Web 2.0


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“Web 2.0” is a vogue term which describes the trend in the use of World Wide Web technology and web design that aims to enhance creativity, information sharing, and most notably, collaboration among users. These concepts have led to fundamental shift towards open, flexible and participatory web based communities and hosted services such as social-networking sites, wikis, blogs, and folksonomies.

“Web 2.0” applications have changed how people interact with the Web. The communication and collaboration tools that empower individuals in their personal lives are now emerging in the workplace. The PDF version of the full white paper is available at http://www.microagility.com/docs/Web2.pdf. In this paper, definition of “Web 2.0” and its benefits are included followed by a holistic approach for its implementation.

Please do not hesitate to contact me, if I can assist you with your Web 2.0 and/or Business Transformation initiatives to cut costs and improve efficiencies. I wish you all the best for 2009 and beyond, and hope that you have a successful year.

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Web 2.0

  1. 1. MicroAgility Institute for Business Agility What every CXO should know about the “Web 2.0” © MicroAgility, Inc. and/or its Affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Reproduction and distribution of this publication in any form without prior written permission is forbidden. The information contained herein has been obtained from sources believed to be reliable. MicroAgility disclaims all warranties as to the accuracy, completeness or adequacy of such information. MicroAgility shall have no liability for errors, omissions or inadequacies in the information contained herein or for interpretation thereof, the opinions expressed herein are subject to change without notice.
  2. 2. What every CXO should know about the “Web 2.0” 1 Introduction “Web 2.0” is a vogue term which describes the trend in the use of World Wide Web technology and web design that aims to enhance creativity, Table of Contents information sharing, and most notably, 1 Introduction collaboration among users. These concepts 1 What is “web 2.0”? have led to fundamental shift towards open, 3 Is “Web 2.0” really different? flexible and participatory web based communities 3 Why is “Web 2.0” Important? and hosted services such as social-networking 4 Implementation Approach sites, wikis, blogs, and folksonomies. “Web 2.0” applications have changed how people interact with the Web. The communication and collaboration tools that empower individuals in their personal lives are now emerging in the workplace. In this paper, definition of “Web 2.0” and its benefits are included followed by a very holistic approach for its implementation. 2 What is “Web 2.0”? “Web 2.0” is the business The term “Web 2.0” was coined by O’Reilly revolution in the computer Media in 2004 and refers to the second industry caused by the move to generation of Internet based services such as the Internet as platform, and an social networking sites, wikis and communication attempt to understand the rules tools that emphasize online collaboration and for success on that new sharing among users. Tim O’Reilly summarized platform. Principal among those “Web 2.0”, “Web 2.0” is the business revolution rules is this: Build applications in the computer industry caused by the move to that harness network effects to the Internet as platform, and an attempt to get more people to use them.” understand the rules for success on that new In short, the foundation of “Web platform. Principal among those rules is this: 2.0” is collaboration. Build applications that harness network effects to get more people to use them.” In short, the foundation of “Web 2.0” is collaboration. In the opening talk of the first “Web 2.0” Conference, which was held on October 5-7, [1] [2] , O'Reilly and John 2004 at San Francisco Battelle summarized what they saw as the themes of “Web 2.0”. They argued that the web had become a platform, with software above the level of a single device, leveraging the power of the quot;Long Tailquot; [The phrase The Long Tail (as a proper noun with capitalized letters) was first coined by Chris Anderson in an October 2004 [1] Wired magazine article to describe the niche strategy of businesses, such as Amazon.com or Netflix, that sell a large number of unique items in relatively small quantities], and with data as a driving force. According to O'Reilly and Battelle, “Web 2.0” is an architecture of participation, where users can contribute website content and create network effects “Web 2.0” technologies © MicroAgility, Inc. All rights reserved. Page 2 of 8
  3. 3. What every CXO should know about the “Web 2.0” Blogs tend to foster innovation in the assembly of systems and sites composed by pulling together Blogs (a short form of the term quot;Web logquot;) are features from distributed, independent Web sites that can be private, as in most cases, developers. (This could be seen as a kind of or it can be for business purposes with regular quot;open sourcequot; or possible quot;Agilequot; development entries of commentary, descriptions of events, or process, consistent with an end to the traditional other material such as graphics or video. Many software adoption cycle, typified by the so-called blogs provide commentary or news on a quot;perpetual betaquot;.) particular subject; others function as more O'Reilly provided examples of companies or personal online diaries. The ability for readers to products that embody these principles in his leave comments in an interactive format is an description of his four levels in the hierarchy of important part of many blogs. “Web 2.0”-ness: Wikis Level-3 applications, the most quot;Web 2.0quot;- A wiki is a collection of web pages designed to oriented, only exist on the Internet, deriving enable anyone who accesses it to contribute or their effectiveness from the inter-human modify content, using a simplified markup connections and from the network effects [4] [5] language . Wikis are often used to create that “Web 2.0” makes possible, and growing collaborative websites and to