”.Four int erviews will be conduct ed wit h specifically select ed member s o fmanagement . These four resear ch candidat es are select ed because t he yrepresent t he most senior management level, t he glo bal operat iona lmanagement level and a regio na l P KO level. I n part icular , managementmembers o f t he Unit ed Nat ions Glo bal S ervice Cent er (UNGSC) who will beint er viewed are felt t o co nt ribut e most subst ant ially t o t he research subject ofICT ser vice deliver y as well as t he adopt ion o f t he BS C and ot her st rat egicand per for mance management frameworks such as ITIL (Infor mat io nTechno logy I nfrast ruct ure Librar y) st andards t hat have been a dopt ed inco mparable organizat ions such as t he Net her lands Defense forces (Curt is &Govekar, 2009).3.4) Case Study rationaleSome o f t he st rengt hs o f case st udy research, such as allo wing for “ early,exploratory investigations” when issues are not fully under st ood or unknownas well as t he development o f t heor y fro m under st and ing acquir ed t hrough t heobser vat ion o f pract ices in t heir nat ural sett ings ( Bebenat et .al, 1987 cit ed i nVoss, Tsikr ikt sis and Fro lich, 2002, p.197) are part icular ly applicab le in t hecont ext of t he research quest io ns and t he emergent t heory developed t hrought he lit erat ure review. Case st udies fo r m import ant research t racks formanagement and organizat ional science st at ing t hat “ the unique strength is it sability t o deal with a f ull variet y of evi dence, documents, artif acts, intervi ewsand observations” (Yin, 1984, cit ed in P atton & Appelbau m, 2003, p.63).
  • 31. 313.5) Population and SamplingThe popu lat io n t o be select ed for dat a co llect io n will consist o f Unit edNat ions st aff t hat work in t he Depart ment of Field Support as well as UNst aff t hat work in t he Peacekeeping Operat ions in t he fie ld. Fro m t hispopulat ion a sample o f senior manager s in bot h t he ICT organizat io n andgeneral administ rat ive and financ ia l management areas will be select ed. E achmanager select ed will have many years of exper ience working for t he Unit edNat ions Peacekeeping Oper at ions . This group was sampled on t he basis o fget t ing t he mo st useful and in dept h infor mat io n re lat ed t o t he r esearchquest io ns. S ince t he aut hor has more t han 20 years exper ience in t he UNorganizat io n he is well posit io ned and int imat ely familiar wit h t he manager st hat have t he mo st significant amount of exper ience in t he organizat io n,because o f t his he also ha s relat ively eas y access t o t hese manager s. Based ont hese fact s t he aut hor used a “purposi ve sampling ” for t he select io n o f t heindividuals. Whit e (2000) descr ibes how if a range o f t opics needs t o beident ified, samples should be used t hat will “provide a vari ety ofinf ormation”, t his t hen is referred t o a s “het erogeneous sampling ” ( Whit e,2000, p63).In order t o so licit dat a t hat will be manageable a t rade -off is suggest edbet ween “ef f iciency and richness of dat a” (Leo nard-Bart on, 1990 cit ed inVoss, Tsikr ikt sis and Fro lich, 2002, p.205). Wit h t his in mind t he sampleselect ed for t he resear ch is deemed t o be mo st appropr iat e bot h in t er ms o ft heir posit io n in t he organizat io n, i.e. clo seness t o ICT st rat egy development
  • 32. 32and execut io n, as well as a samp le t hat will o ffer a quant it y o f dat a t hat ismanageable by t he aut hor wit hin t he const raint s o f t ime and accessibilit y t oresear ch subject s.3.6) Development of survey questionsThe quest ions t hat were used in t he o nline quest io nnaire wer e developed wit ht he aim t o solic it r ich feedback on subject s relat ed t o t he research quest ions .They were of a qualit at ive nat ure since this r esearch is explorat ory in nat ureseek ing t o ident ify issues and possible solut io ns fro m t he research subject s.The quest io ns use an essay st yle answer format in order for t he respondent s t oprovide t heir opinio ns and views on issues .Quest io ns 1 and 2 seek input and feedback on issues such as I CT deliver y t ot he fie ld, t he alignment of ICT st rat egies wit h t he mandat e or operat iona lgoals o f t he missio ns and what t he respondent s feel should or could be do neto opt imize ICT ser vice deliver y.Quest io ns 3, 4 and 5 seek t o gain an underst anding as t o t he import ance o fICT deliver y and it s impact on organizat ional per for mance. They also se ek t ocapt ure t he level o f sat isfact ion wit h current per for mance management andmeasurement frameworks as well as so licit ing ideas as t o what and how t oimprove t he per for mance o f miss io n support ele ment s.Quest io n 6 deals wit h t he GFSS, which is set t o change t he model o f ser vicedeliver y t o t he field . Respondent s wer e asked about t heir opinio ns on t helikely impact of t his st rat egy on t he per fo r mance o f ser vice deliver y.Quest io n 7 asks t he respo ndent s about t heir opinio n o n t he implicat ions o f t headopt ion o f I nt er nat ional Public Ser vices Account ing St andards (IPS AS) as
  • 33. 33t he aut hor felt t hat t hese might have an impact on organizat iona lper for mance.Quest io n 8 seeks out t he r espo ndent s ’ knowledge and fa miliar it y wit h t heBalanced Scorecard as a per for mance management framework.Last ly, respondent s will be asked t o ident ify which manageme nt supportelement t hey belo ng t o in order to be able t o differ ent iat e bet ween ICT andnon-I CT manager s and draw co mpar iso ns bet ween t he answer s provided.A list of sur vey quest io ns is at t ached in Annex “A”.3.7) Analytical methodsThe result s o f t he quest ionnaire will be analyzed by ident ifying major t heme srelat ed to t he research quest io ns and at t empt s will be mat e t o link t heseresult s back t o t he t heory and hypot hesis t hat has been developed t hrough t helit erat ure review and UN d ocument s research.The r ich dat a co llect ed fro m t he int er vie ws will be analyzed by t ranscr ibinglinking and ident ifying t hemes t hat will have emerged fro m t he quest io nnair edat a. The int er view dat a will be analyzed for t hemes and linkages t hatvalidat es dat a obt ained fro m t he quest ionnaire and builds on or expands t het heor y and hypot hesis developed t hrough t he lit erat ure review.3.8) Reliability and Validity of the DataWhile t he dat a co llect ed is fro m a relat ively small sample t he reliabilit y o ft he dat a is assumed t o be credible because t he research subject s are manager swit h many years o f exper ience in t he Unit ed Nat ions and in part icular in t hePKO’s. The feedback sou ght fro m t hem is not deemed cont roversial nor wouldgiving honest feedback have any negat ive impact on t he subject s’ st at us or
  • 34. 34career in t he organizat io n. Subject s are t herefore not ant icipat ed t o providedat a t hat is false or misleading. T he research would no doubt yie ld t he sameresult s if repeat ed wit h t he same research subject s.Dat a for t he quest io nnaires will be collect ed ano nymously t o safeguardconfident ialit y and only aggregat ed answer s will be t ranscr ibed. T heint er views will be conduct ed using S kype in order to enable recording t heint er views. T he candidat es were advised and infor med t hat t heir ident it ieswill not be made explic it in t his dissert at ion or in t he int er view t ranscr ipt s,where t hey will be referred t o as candidat e A, B, et c.The validit y o f t he dat a is considered t o t he ext ent t hat t he opinio ns andviewpo int s so licit ed are based on t he subject s per sonal knowledge andexper ience. T he quest ions and int er views were designed in such a manner asto solic it infor mat io n r elevant t o answer t he research quest io ns and buildupon t he t heor y and hypot heses developed t hrough t he lit erat ure review.3.5) WeaknessesAs t his research is explorat ory in nat ure and since t he samp le size is quit esmall consider ing t he t ot alit y o f t he Peacekeeping Operat i ons it would beinappropr iat e t o make any generalizat io ns based on t his research.3.6) SummaryThe research met hods and design used for t his case st udy were chosen inorder to obt ain infor mat io n and dat a on perspect ives o f ICT ser vice deliver yimprovement s t hrough adopt ion o f fr ameworks for per for mance managementbased on t he Balanced S corecard and t he ITIL framework for cont inuous
  • 35. 35improvement of ser vices in UN peacekeeping operat ions. This chapt erdescr ibed t opics such as t he met hodo logy and met hods as we ll as t echniquesand rat ionale used for dat a collect ion and analys is. T he next chapt er wil ldiscuss t he find ings and analys is o f t he d at a solic it ed t hrough t he sur vey andint er views.
