Participant observation

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Participant observation

  1. 1.  To get close and familiar with group  Involvement with people  In natural environment  Over extended period of time
  2. 2.  Finding a role within the group to participate in some manner
  3. 3.  To where the group consents and permits it  ? Leads to artificial acting on behalf of the participants
  4. 4.  Interview
  5. 5.  aim to gather an in-depth understanding of human behaviour  To find out the reasons for that behaviour  Investigates why & how not just what, where and when  Smaller and focused samples are needed rather than large samples
  6. 6.  Ask questions in interactive group setting
  7. 7.  Used in conjunction with participant observation  High apparent validity  Results are believable  Low cost  Get results quickly
  8. 8.  Two-way focus group - one focus group watches another focus group and discusses the observed interactions and conclusion  Dual moderator focus group - one moderator ensures the session progresses smoothly, while another ensures that all the topics are covered  Dueling moderator focus group - two moderators deliberately take opposite sides on the issue under discussion  Respondent moderator focus group - one and only one of the respondents are asked to act as the moderator temporarily  Client participant focus groups - one or more client representatives participate in the discussion, either covertly or overtly  Mini focus groups - groups are composed of four or five members rather than 6 to 12  Teleconference focus groups - telephone network is used  Online focus groups- computers connected via the internet are used
  9. 9.  Group interaction enables interaction and stimulation of stories  Finding a native common language  Can help dispel the feeling of isolation if exploring sensitive issues so can be highly ethical
  10. 10.  Less control over a group (ideas wander)  Need highly trained observers and moderators  Groups can be tough to get together  Numbers not large enough to be representative of the population  Results can be influenced by the researcher  Needs correct environment for subject covered

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