power community in effectiveness in proportion as people websites. The collaborative encyclopedia, make more use of them i.e. eBay, Craigslist, [5] Wikipedia, is one of the best-known wikis . Wikipedia, del.icio.us, Skype, dodgeball, and Wikis are used in business to provide intranets AdSense. and Knowledge Management systems. Ward Level-2 applications can operate offline but Cunningham, developer of the first wiki software, gain advantages from going online i.e. Flickr, WikiWikiWeb, originally described it as quot;the which benefits from its shared photo- simplest online database that could possibly database and from its community-generated [6] workquot; . tag database. Really Simple Syndications, RSSs, Level-1 applications operate offline but gain features online i.e. Writely (now Google RSS is a family of Web feed formats used to Docs & Spreadsheets) and iTunes (because publish frequently updated content such as blog of its music-store portion). entries, news headlines, and podcasts in a [7] standardized format . An RSS document Level-0 applications work as well offline as [8] (which is called a quot;feed,quot; quot;web feed,quot; or online i.e. MapQuest, Yahoo! Local, and Google Maps (mapping-applications using quot;channelquot;) contains either a summary of content contributions from users to advantage could from an associated web site or the full text. RSS rank as quot;level 2quot;). makes it possible for people to keep up with web sites in an automated manner that can be piped Non-web applications like email, instant- [8] into special programs or filtered displays . messaging clients, and the telephone fall [3] Mashup outside the above hierarchy . A mashup is a web application that combines The idea of quot;Web 2.0quot; can also relate to a data from more than one source into a single transition of some websites from isolated integrated tool. For example, a cartographic data information silos to interlinked computing from Google Maps to add location information to platforms that function as locally-available real-estate data; thus, creating a new and distinct web service that was not originally software in the perception of the user. “Web 2.0” provided by either source. also includes a social element where users generate and distribute content, often with Folksonomy(ies) freedom to share and re-use. This can result in a rise in the economic value of the web to Folksonomy (also known as collaborative businesses, as users can perform more activities tagging, social classification, social indexing, and online using the following applications: social tagging) is the practice and method of collaboratively creating and managing tags to annotate and categorize content. In contrast to © MicroAgility, Inc. All rights reserved. Page 3 of 8
  4. 4. What every CXO should know about the “Web 2.0” Improved Online Experience for end-users traditional subject indexing, metadata is generated not only by experts but also by Rich-Internet application techniques such as creators and consumers of the content. Usually, AJAX, Adobe Flash, Flex, Java, Silverlight and freely chosen keywords are used instead of a Curl have evolved due to “Web 2.0” that [9] controlled vocabulary . improves the user-experience in browser-based applications. The technologies allow a web-page 3 Is “Web 2.0” Really Different? to request an update for some part of its content, and to alter that part in the browser, without Many of the ideas of “Web 2.0” have already refreshing the entire page at the same time. been featured in implementations on networked systems well before the term quot;Web 2.0quot; 5 Implementation Approach emerged. If you have used LinkedIn, Amazon, NetFlix, and Flickr, and collaboration tools such Despite the benefits of “Web 2.0”, few as Lotus Notes and Lotus Dominos, you will businesses have been agile enough to upgrade probably find familiar concepts in the “Web 2.0”. their systems to reap these benefits. Many more For this very reason, the critics argue that quot;Web have the potential to reap the benefits; for a 2.0quot; does not represent a new version of the successful implementation of the “Web 2.0”, use World Wide Web at all, but merely continues to the following holistic and pragmatic approach. use so-called quot;Web 1.0quot; technologies and concepts. However, businesses will also find a Customer Needs Management Commitment lot more that is new and that familiar tools and Facts Based Decisions concepts are applied with greater impact on the Process is the Engine business and bottom-line results, which will lead Collaboration to delighted clients and, eventually, increased Perfection shareholders value. Manage Risks Open Standards and Agility Innovation 4 Why is “Web 2.0” Important? Some businesses have truly mastered the 5.1 Emphasize on Customer Needs implementation of “Web 2.0” technologies and More often, businesses write therefore have delighted their clients and mission statements promising to increased value for their shareholders. “meet or exceed customer Depending upon the type of business, “Web 2.0” expectations and requirements”; can have various benefits, e.g.: yet they fail to understand their customers’ expectations or even Increased Revenues their requirements. Businesses can harness the collective For a successful implementation of “Web 2.0”, capability of collaboration and self business must understand its customers’ needs, organization to spur innovation, enhance meet these needs, and exceed their growth, and drive dramatic improvements in expectations. Measure of performance begins productivity that can increase revenues, with the customer and improvements are defined faster time to market, improved ROI on by the impact on customer delight and eventually marketing spend, better and faster products increasing the shareholders value. and services development. 5.2 Seek Senior Management Commitment Reduced Costs The ability to leverage massive Businesses rely on senior management; no communication and collaboration capabilities program can be at low cost across millions of global users is implemented without their attractive to many businesses due to self support. Particularly since service applications for customers, “Web 2.0” implementation employees, and partners. can be messy, frustrating, and difficult. It can raise concerns of security, privacy, and intellectual © MicroAgility, Inc. All rights reserved. Page 4 of 8
