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Participant observation

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Participant observation Participant observation Presentation Transcript

  • Participant Observation
  • Cultural Anthropology
  • Enables
    To get close and familiar with group
    Involvement with people
    In natural environment
    Over extended period of time
    View slide
  • History stems from social anthropologists
    View slide
  • Also involves
    Finding a role within the group to participate in some manner
  • Limited
    To where the group consents and permits it
    ? Leads to artificial acting on behalf of the participants
  • methods
    Interview
  • Observation
  • Participation
  • Collective Discussions
  • Analyses of personal Documents
  • Self analysis
  • Life Histories
  • Focus Groups
  • qualitative research
    aim to gather an in-depth understanding of human behaviour
    To find out the reasons for that behaviour
    Investigates why & how not just what, where and when
    Smaller and focused samples are needed rather than large samples
  • Method
    Ask questions in interactive group setting
  • When can they be used?
    Used in conjunction with participant observation
    High apparent validity
    Results are believable
    Low cost
    Get results quickly
  • Types of focus groups
    Two-way focus group - one focus group watches another focus group and discusses the observed interactions and conclusion
    Dual moderator focus group - one moderator ensures the session progresses smoothly, while another ensures that all the topics are covered
    Dueling moderator focus group - two moderators deliberately take opposite sides on the issue under discussion
    Respondent moderator focus group - one and only one of the respondents are asked to act as the moderator temporarily
    Client participant focus groups - one or more client representatives participate in the discussion, either covertly or overtly
    Mini focus groups - groups are composed of four or five members rather than 6 to 12
    Teleconference focus groups - telephone network is used
    Online focus groups- computers connected via the internet are used
  • Benefits and strengths
    Group interaction enables interaction and stimulation of stories
    Finding a native common language
    Can help dispel the feeling of isolation if exploring sensitive issues so can be highly ethical
  • problems
    Less control over a group (ideas wander)
    Need highly trained observers and moderators
    Groups can be tough to get together
    Numbers not large enough to be representative of the population
    Results can be influenced by the researcher
    Needs correct environment for subject covered