  • 36. 36 Chapter Four: PRESENTATION OF RESULTS4.1) Results of the E-Survey:The elect ronic sur vey was sent to eight individuals consist ing o f bot h ICT andnon-I CT managers all part of t he UN P eacekeep ing organizat ion. Fro m t heeight subject s five individuals responded all t hem fro m t he ICT managementfield; no ne o f t he respo ndent s wer e part of ot her manager ial fields.The fo llowing sect io n provides t he specific quest io ns and t he answers asreceived to t he quest ions.4.1.1) Questions and Responses:Q1. What is your opinion on the alignment of ICT services and ICT service strategies with thestrategy/mandate and operational goals of the mission/organization?ResponseWell aligned.There are efforts to extract goals and objectives from the vision of UN. It can be recognized inGFSS, that ICT is integral part of, and implementation of ICT service as one of the core inUNGSC.We are doing relatively well at aligning ICT Service Delivery with the Strategic Direction ofthe Organization.There is no alignment in that those responsible for service delivery in the mission have no sayin the delivery of ICT services. The local ICT component reports to the CMS/DMS but has allstrategic direction from ICTD (which in turn reports to the USG of DFS.Presently the alignment of ICT services and strategies with mandate delivery and operationalgoals is weak.
  • 37. 37Q2. What do you believe should/could be done to optimize ICT service delivery to the variousstakeholders/clients within the mission/organization?ResponseThe CMS/DMS should form part of the governance panel creating and approving strategicICT direction.Apply the best practices such as ITIL already prove to be way of improving the way how doewe do business and deliver services.Invest in mobile computing. High-level customers are not aware what existing systems can dofor them.The ICT organization in a mission needs to be repositioned or realigned to report to the Headof the Mission. ICT needs to be seen as a strategic enabler, which not only provides hardwareand software, but also advises senior management and provides solutions that better supportthe goals of the missions.A more formal Strategic Management and Measurement Frameworks across the organizationwould help e.g. Balance Score Card linked to CSFs, the to KPIs would help quantifying oursuccessQ3. Do you believe that ICT service delivery has an impact on organizational performance,could you describe why and how.ResponseYes.Absolutely. Today ICT permeates all facets and sectors within a mission. Without ICT,missions would come to a grinding halt. Organizational performance is directly linked tosuccessful ICT delivery.Comet is a good example. ICT created the need for the client application rather than theclient deciding what his needs is.Delivery of end-to-end services by ICT is of paramount importance for business continuity.Any interruption can have serious interruption in organizations business performance.Yes, ICT is a key organizational enabler.. Should ICT be removed as a capability from DFS,DFS could not achieve its mandate
  • 38. 38Q4. If you were asked to find ways to improve organizational performance what would youfocus on, which areas of support elements for peacekeeping operations would you considerprime candidates for performance improvement.ResponseEnterprise applications, especially self-service modules.In my opinion, the focus should be on leadership and governance.Before you talk about performance you need to find real metrics on which to measure it by.What do you mean performance...financial, mandate implementation, lives saved, people fed?Concentrate on defining success, than design ways of measuring successful progress toachieving this success.Human Resources and Logistics. In short, the human resources policies of this Organizationdo not lend themselves to the modern, mobile workforce that is required for successfulpeacekeeping support. It has historically been unable to provide personnel with the rightcompetence in a timely fashion. On the Logistics side, again historically they have failed toprovide the material and structures required in support of missions, particularly in an upstartsituation where logistics are most critical, and impact is felt the most.We should review again all our business processes and apply some of the tools for qualitymanagement to improve them. We have to have more engagement of business units when weenroll new IT systems to support them.Q5. Are you satisfied that an adequate performance management system is in place tomeasure and manage performance of support elements such as ICT within PKOs, pleaseelaborate.ResponseNo, because there are none. See comment above...how does PK measure success?No. However this is very difficult to achieve.There are good elements, which could be improved via harmonization throughoutDFS/DPKO.We are still missing many CSFs and KPIs to measure our processes in a right way.No. We are lacking in this area. While there are many local efforts, we need to identify andsystematically collect metrics that will facilitate the creation of performance across the entireenterprise. While that is happening today, it will take some time, as the underlying tools arentalways there.
  • 39. 39Q6. What is your opinion on the "Global Field Support Strategy" and its likely impact on theperformance of Service delivery?ResponseICTD is already there for some time. Nothing new for us.It is a concept that has no proof of worth. How much money will it save, how will it make usmore efficient. Is it trying to solve a problem that doesnt exist? Moving support away fromwhere the clients are doesnt seem very service orientated. There is a severe feudalistic stateamongst those sharing the services from the RSCs as well.It is difficult to say. While the strategy introduces some good elements, the impact on SD willreally depend on how it is implemented.Some of the parts of GFSS have success, such as modularization, which has a big impact onCIT. And of course, it affects service delivery, especially on the level of establishing GSC.I support the concepts and the underlying premise of the GFSS. I believe that doing thingscentrally thereby reducing the footprint particularly in dangerous or hardship locations is agood thing. The difficulty is in the implementation.Q7. What is your opinion on the implementation of "IPSAS" (International Public ServicesAccounting Standards) and how would you assess its impact on organizational performance.ResponseOrganizational performance will become more visible.It will be challenge for all of us, but as been proven international standard adopted for ourbusiness it will only improve performance. In pre-implementation phase there is a lot oftraining and awareness initiatives, which will help a lot during deployment.It is being over exaggerated. it simply changes the way we report balance sheets and involvesaccrual accounting. It wont change true performance in implementing mandates efficiently.IPSAS is a mandated activity. It has been proven in other public sector organizations toimprove organizational performance by providing senior leadership and member states withthe actual costs of operations.
  • 40. 40Q8. Please describe what you know about the "Balanced Scorecard" approach to linkingstrategy with performance management and measurement.ResponseA step too far for this organization.It is a great tool, and we are using it within our "mission".We have it in UNGSC.We used BSC in our UNGSC. From GSC strategy we recognized some of the main objectivesand goals that we map into four perspectives and create different CSFs and KPIs, to measureour achievements against our strategy.While I am familiar with the concept and approach and support its premise, it is not currentlypracticed in great detail within our Organization.4.2) Results and synthesis of Interviews:Based on t he feedback received in t he elect ronic quest ionnaire t he aut horconduct ed four int er views wit h manager s and senior managers o f t he ICTorganizat io n.Due t o t he fact t hat t he sur vey had r evealed t hat in one part icular operat io nwhich for ms part of t he field ICT organizat ion t he BSC had in fact bee nimple ment ed t he aut hor decided to int er view t wo manager s fro m t hisorganizat io n where t hese subject s per for m senior level manager ial funct ionsrelevant to ICT service management . The office/ base in which t hey work ist he UN Glo bal Ser vice Cent er (UNGSC) in Valencia Spain, which has beeninaugurat ed in 2011. It perfor ms t he funct ion o f t he main ICT hub for allPeacekeeping Operat io ns, providing connect ivit y and var ious ot her ITser vices. This base ser ves as t he operat ional ar m o f t he Infor mat io nCo mmunicat ions Techno logy Divis io n in UN headquart ers.
  • 41. 41The int er views consist ed o f one or t wo seed quest io ns aft er which t heint er view would be conduct ed as a conver sat io n seeking to ext ractinfor mat io n relat ed t o t he subject s o f t he Balanced Scorecard, applicat ion o fst andards, per for mance management and measurement as well as t he t hought sand opinio ns o f t hese manager s as t o how in t heir views t he ICT deliver y t ot he field could be improved and also gauging t heir opinio ns on t he concept o fproviding ICT ser vices to t he PKO’s based on a business model fo llowingITIL fr ameworks for ser vice deliver y as descr ibed in t he Gart ner Case St udyon t he ICT Operat ions in t he Net her lands Defense forces (Curt is & Govekar,2009).4.2.1) Balanced Scorecard at the UN Global Service CenterFro m t he discussio ns wit h t he t wo int er viewees t he aut hor lear nt t hat in t hedevelopment o f a Balanced Scorecard for t he UNGS C a st rat egy wasdeveloped t hat was clo sely aligned wit h t he GFSS since t he development oft he UNGS C was direct ly linked t o t hat st rat egy (UN, 2010 a). The respondent sadmit t edly st at ed t hat ver y lit t le t o no aspect s o f t he UN ICT strategy wer eincorporat ed in t he UNGSC developed st rat egy (UN, 2011) as it was fe lt t ohave lit t le relevance to t he purpose of t he UNGS C. St rat egic guidancehowever was incorporat ed fro m t he annually produced I CTD st rat egicguidance document , which cont ains ele ment s t hat are linked back t o t he UNICT st rat egy.The int er viewees indicat ed t hat in order t o develop t he BS C an out sideconsu lt ant was hir ed t o help wit h t he est ablishment o f Cr it ical SuccessFact ors (CSF) and det er mine Key Per formance I ndicat ors (KPI) for t heper for mance per iod. The int er viewees st at ed t hat t he development o f t he BS C
  • 42. 42helped t hem t o “creat e a bri dge bet ween the st rat egy and what actua ll yhappens, and to have a comprehensive measurement f rame work that enablesthem to measure success” t he imple ment at ion o f t he BSC in UNGSC was do nelast year July aft er t he inaugurat io n of t he sit e , t he real impact of t he BSC hasyet t o beco me clear. H owever bot h managers indicat ed t hat t hey believe it t obe a ver y valuable t ool. They also co nfir med t hat t his approach has cert a inl ynot been pract iced much in t he UN as far as t hey were awar e.4.2.2) BSC and ITILThe aut hor discussed t he issue o f co mple m ent ar it y bet ween t he BS C and ITILframeworks and asked t he respondent s how t hey co mbined t hese t woframeworks in t he UNGS C. While t he t wo frameworks are not specificallyco mbined, i.e. t he BS C is a per for mance management / measurement frameworkwhile ITIL is a ser vice management framework; t he measur ement s o f successrelat ed to each fr amework are in fact used in co mplement ar it y. Oneint er viewee st at ed t hat t here is a need to make a dist inct io n bet ween“cont inuous improvement ” which is part of t he BS C and “co nt inuous ser viceimprovement ” (CSI), which is an element o f ITIL. Cont inuous S er viceI mprovement is co nduct ed separat ely in t he UNGS C aft er having ident ified aspec ific number o f processes and subsequent ly fo cusing on how t o impro veand enhance t hese cr it ic al processes.4.2.3) Performance Management/MeasurementIn discussio ns on t he subject of per for mance management and measurementt here was broad co nsensus amo ngst all individuals t hat t he P KO’s are lackingin t hat area. T he result s based budget ing framewor k which for ms part o f t heresult s based management framework was descr ibed by o ne ind ividua l as “ an
  • 43. 43exerci se in creative writing” st at ing fur t her t hat RBB is a fut ile exer cisesimply because it allows program managers t o creat e t heir own lo ft y hig hlevel goals which are craft ed in such a ma nner t hat t hey will mo st cert ainly beachieved. All int er viewees expressed t he need t o find bet t er ways t o measur esuccess and t o develo p met r ics and cr it er ia t hat are clear and t angible. Onesenior manager st at ed t hat it is import ant however “not to creat e an i ndustryaround the collection of the inf ormation needed f or measurement” but rat herleverage exist ing syst ems, procedures and processes t o gat her infor mat io n andgenerat e met r ics which ought t o be present ed t o management t hrough t he useof so -called “dashboards”, which would enable manager s t o make infor meddecis io ns based on accur at e dat a and allow t hem t o monit or how t hey aredoing in r espect o f spec ific t arget s set . Management should t hen also be heldaccount able for meet ing t he specific t arget s set .4.2.4) ICT Service Delivery ModelIn discussio ns wit h t he int er viewees on t he overall st rat egies and mechanis msfor ICT deliver y t o t he fie ld t he aut hor asked what t heir opinio ns are onrunning t he ICT organizat ion for t he fie ld more along business mode ls such ast he case in t he Net her lands Defense Forces which has creat ed an organizat io nnamed “IVENT” which as an independent support branch group provides t hefull sphere o f infor mat io n management and t echno logies not just to t heNet her lands defense organizat io n but also for ot her organizat io ns t hat dea lwit h secur it y and public order (IVENT, 2012) . As such t his organizat ion hadbeen subject t o a case st udy by Gart ner (Curt is & Go vekar, 2009) . T hree o ft he subject s were o f t he opinio n t hat in so me ways t he ICT organizat io n isslowly mo ving in a similar direct ion as descr ibed. Wit h t he creat ion o f t he
  • 44. 44UNGSC and a definit e push t o cent ralize more ICT applicat io ns and syst emsas well as t he applicat ion o f ITIL pr inciple s in t he UNGS C, respondent sindicat ed t hat t here is a definit e shift in t he ICT deliver y model. Onerespondent spoke o f a current pro ject t hat is being worked on t hat aims t oest ablish chargeback mechanis ms for t he provisio n o f cent ralized ICTser vices t hat will be delivered fro m t he UNGSC t o t he P KO’s. T he respondentexpressed however t hat in order t o create a model such as t he IVENT groupfor t he Net her lands defense forces , significant changes would have t o beint roduced int o t he UN’s for ma l resource allo cat io n and managementst ruct ures, in part icular t he human resources management , which cont inues t obe managed cent rally b y t he Office o f Human Resource Management (OHRM)and t he Fie ld Perso nnel Divis io n ( FPD) inst ead of t he program managers. I nt he opinio n o f t he respondent s, in order t o t ransfor m t he current UN P KO ICTorganizat io n int o t he Dut ch model descr ibed it would require an ICTorganizat io n t hat would have cont rol over it s human resources in a lmost ever yaspect , as it st ands t his is not t he case. One respondent expressed concer nabout t he possibilit y o f a n I CT ser vice provider alo ng t he lines descr ibedwhich beco mes aut onomous may end up beco ming “self -serving” as anindependent ent it y and would be dr iven more by it s dr ive t o achieve it s owngoals and object ives as an organizat io n rat her t han ser ving and workingtowards t he achievement of t he P KO’s goals and object ives. All int er vieweesexpressed t he need for t he I CT deliver y model t o cont inue t o evo lve int o amore cent ralized approach wher e possible and cert ainly explor e t hepossibilit ies of int egrat ing more cont ract ual ser vices int o t he ICTOrganizat ion. S evera l individuals ind icat ed t hat t he fair ly high level o findependence t hat is enjo yed by t he P KO’s to bot h int erpret t heir mandat es as
  • 45. 45well as developing t heir own programs of deliver y due t o t he absence o f abet t er cent ralized st ruct ure of po lic y gu idance and st rat egic dir ect io n lendsit self for cont inued ineffic iencies. One respondent co mment ed t hat indeed t heuse o f t he Balanced Sco recard could ser ve as a unifying t ool t hat provides forconsist ency in t rans lat ing t he missio n mandat e, which in essence is t hest rat egic goal o f t he miss io n, int o a number o f spec ific measurable goalsbased on t he relevant perspect ives.4.2.5) Global Field Support StrategyIn discussio ns o n t he GFSS and it s relevance/ impact on t he ICT Deliver yst rat egies one part icipant felt t hat while t here is definit e ly mer it in t heorganizat io nal st ruct ure proposed regarding t he est ablishment o f t he UNGS Che expressed doubt s as t o t he usefulness of t he proposed Regio nal SupportCent ers, st at ing t hat he felt t his was mer ely adding anot her la yer in t hest ruct ure t hat really would not offer many benefit s, he could see how t hest ruct ure of (UN Headquart ers – Glo bal Ser vice Cent er – Missio n specificICT) could reap benefit s, adding an addit ional Regio nal S er vice Cent er in t hemix would add one layer t o man y. Ot her s however disagr eed and st at ed t hatdepending on specific reg io nal cir cumst ances t here are real benefit s f ro m t heregio nal ser vice cent er. The examp le given was t he est ablished RSC i nEnt ebbe, Uganda, which ser ves as t he r egio nal hub provid ing administ rat iveand support funct ions for seven regio nal PKO’s in East Afr ica (RS CE, 2012).One perso n furt her clar ified t hat it is relat ive proximit y o f a large group oflarge P KO’s which have t he benefit of a relat ively developed andsophist icat ed UN t ransport at ion net work cons ist ing o f chart ered aircraft att heir disposal, t his put s t he RS CE wit hin reach for t he mu lt it ude o f st aff and
  • 46. 46provides for super ior log ist ics capabilit ies, he expr essed doubt as t o t hesuccess o f RS C’s in ot her regio n’s simply because o f t he lack o f exist inginfrast ruct ure and logist ical capabilit ies in add it io n t o accessibilit y t o var iouscount r ies in d iffer ent regio ns such as for inst ance t he Middle East whic hwould furt her co mplicat e t he feasibilit y of an RS C in t his regio n.4.3 SummaryThis chapt er provided t he dat a obt ained from t he elect ronic quest ionnaire andt he int er views conduct ed wit h se lect ed candidat es o f t he UN ICT organizat io nt he next chapt er will pro vide an analys is of t hese result s.
  • 47. 47 Chapter Five: ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS5.1) Analysis of Questionnaire:5.1.1) ICT Strategy alignment:While effort s are being made t o develop st rat egies t hat are aligned wit h t hest rat egy/ mandat e of P KO’s o verall feedback indicat es t hat t he ICTorganizat io n is lacking in t his area. Respondent s indicat e t hat t his is linked t ot he fact t hat t he ICT organizat io n is not posit io ned r ight in t hat it does notreport direct ly t o heads of missio ns and does not for m part of t he seniormanagement group t hat develops and det er mines st rat egies r elat ed t o missio nmandat e imple ment at ion.5.1.2) ICT Service delivery and Organizational Performance:Respondent s gener ally co nsider t hat ICT ser vice deliver y has a dir ect andimmediat e impact on organizat io nal per formance, per haps best encapsulat edby one specific response: “Today ICT permeates all f acets and sectors withi na mission. Wit hout I CT, mi ssions would come to a gri nding halt.Organi zational perf ormance i s di rectly l inked to successf ul ICT delivery”.Having said t hat it also beco mes clear t hat many feel t hat ICT ser vicedeliver y is in real need for improveme nt in order t o facilit at e impro vedorganizat io nal per for mance. The most prominent suggest ions as t o opt imizingICT ser vice deliver y seems t o cent er around t he need t o develop appropr iat eper for mance management / measur ement frameworks wit hin our organizat io nsuch as t he Ba lanced Scorecard and relat ed met r ics in order t o adequat ely
  • 48. 48define and measure success. T his is furt her emphasized t hrough t he r espo nsesreceived t o quest io n five, which seeks to so licit feedback on t he level o fsat isfact io n relat ed t o t he exist ence o f an adequat e per for mance managementsyst em. The major it y of respo ndent s who leheart edly express t heirdissat isfact io n wit h current per for mance ma nagement s yst ems in place.5.1.3) Centralization and StandardsThe int roduct io n o f t he Glo bal F ield Support St rat egy and it s impact on ICTser vice deliver y t o t he P KO’s is mor e pr onounced in t he UN Glo bal Ser viceCent er and mo st respondent s provide mixed feedback o n t he impact andimple ment at ion o f t he st rat egy. While so me feel t hat cent raliz ing ser vicedeliver y and r educing t he local foot print at t he missio n level is a posit ivedevelopment , ot hers feel t hat it will not yield any posit ive result s in t er ms o fimproving ser vices t o t he client s. T he emphasis by most respondent s is placedon t he imple ment at ion o f t he st rat egy and t heir lack o f co nvict io n as t o t heorganizat io n’s abilit y t o do so. The implement at io n o f t he IPS AS st andar d(Int ernat ional Public S e r vices Account ing St andard) generat es a mixedfeedback fro m t he respo ndent s wit h so me st at ing t hat it is “ over exaggerat ed”and ot hers expressing t heir believe t hat it will make organizat io na lper for mance more vis ible.5.1.4) The Balanced ScorecardWhile so me responses relat ed t o t he quest ion about t he familiar it y wit h t heBSC were negat ive, t he aut hor was surpr ised t o not e t hat so me respondersindicat ed t hat t hey had adopt ed and use t he BS C in t heir organizat ion. T heresponse was surpr is ing since t he aut h or, despit e having int imat e knowledgewit h t he UN organizat io n and specifically t he I CT organizat io n was not aware
  • 49. 49t hat BSC was being applied so mewher e or perhaps had assumed t hat it wasnot .5.2) Analysis and interpretation of the interview dataBased o n t he result s obt ained fro m t he E -Survey and t he ana lysis o f t he dat aobt ained t he aut hor conduct ed four int erviews wit h ind ividuals who ar eposit ioned in t he I CT organizat ion t o have specific ins ight s in t he glo bal ICTst rat egies for t he P KO’s as t hey for m par t of bot h t he st rat egic as well as t heoperat io nal ar m o f t he ICT organizat ion. The y aim o f t he int er views was t oobt ain more in dept h infor mat ion on t he main t hemes t hat were der ived fro mt he quest ions asked in t he quest io nnaire. To t hat end t he aut ho r askedquest io ns and led t he discussio ns t owards t opics such as, t he use o f ITILframework in t he UNGS C; t he exper iences gained wit h t he development anduse o f t he Balanced Scorecard in t he UNGSC; t he manage ment andmeasurement of per for mance; and, t he al ignment of ICT st rat egies wit horganizat io nal st rat egies such as t he GFS S and t he UN’s ICT st rat egy.Aft er t he int er views were co ncluded t he aut hor t ranscr ibed part s and t ooknot es o f what was said about subject s t hat were most relevant t o t he resear chquest io ns and t he quest ions asked in t he surve y. Fro m t he review o f t he not esand careful examinat io n o f t he r ecordings t he aut hor was able t o linkelement s back t o t he resear ch quest ions as well as t he lit erat ure and UNdocument review relat ed to ICT deliv er y frameworks and per for mancemanagement and measurement fr ameworks. T he conclusio ns based on t heanalys is o f t he int er views are discussed in t he fo llowing sect ions belo w.
  • 50. 505.3) Relationship of results to the objectives set out in the research Questions.The ICT deliver y framework or model for PKO’s is shift ing away fro m t he“o ld” a sset s or ient ed approach and has st art ed embracing t he co ncept s ofhaving a “ser vice or ient ed” approach geared t owards deliver ing end -t o-endICT ser vices. Evidence o f t his bears out of t he result s o f t he sur ve y as we ll ast he int er views co nduct ed where a clear focus is placed on cent ralizing ICTsyst ems and applicat io ns as well as t he creat ion and inaugurat io n o f t he UN -GSC in Valencia which has adopt ed bot h the ITIL -v3 and BSC frameworks fort he manage ment o f t heir ser vices and perfor mance management o f t he cent er.There were also clear indicat io ns t hat ICT managers under st and t herequir ement s o f t heir cust omer s by get t ing “clo ser t o t he business” in order t omake sure t hat t he ser vices or product s t hat t he ICT organizat ion deliver senables and enhances t he capabilit y o f t hese client s t o per for m t heir t asks.Work on a “charge- back” mechanis m for ser vices deliver ed by t he UNGS C t oPKO”s has st art ed while t he int ent ions are t here t o enhance and expand t hescope o f ser vices pro vided. A Gart ner publicat io n t hat researched t he ITdeliver y mat urat ion fro m “asset opt imizing” to “service-optimi zing”highlight s t he shift bet ween being “IT- Focused” and cust o mer focused be itint er nal and eve nt ually ext er nal. On t he scale shown below o ne could placet he UN ICT organizat io n for t he P KO’s as being in t he “ process” focus andmo ving int o t he “service” focus (Young, 2011 b). It could cert ainly be arguedt hat t he UNGS C has mat ured int o t he “ service” or “Internal Cust omer-Focused” area. While t he individual P KO’s are o ft en st ill anchored in t he“assets” focus while t hrough t he cent ral deliver y o f ent erpr ise classapplicat io ns many o f t he lo calized IT processes are beginning t o diminis ht hus slowly mo ving t hem t owards a more process and ser vice focus as well.
  • 51. 51 Figur e 4. IT Deliver y mode l mat urat ion fr amework. Source: Gart ner 2011 cit ed in Young, 2011, p8.It would seem r at her unlikely ho wever t hat t he ICT organizat io n could mat ureint o a “value” or ient ed ent it y largely due t o t he lack o f cont rol by seniorprogram managers over t he full range of r esources and in part icular t heirhuman resources. Having said t hat , if indeed t he UN would be able t oembr ace and adopt to organizat ional st ruct ures t hat would allow progra mmanager s fu ll cont rol over t heir resources a push t owards t he valueorient at ion could be possible. T he aut hor was not able t hrough t he researc hconduct ed to show if such a fundament al shift would indeed yie ldper for mance enhancement s or if t he evo lvement of t he ICT organizat ion int o a“profit or ient ed” and “ext er nal market focused” ent it y would ult imat ely t urnit int o a “self ser ving” organizat ion as was suggest ed by one o f t heint er viewees.
  • 52. 52As o ne o f t he object ives set out by t he aut hor was t o t est if “t he currentorganizat io nal st ruct ure and ICT deliver y model provide for t he most effic ientand cost effect ive”, it beco mes clear from t he research t hat t he managementrepresent at ives o f t he ICT organizat ion for t he P KO’s t hat were part of t heresear ch feel t hat t here is a lot of room for improvement . Part icular emphasiswas placed on t he need t o develop clear success cr it er ia and met r ics t o allo wfor adequat e and accurat e means t o mea sure success. In r eference t o t he RBBframework it is clear t hat it is not felt t o offer any benefit s t owards definingand measur ing success or per for mance, t o which t he UN’s Office o f Int er na lOversight Ser vices appears t o agree in t heir report reviewing r esult s- basedmanagement , st at ing t hat “Result s-based management at t he Unit ed Nationshas been an admi nist rative chore of little value to accountabilit y anddeci sion-making”(UN, 2008, p1).The successful implement at io n o f t he BS C in t he UNGS C and t he r esult s t hatwill event ually be measured t hrough t his met hodology may for m a co nvinc ingargument t hat not only is t he BS C suit able but indeed a super ior framework todevelop a per for mance management syst em t hat allows for t he creat io n o fsuit able per for mance indicat ors based on clear and achievable goals t hatfo st er account abilit y and effic iencies, which in t ime will o ffer improvedorganizat io nal per for mance. Developing BSC’s for P KO’s would o ffer asuper ior mechanis m to t ranslat e miss io n mandat e’s or “visio ns ” int ost rat egies around which t he miss io n support services would each pla y a ro lein developing and achieving goals relat ed to t he four perspect ives .
  • 53. 53On t he quest ion as t o t he applicabilit y of “business - like” models fo r ser vicedeliver y in ot her areas o f support services wit hin t he P KO’s. It couldcert ainly be argued t hat if ot her ser vices such as logist ics, HR, administ rat iveand ot her ser vices would adopt a more service -or ient ed approach much liket he ICT ser vice deliver y mo del descr ibed, t hat effic ien c ies could be creat ed.The research conduct ed however was not able t o est ablish if it would indeedbe feasible t o ext end t he t ype o f “value or ient ed” ser vices t o such operat ions,cert ainly t he implement at io n o f t he GFSS places t he emphasis on mo vingback o ffice funct io ns t o a regional lo cat ion in a RS C or to t he GSC wit h t heaim t o creat e t he so -called light foot -print approach in P KO t heat res and t heint ent ion t o cent ralize supply-chain management and ot her support ele ment sappear s to show int ent to move t owards a mor e ser vice opt imizedarchit ect ure. The quest io n whet her t hese development s will o ffer a met hod t o“do more wit h less” is difficult t o answer and did not beco me apparentt hrough t he research co nduct ed. One t hing t hat st ands out in t er ms of t heimple ment at ion o f t he GFSS fro m t he research conduct ed is t hat whilerespondent s and int er viewees showed agreement wit h t he under lyingpr inciples t her e was quit e so me skept icis m and cr it ique at t he imple ment at ionof t he st rat egy, so me arguing t hat get t ing to t he desired end- st at e of t he GFSSmeans a huge change manage ment exer cise, which t he UN is not ready or ableto embr ace.5.4) Weaknesses in the data collected.There is a weakness in t hat none of t he “non -ICT” respondent s part icipat ed int he sur vey nor was t he aut hor able t o int erview any o f t he “non -ICT ”manager s t arget ed in t he quest ionnair e. This ma y have produced a result t hat
  • 54. 54is per haps t o ICT cent r ic and did not include views on ICT deliver y fro m t heclient perspect ive. While t o so me ext ent t he dat a co llect ed t hrough t heint er views validat es t he dat a co llect ed t hrough t he quest io nnaire, a st rongervalidat io n could have been obt ained t hrough t r iangulat ion wit h dat a gat heredfro m t he P KO’s at large, t his would however have creat ed a vo lume o f dat at hat would have t aken subst ant ially lo nger to analyze and evaluat e.5.6) Effect on professional practice.It remains t o be seen what effect t his work will have on pr ofessio nal pract ice.I f anyt hing t he work has shown t hat t here are ways t o bet t er manage andmeasure per for mance wit hin t he P KO’s. It also showed t hat improved ICTdeliver y fr ameworks would have a posit ive impact on organizat io na lper for mance. T he research disco vered t hat in fact Balanced Scorecards andt he use o f ITIL frameworks for Cont inual Ser vice I mprovement are beingembr aced. Through t his paper, adopt ion of t hese met hods in t he PKO’s couldbe accelerat ed, t hrough publicat ion t o key manager s in t he P K O’s and DFS.
  • 55. 55 Chapter Six: CONCLUSIONS6.1) ConclusionsThis research set out to invest igat e if t he current frameworks and met hodsused for ICT ser vice deliver y t o Unit ed Nat io ns Peace Keeping Organizat ionsis providing for t he mo st effic ient and cost effect ive met hods , it also soughtto est ablish t he appropr iat eness o f per for mance management syst ems such ast he Balanced Scorecard and adopt ion o f service management fr ameworks suc has ITIL for t he ICT organizat io n. It did so t hrough a n elect ronic sur ve y wit hopen essay st yle quest io ns and t hrough focused int er views wit h a number o fsenior ICT managers t hat are part of t he ICT organizat io n for t he PKO’s.What beca me apparent t hrough t he resear ch is t hat ever ybody invo lved in t hest udy agreed t hat a much bet t er job should be done t o define and measur esuccess and t hat in order to do so appropr iat e met r ics need t o be est ablished.While mo st people invo lved in t he st udy had heard o f bot h ITIL and t he BS Cnowhere have bot h frameworks been fully implement ed wit h t he except io n o ft he UN Glo bal Ser vice Cent er. This is however a ver y posit ive developmentsince t he GS C is set t o play an increasingly import ant role i n t he deliver y o fICT ser vices t o t he field in part icular in r elat ion t o t he imple ment at ion o f t heGlo bal Fie ld Support St rat egy which dr ives cent ralizat io n o f ser vices,addit io nally major advances in connect ivit y bet ween t he var ious P KO’s andt he GS C are facilit at ing t he provis io n of cent ralized applicat ions t herebyreducing ICT foot print s in t he miss io ns. Missio n specific I CT organizat io ns
  • 56. 56would do well t o adopt ITIL frameworks in o rder t o be aligned wit h t he GSC,and t o focus on ident ificat ion o f cr it ica l processes and how to impro ve t he mwhile also focus ing t heir at t ent ion on bet t er under st anding t he “business”needs in order to provide ICT ser vices that facilit at e and enhance progra mdeliver y and/or miss io n mandat e impleme nt at ion.The fact t hat ICTD to get her wit h t he UNGSC are working on t he developmentof a chargeback mechanis m for ser vices provided by t he UNGSC is also aclear indicat ion t hat indeed ICT Ser vice deliver y is t ransit io ning t o embraceconcept s t hat could qualify t he st at ement t hat “IT is being run as a business”in t he fut ure, which as had been highlight ed t hrough t he Gart ner research ispart of t he “IT mat urat io n fr amework” (Young, 2011 b). T he quest ion rema insif indeed t he ICT organizat ion could become an ent it y t hat “act s as a profitcent er” as part of t he Unit ed Nat ions, this would requir e quit e a depart urefro m current accept ed organizat ional makeup and would at so me st age alsorequir e t he devo lut ion o f t he cent rally managed human resources t hroughOHRM and FPD. Allowing senior manageme nt o f t he ICT organizat ion for t hePKO’s t o manage and cont rol t he ir human resources independent ly wit hOHRM and FPD assuming a more mat ure HRM ro le t hat assist s and providesoversight rat her t han per for m t he full range of “personnel recruit ment ,placement , pro mot ion and administ rat ion” as is current ly t he case. A recent lypublished Gart ner r eport descr ibes t his model as “IT as a glo bal ser viceprovider”, which it defines as “a shared -ser vice organizat io n which is a nint er nal ser vice funct ion t hat lit erally runs like a business” (Go mo lski &S mit h, 2012, p6). Ther e cert ainly is room for t he t ransfor mat ion o f t he ICT
  • 57. 57organizat io n for PKO’s int o such an ent it y; all it requir es is t he willingness t oembr ace such changes by t he UN’s t op decisio n makers.6.2) Future research and suggestions for management.Wit h t he cr it iques t hat t he UN has been receiving regarding Result s BasedManagement fro m it s own oversight bodies, and incr easing demands fro mmember st at es to “do more wit h less” , it would be int erest ing t o co nductfurt her research int o t he development and applicat io n o f Balanced Scorecardswit hin t he P KO’s (UN, 2008, Torsella, 2011). A st udy invo lving a number o fPKO’s cover ing one or t wo per for mance per iods may help t o provide t heevidence needed t hat t hrough t he BSC, a bet t er, more accurat e and morerelevant per for mance measurement o f a P KO can be per for med. M ore in dept hst udies could also be per for med as t o financial and operat io nal benefit s t hatcould be realized t hrough t he cr eat ion o f a Glo bal Ser vice Provider, much inline wit h t he Dut ch defense force’s “I VENT” and in line wit h t he modeldescr ibed by Gart ner (IVENT, 2012)(Gomolski & S mit h, 2012).ICT management would do well in d eveloping clear st rat egies t hat placeinfor mat io n management at t he cent er of ICT ser vice deliver y which wil lallow for t he creat ion o f a work environment where infor mat io n is deliver ed,analyzed, shared and st ored in such a manner t hat it empowers emplo yeest hrough knowledge shar ing, and equips manager s t o make t he r ight decisio nsat t he r ight t imes.
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  • 66. 66Unit ed Nat io ns, (2012c) Off icial Documents System Search, Unit ed Nat io ns[Online]. Available fro m: ht t p://www.un.org/en/document s/ods/ (Accessed: 26June 2012)Ver beet en, F.H.M. (2008) ‘P er for mance management pract ices in publicsect or organizat io ns: I mpact on per for mance’, Accounting, Auditing &Accountabili ty Journal , 21 (3), pp.427–454 [Online]. Ava ilable fro m:ht t p://dx.do i.org.ezproxy. liv. ac.uk/10.1108/09513570810863996 ( Accessed:08 November 2011)Voss, C. Tsikr ikt sis, N. & Fro hlich, M. (2002) ‘Case research in operat io nsmanagement ’, International Journal of Operations & ProductionManagement, 22 (2), pp.195-219 [Online]. Ava ilable fro m:ht t p://dx.do i.org.ezproxy. liv. ac.uk/10.1108/ 01443570210414329 ( Accessed:26 June 2012)Whit e, B. (2002) Dissertation Skills f or Business and Management Students .Sout h- West ern, CENGAGE Lear ning.Winniford, M, Conger, S, & Er ickso n -Har r is, L (2009) Confusio n in t heRanks: IT Service Management Pra ct ice and Ter mino logy, Inf ormationSyst ems Management , 26, (2), pp.153-163 [Online]. Available fro m:ht t p://dx.do i.org.ezproxy. liv. ac.uk/10.1080/10580530902797532 ( Accessed:19 August 2011)
  • 67. 67Young, C.M. (2011a) ‘St rat egic decis io ns for opt imal IT ser vicemanagement ’, Gartner Research, ID Number: G00213187 [Online]. Availablefro m:ht t p:// my. gart ner.co m/ port al/ ser ver.pt ?open=512&objI D=260&mode=2&PageID=3460702&resId=1733620&ref=QuickS earch&st hkw=G00213187(Accessed: 8 December 2011)Young, C.M. (2011 b) ‘Running IT like a busin ess 2.0: The ser vice-opt imizingIT deliver y model’, Gartner Research, ID Number: G00213856 [Online].Available fro m:ht t p:// my. gart ner.co m/r esources/ 213800/213856/running_it _like_a_business_2_213856.pdf?li=1 ( Accessed: 21 August 2011)Young, C.M. (2011c) ‘T he t radit ional asset -opt imiz ing IT deliver y model isobso let e’, Gartner Research, ID Number: G00213239 [ Online]. Availablefro m:ht t p:// my. gart ner.co m/ port al/ ser ver.pt ?open=512&objI D=260&mode=2&PageID=3460702&resId=1733622&ref=QuickS earch&st hkw= G00213239(Accessed: 8 December 2011)
  • 68. 68 APPENDICES: Participant Information SheetDear participant,You are invited to participate in an online questionnaire that seeks to gather data relevant tothe completion of my dissertation which has the purpose of identifying and providing proof ofconcept for improved ICT delivery to the field and improved performance managementmethods.Participation in this research may be of benefit to you in that it could foster discussion andthought as to how performance management in the UN PKO’s could be improved and how adifferent approach to ICT delivery could be of benefit to the financial management of themission.The research is targeted at managers in the field of ICT, Finance and Budget, and MissionSupport (Administrative, i.e. Admin Officers, CAS or CMS), you have been selected becauseaccording to my records you fall into one of these categories.The online questionnaire will take approximately 30 Minutes to complete, if you cannotcomplete the survey at once you will have the opportunity to save your work and continue at alater stage.The survey is completely anonymous, no personal data as to the person will be captured aspart of the survey or used in the research and dissertation. The only thing you will be asked toidentify is which occupational group you belong to, i.e. ICT, Finance, or Administrative.At the beginning of the survey you need to click the “I understand and agree the termsdescribed in the Participant Information Sheet” in order to consent to your participation andproceed with the completion of the survey.Your participation is entirely voluntary and there are no risks involved either throughparticipation or non-participation by any means of implication. The Director ITSD and theDirector RICTS Middle East (UNIFIL) have lent their support to this research.Please note that there is no financial reimbursement or other financial incentive attached toparticipation in this survey. I will however as a token of my appreciation as to yourwillingness to participate donate USD $2,- for each completed survey to the United NationsWorld Food Program, a confirmation of my donations will be made public for verification.For any questions or further inquiries regarding this research you can either contact myuniversity or me as follows:Mark PolaneEmail: Polane@un.org (Work) mightydutchman@mac.com (Private)Telephone: +972-2-6760043 (Home) +972-2-568-7437 (160-7437) (Work) +972-54-4870014 (Mobile)University of LiverpoolResearch Participant Advocate USA number 001-612-312-1210) or email addressliverpoolethics@ohecampus.comIf you wish to receive a copy of the outcome of the research dissertation please contact me.Please keep a copy of this P.I.S. for your records if you choose to participate.Thank you for your participation.
  • 69. 69 Survey Questions – Annex “A”Survey: E-Survey ICT Service Strategy & Performance Management - Open Questions1. What is your opinion on the alignment of ICT services and ICT servicestrategies with the strategy/mandate and operational goals of themission/organization?2. What do you believe should/could be done to optimize ICT servicedelivery to the various stakeholders/clients within themission/organization?3. Do you believe that ICT service delivery has an impact onorganizational performance, could you describe why and how4. If you were asked to find ways to improve organizational performancewhat would you focus on, which areas of support elements forpeacekeeping operations would you consider prime candidates forperformance improvement.5. Are you satisfied that an adequate performance management systemis in place to measure and manage performance of support elementssuch as ICT within PKOs, please elaborate.6. What is your opinion on the "Global Field Support Strategy" and itslikely impact on the performance of Service delivery7. What is your opinion on the implementation of "IPSAS" (InternationalPublic Services Accounting Standards) and how would you assess itsimpact on organizational performance.8. Please describe what you know about the "Balanced Scorecard"approach to linking strategy with performance management andmeasurement.9. Do you work in:ValueSenior ManagementICT / CITS ManagementBudget / Finance ManagementAdministration / Logistics ManagementOther Support Services Management
  • 70. 70 Interview Transcripts and notes:Interview with Candidate A.Topics for discussion:The ICT delivery model for UN PKOsThe methods used for managing and measuring performance of ICT in the field.Can you describe how the use of Balanced Scorecard has impacted the performancemeasurement/management of your organization.Started with last year after inauguration of SBV - Helped to create a bridge betweenthe strategy and what actually happens, KPIs an anchor between CSF and KPI,comprehensive measurement framework feeds in the strategic framework. Identify away to demonstrateBridging between Strategic plan of the director and what actually happens.Not seen very much in UN.Pilot - Director of UNSBV developed strategy plan, used "vision" document of ICTDBSC is a way to create accountability and link strategy of ICTD with that of UNGSC.Used the ICTD vision plan as a policy document. UNLB/Valencia is the operationalarm of ICTD and they are the UNGSC.The BSC is a way to make ourselves accountable.Aimed to demonstrate that what we do is consistent with the organizational strategy.How does ITIL fit with the use of BSCBSC is performance management/measurement, ITIL is service managementframework.Service management framework. CSI being.Measurements of both are used in complementarity.BSC is still at first release, so there is room for improvement in the BSC within thisfirst release service improvement was not main focus.BSC not put in place as a tool to support CSI.Continues service Improvement done separately after having identified 24 processesand focussing on these processes and how to improve and enhance them.More as a tool to measure performance against organizational objectives.Can you give me your perspective on how effective the ICT delivery model currentlyused is and how you would improve it.improved a lot over the last 10 years.two perspectives - Vertical - Functional groups technologiesHorizontal perspective which is service management perspective.Value oriented framework.Strategy emerged to emphasize on centralization of services, not everything can be
  • 71. 71centralized though.Different missions shouldnt be doing the same things differently in each mission.Leadership capacity, change management capacity needs to be strengthened.In the past Asset oriented, need to become more value oriented providing solutionsthat add value to customers and the organization. If we are providers of solutionsbecome key-enablers we will get a seat on the board/big table and have somethingto say when it comes to steering the mission nor the organization.In the Netherlands the armed forces are provided ICT services by an independenttype ICT service provider which was formed combining all the various defense forcesindividual ICT departments. This ICT service provider is pretty much run "as abusiness" using ITIL frameworks for service delivery etc.Concept described in Gartner report similar to concept of UN Global Service Center.A lot of value in this idea, UNGSC is very much ITIL converted, for years focussed ontechnologies there is more a need to focus on services and providing solutions.Centralize all that can be centralized in the GSC, treat end users as clients.Establishment of SLAs allows for clear descriptive service provision expectations.There are things that will be more difficult to support.Pilot underway where network support for UN mission in Libia up to Tier 3 is providedby UNGSC, such as event monitoring, network support, server support etc. run byGSC.Shift in direction described.Attempts have been made to create standard templates for Mission Deployments.Conclusion that one-size fits all is not applicable, although modularized templatescan be valuable.Backoffice functions to provide budget resources for missions. Centralizing functionssuch as budget formulation etc. might provide for a more standardized approach todeveloping budgets for missions.Important to ensure maintenance of critical capacity within the missions despitecentralization.RemarksGovernance use of standards important but need to be used in an intelligent manner.Cannot go from 0-100 overnight, need to take time to implement standards and bestpractices, needs to be a continuing process.Professionalizing missions ICT management. Ensure that we are credible in the waywe do things. Follow best practices.Develop & Groom managers making sure that they are on par with with the realworld.Senior guys need to polish their skills.
  • 72. 72Interview with Candidate B.How well are ICT Strategies aligned with mandates.compact HOM/SG - CMS-workplan, ICT Strategy derived from the yearly Compactand CMS Mission work plan.Yearly strategic guidance through compact which feeds into the ICT strategy.ICTD feeds into the ICT strategy as well, it provides global direction into the ICTStrategy (Yearly work plan)Short medium strategyRoom for improvement at the mission level, not that many issues at the highermission level that filter down to ICT management. (ICT is not close enough to thebusiness)Long term strategy depend heavily on HQ, very much a top down strategic guidancewhich doesnt involve missions much.Missions have a lot flexibility in the implementation of strategies which has positiveand negative impacts.Different missions have different ways of delivering the same services.Regional strategy focus on duplication of efforts.Listening to business userBusiness users find it difficult to articulate their needs, while they recognize theremay be a problem with a particular process, these users/customers find it verydifficult to articulate the specific problems with the process and specify their needs.This has and continues to lead to situations where ICT organization is pushed into arole where it identifies and defines the processes and problems and then offerssolutions.We tend not to do a very good job at executing the ICT solutions in a proper manner,we tend to rush off and slap together a solution and put it out there, we miss out onthe type of consultancy that needs to take place from the time you have determinedwhat the solution is going to be and determine what the requirements are going to befor the finished product.Many examples of systems that have been put out there that are not fit for purpose,partially fit for purpose or that could have been better or that could have beenintegrated.We do very often tak on the role of the customer because the customer doesnt havethe capacity to define his own needs, we do not however efficiently put together androll out solutions.Could role be strengthened by incorporating different functions in the ICTorganizations.Cultural changes required in the UN organization and in the ICT organization, weneed to improve our analysis capability, we need to maintain interaction with theclients more closely in the development of applications/systems and their rollout.Improved analysis capability needs to be done at the highest level of ICTorganizations to work towards solutions that are enterprise based and.Do ICT Service delivery have an impact on organizational performance.Impact cannot be understated, ICT is/should function as a strategic enabler. ICT
  • 73. 73Services are crucial to substantive elements of PKOs from working towardsfulfillment of the mission mandate. Their work and the nature of our business isalmost completely based on information management, sharing, and information flow,impact of providing the right solutions and the impact of delivering the wrongsolutions can be very high, the impact of a break in service can be very high, in fact abreak in some ICT services could mean the inability or suspension of core missionactivities. Feedback gathered from our clients has been very positive however thefeedback received has been received against a very low set bar.There is a need to test our performance agains various international standards.While feedback is good, we have no effective means to measure this feedbackagainst specific standards of performance. We need to develop standards and holdourselves accountable against these standards and measure how well we performagainst these standards.Familiar with the BSC ?We need to look at other organizations i.e. NATO and how they operate.NATO uses 3 layer structure of Strategic at HQ, Operational at intermediary base,Tactical at the ground.We at UN tend to mix a lot of the operational with the tactical at the mission level,when looking to implement scorecards KPIs etc it is a huge burden on the mission totake on these tasks because they are mostly tasked to be tactical. There is a need tohave more capacity at an operational level and lighter footprint of people on theground at tactical level if we were to be able to properly perform and implementBSCs and KPIs etc.In the current structure of UN PKOs the question is who should be interacting andworking with the customers/clients our organizational structure does not adequatelyprovide for this, although we are slowly moving in this direction we are certainly notthere yet.Your Opinion on GFSSGFSS has one layer to many, there is a need for UNHQ, Global Service Center, andMission level, I believe that the Regional Service Center is one layer to many.Over the years we have been attracting and integrating contractual services into theICT delivery Organization for the field so the creation of a UN PKO specific ICTservice provider may have some merit, concerns I have though are that this entity willbecome "self serving" in the end where its motivation becomes the survival of theorganization and not serving the UN Mission perse.Feels that this independent ICT entity would become divorced from the greater goalsand be self serving.Certain elements could be run along commercial means.Would it not become more customer focussedOrganization that is very business oriented problem is volatility of the businessmodel. If there is a contract mentality this might not improve.Diversity of how we provide ICT services.Flexibility in how we operate currently may not work in a the structure proposedbecause of rigidity in service provision. i.e. with UN mission startups there is a lot ofvolatility and situations and requirements on the ground can change from day to day,a business entity may lack the flexibility to deal with these type of changes.However I do believe that it would promote more conformity across the PKOs sothere is certainly value in this type of approach.