  5. 5. What every CXO should know about the “Web 2.0” property. Therefore, senior management must must strive to collaborate with their partners, establish a unity of purpose, believe in the vendors, and other stakeholders for a successful benefits of “Web 2.0”, set the direction for the implementation. People are more willing to successful implementation of “Web 2.0”, and collaborate once they learn how their roles fit into create an environment that encourages people the “big picture” and can recognize and measure to achieve this objective. the interdependence of activities in all parts of a process. To encourage this behavior, people 5.3 Make Decision Based on Facts should also be recognized and rewarded not only for the success of their roles and activities While many business but also how well they understand the big picture decisions are based on and collaborate with others for the overall intuitions and success of the organization. assumptions, businesses will perform better when 5.6 Strive for Perfection their decisions are based on facts. Therefore, business should start the No organization will ever “Web 2.0” initiative after carefully conducting the get closer to perfection Market and Competitive Analysis and defining without initiating new the “Web 2.0” business model based on facts ideas and approaches — specific to their business. which always involve some risks. If people see 5.4 Process is the Engine of the Success possible ways (improved service, lower cost, or new capabilities) to be closer-to-perfect but are Mastering processes is too afraid of the consequences of the mistakes, not just essential but also they will never try. The managers should be a way to build competitive educated in risk management and encouraged to advantage. Processes take calculated risks in order to strive for being should not be confined to closer to perfect. This is never ending cycle for a specific functional area agile businesses. rather processes should be analyzed and designed based on the overall 5.7 Manage Risks “Web 2.0” business model (i.e. process within functional silos versus cross functional Businesses must use a boundaries). Process can be the engine of the structured approach to success in designing new products and services, managing uncertainty measuring performance, improving efficiency through risk assessment, and customer satisfaction or even operating the developing strategies to business with the new “Web 2.0” business manage it, and mitigation model. of risk using managerial resources. Businesses should also define the process to Objective of risk management is to reduce integrate set of applications that enable a plug different risks related to a pre-selected domain to and play experience from the moment of the level accepted by the organization. It may installation, resulting in a lower total cost of refer to numerous types of threats caused by ownership. Furthermore, a common user environment, technology, humans, businesses interface between applications and a common and politics. On the other hand, it involves all navigation menu will contribute to lower support means available for humans, or in particular, for and training costs and higher adoption by the a risk management entity (person, staff, and end-user community. organization). Software applications should be fully tested, 5.5 Strive for Collaboration supported and integrated with the infrastructure. Before “Web 2.0” can be Ideally, the software applications will be built for successfully and certified on the hardware upon which the implemented and provide software will operate. Finally, the application collaboration among must come from a vendor you trust with a various users and network of trained, local support resources. communities, businesses © MicroAgility, Inc. All rights reserved. Page 5 of 8
  6. 6. What every CXO should know about the “Web 2.0” To succeed in an enterprise, a “Web 2.0” users. Businesses that have mastered the art of application must include enterprise-grade “Web 2.0” have successfully delighted their security controls, including group, user, and role clients and increased the value for their based access functionality along with standard shareholders. based (JOSSO) single sign-on capabilities. The implementation approach we have Businesses should require multi-platform single suggested should help you to add simplicity, sign-on with reverse sense, speed to the process, allowing you to proxy support, and it should all be available from exploit the first-mover advantages momentarily a centrally managed and certified administration available. console. The most scalable and reliable “Web 2.0” software solutions should be selected to ensure that the “Web 2.0” software can scale to support thousands of concurrent internal and external users. 5.8 Strive for Open Standard and Agility Businesses must strive to adopt open standards and should consider lightweight business models enabled by syndication of content and of service and by ease of picking-up by early [10] adopters . As a result, businesses not only have enormous potential to allow more rapid and much less expensive implementation of “Web 2.0quot;, but also the consequent ability to get the solutions with the right information in the right place at the right time. 5.9 Strive for Innovation “Web 2.0” offers more than mere look and feel and heavy reliance on AJAX as it is exhibited in some “Web 2.0” websites. “Web 2.0” offers an innovative Freemium business model with the idea that core basic services are given away for free, in order to build a large user base by word- of-mouth marketing. Premium service would then be offered for a price. You should also strive for innovation in your businesses to identify or come-up with completely new products or services that you can offer free of charge to your clients, with minimum additional cost to your business. 6 Conclusion “Web 2.0” enhances creativity, information sharing, and, most notably, collaboration among © MicroAgility, