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Topic 2.1 network communication using osi model

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Computer Network

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  • 1. 22/1/2013 1 Learning OutcomesLearning OutcomesLearning OutcomesLearning Outcomes 1. Define seven layer of OSI Modelseven layer of OSI Modelseven layer of OSI Modelseven layer of OSI Model 2. Define functionsfunctionsfunctionsfunctions of each layer in OSI Model 3. Use OSI Model to explain the communication between two network nodes 4. Describe data packets and framesdata packets and framesdata packets and framesdata packets and frames 5. Describe two types of addressingtwo types of addressingtwo types of addressingtwo types of addressing covered by the OSI Model
  • 2. 22/1/2013 2 OSI Model?OSI Model?OSI Model?OSI Model? The OSI (Open System Interconnection) model is developed by ISO in 1984198419841984. Why OSI?Why OSI?Why OSI?Why OSI? as a guidelines how network operatinghow network operatinghow network operatinghow network operating systems communicatesystems communicatesystems communicatesystems communicate on a network. OSI model was to provide a set of design standards for equipment manufacturersfor equipment manufacturersfor equipment manufacturersfor equipment manufacturers. ISO is the organization OSI is the model Note:Note: 7 Layer of OSI Model7 Layer of OSI Model7 Layer of OSI Model7 Layer of OSI Model A good what to remember the seven layers is All People Seem To Need Data Processing
  • 3. 22/1/2013 3 OSI Model vs Protocol Data is transmitted from (Host A) to (Host B) the data flows down the 7 Layers at Host A and across the physical media in the form of binary data, when it arrives at Host B the data travels back up through the seven layers on Host B.
  • 4. 22/1/2013 4 An exchange using the OSI model Host A Host B Layer 7 Layer 6 Layer 5 Layer 4 Layer 3 Layer 2 Layer 1 Layer 7:Layer 7:Layer 7:Layer 7: ApplicationApplicationApplicationApplication • DATADATADATADATA • Used for applicationsapplicationsapplicationsapplications specifically written to run overspecifically written to run overspecifically written to run overspecifically written to run over the networkthe networkthe networkthe network • Provides services to end user’s applicationsend user’s applicationsend user’s applicationsend user’s applications • Does not provide services to any other OSI layernot provide services to any other OSI layernot provide services to any other OSI layernot provide services to any other OSI layer • ExampleExampleExampleExample: apps are file transfer, e-mail, NetBIOS- based applications. Example: DNS; FTP; TFTP; BOOTP; SNMP;RLOGIN; SMTP; MIME; NFS; FINGER; TELNET; NCP; APPC; AFP; SMB
  • 5. 22/1/2013 5 Layer 6:Layer 6:Layer 6:Layer 6: PresentationPresentationPresentationPresentation • DATADATADATADATA • TranslatesTranslatesTranslatesTranslates from application to network format and vice-versa (network format to application) • EnsuresEnsuresEnsuresEnsures info from one system’s application layer canfrom one system’s application layer canfrom one system’s application layer canfrom one system’s application layer can be read by another systembe read by another systembe read by another systembe read by another system • Translates among multiple data formats • Does encryption and decryption Layer 5:Layer 5:Layer 5:Layer 5: SessionSessionSessionSession • DATADATADATADATA • Establishes, maintains and ends sessions across the network. • Responsible for name recognition (identification)name recognition (identification)name recognition (identification)name recognition (identification) so only the designated parties can participate in the session • Examples:Examples:Examples:Examples: are interactive login and file transfer connections, the session would connect and re- connect if there was an interruption; recognize names in sessions and register names in history
  • 6. 22/1/2013 6 Layer 4:Layer 4:Layer 4:Layer 4: TransportTransportTransportTransport SEGMENTSSEGMENTSSEGMENTSSEGMENTS Responsible for delivery of a messagedelivery of a messagedelivery of a messagedelivery of a message from one process to another Two transport protocols: Transmission ControlTransmission ControlTransmission ControlTransmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP)Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP)Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP)Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP) A train is a good analogy => the data is divided intodivided intodivided intodivided into identical unitsidentical unitsidentical unitsidentical units • Example protocols: TCP, ARP, RARP, SPXNWLink, NetBIOS / NetBEUI, ATP Layer 3:Layer 3:Layer 3:Layer 3: NetworkNetworkNetworkNetwork PACKETSPACKETSPACKETSPACKETS • Determine the path for data from the source to the destination computer. It manage switchingswitchingswitchingswitching and routingroutingroutingrouting of data packets based on network addresses concern on PACKET ROUTING. • Protocols: IP (Internet Protocol), IPX (Internet Protocol Exchange) DataDataDataData H3H3H3H3 IP Address
  • 7. 22/1/2013 7 Layer 3:Layer 3:Layer 3:Layer 3: NetworkNetworkNetworkNetwork (cont…)(cont…)(cont…)(cont…) Layer 2:Layer 2:Layer 2:Layer 2: Data LinkData LinkData LinkData Link FRAMESFRAMESFRAMESFRAMES This layer is where the network packets arenetwork packets arenetwork packets arenetwork packets are translatedtranslatedtranslatedtranslated into raw bitsraw bitsraw bitsraw bits (example: 00110101) to be transmitted on the physical layer. Responsible for transmitting frames from one node to the next. This is also a layer that uses the most basic addressing scheme, MAC AddressesMAC AddressesMAC AddressesMAC Addresses
  • 8. 22/1/2013 8 Physical Address (Mac Address) ???Physical Address (Mac Address) ???Physical Address (Mac Address) ???Physical Address (Mac Address) ??? MAC (Media Access Control) address is the unique hardware address that is installed to the network card by its manufacturer Layer 1:Layer 1:Layer 1:Layer 1: PhysicalPhysicalPhysicalPhysical BITSBITSBITSBITS Physical layer defines the cable or physical medium. Responsible for transmitting individual bits from one node to the next.
  • 9. 22/1/2013 9 To be Continue…. I don’t stopstopstopstop when I’m tiredI’m tiredI’m tiredI’m tired. I only stopstopstopstop when I’m doneI’m doneI’m doneI’m done…