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  • 75. 75Interview with candidate C:Can you tell me what methods are being used to manage and measure theperformance of ICT in the field.Operational level KPIs and not businessCan you tell me about the balanced scorecard, how has it helped in measuring andmanaging performance. Tell me about the process you went through to establish theGoals and what perspectives were used.Looked at GFSS for development of strategy. Not more then 3 -5 KPIs to CSF. Didnot look at the OICT IT Strategy, because GFSS is very important for GSC as it wasmore linked with that strategy. The OICT IT Strategy was not felt to contribute togoals of the GSC.ICTD Guidelines should be connected to higher strategy.Disconnect between OICT and ICTD20Million UNGSC budget.Can you tell me about ITIL adoption and how it ties in with the BSC, i.e. is ITILcomplementary to BSC or the other way around ?Continual service improvement in ITIL is same concept that exists in BSC framework.What are your views on the ICT delivery model that is currently used for the PKOswhat do you think should or could be improved.What are your thoughts on the creation of a semi-autonomous ICT Service provider(Agency) much like what has been created in the Netherlands Defense Forces.Would "Running IT Like a business" offer benefits to the field and to the organization?Global Service Center development is in certain ways adopting this. Where the GSCis providing services for PKOs in accordance with SLAs etc. Increasingly moreremote management will take place, where data centers will be managed andmonitored remotely. Small missions at first.Adoption of standards and training of ICT people on concepts and frameworks.Lybia mission is being run in accordance with ITIL standards to provide eventmanagement of the Network Remotely from UNSBV.
  • 76. 76ITIL V3 is much more service oriented and focusses on value creation for thebusiness, incorporating continuous service improvement which is also prominent inBSC.Need to get closer to the business and understand the mission objectives.
  • 77. 77Interview with Candidate D:What is your opinion on the RBB framework used within the UN, do you believe itoffers any value to the organization in terms of measuring performance ?RBB is a futile exercise and useless tool, program managers create goals andobjectives which are obviously crafted in such a manner that you will meet thesegoals and objectives after which you report back on the fact that you have met them.The goals developed are so high level and broad that you could create successaround them very easily. RBB is not an effective tool in that sense. RBB is anexercise in creative writing.Other ways to measure performance, important to establish metrics and developclear criteria for success which is measurable and tangible, dont create an industryaround to the collection of the information but leverage the systems and procedureswe currently have in place in order to gather information seamlessly and provide afront end presentation through dashboards etc. and hold management accountablefor meeting specific targets set. This could be done for any department within the UNranging from HR, to logistics, ICT etc.BSCDeveloping a BSC for the field and in the field has merit and Global Service Centerhas proven that developing Metrics is facilitated with the use of the BSC.Currently in the process developing short term strategic goals (2-3 year horizon) forICT organization. Working on developing metrics for the activities that form part of thestrategic goals, in order to be able to measure how successful the implementation ofthese goals have been. Getting the individual missions to follow a central strategy ismore difficult because missions have quite a high level of independence and as suchinterpret their own mandates and develop their own programs for delivery due to theabsence of a better centralized structure of policy guidance and strategic thought ofwhat missions should do. BSC could come in and take the strategic goal which inessence is the mandate and develop quantifiable goals around that which aremeasurable you would have a BSC.Very much aligned with the corporate strategy policies that have come from OICTand very cognizant of that we ensure that we are. The problem that is being faced isthat definitions of strategic goals and policies are different between OICT and ICTD(Field ICT) strategy should be an overall direction which comprises of various layers.OICT went to the GA with four projects and declared these their strategies, the GAtherefore did not approve them and fund them.NO overall strategic goals have been developed and/or articulated by the USG OICTthat serve as overarching strategic goals for the organization.GFSSConcept surrounding semi centralized or centralized using either Global ServiceCenter and/or Regional Service Centers.Getting to the desired end-state of the GFSS means a huge change managementexercise which the UN is not ready to embrace or able to embrace.Regional Service Centers can offer benefits but also potentially create a "3rd" layer of
  • 78. 78ICT management & Infrastructure.Provides for regional training in Entebbe for PKOs in Africa which is beneficial andcost effective use of resources, there is a need to provide assistance to customers inEntebbe. Delivery of system/applications etc. comes from GSC.Entebbe Regional Service Center makes sense for the missions there.Additional service centers may not offer any real benefits to the delivery of ICTservices in the regional missions due to the absence of UN transportation networksand a lesser amount of staff.The Global Field Support strategy appears to aim for the creation of a "Federated"Centralized approach to Service Delivery in the PKOs, this appears to be in line withthe ICT strategy set forth by OICT, what is your opinion towards this approach, dobelieve that this will create greater effectiveness and efficiencies ?In the Gartner Case study I shared with you regarding "Running IT like a business"the Dutch Defense forces have created a "Business like" entity that serves as aservice provider to all parts of the dutch Defense forces. Through the adoption of ITILstandards and practices this service provider basically runs its services as a"business".Would you consider it feasible that a similar setup is created for the provision of ICTservices to PKOs, where basically end-to-end services are delivered to the FIeldMissions adopting a business like approach, where missions would contract the"services" from the service provider?ICT delivery for PKOs is moving towards a centralized model of service provision.The federated structure that had been set up over the years, for many reasons, cost,being security in the PKOs, the specific situations on the ground, and technology ismoving us towards a more centralized approach. The enablers for this morecentralized approach is the Global Service Center which is made up by UNLB &UNSBV. In essence there is a move towards a more business like approach forsupplying ICT services, currently work is being performed on the development of a"robust charge back" model, in order to provide services in the same manner whichthe Dutch Defense forces have done and running ICT service delivery as a business,there needs to be some form of revenue creation. Hopefully come up with a"transparent" way to create a service catalog which customers would then subscribeto and pay for, while making sure that the revenues go back into the serviceoptimization efforts.Problem is with management of HR, the UN setup will not likely allow for programmemanagers to take full control over their Human Resources, which creates problems inthe proper execution of a program and the creation of a true business like approachto service delivery. HR Department in the UN is looking to maintain control over staff,not relegating and given control over these resources to a program manager.So in order to move closer to and succeed in the creation of a business modelinspired ICT organization for the PKOs a certain amount of creativity will be requiredto manage Human Resources. Need to be able to control HR assets and have theability to move assets to where they are needed and required operationally, movemore towards contractual services to provide centralized support, because these arenot within the purview of the the HR department.
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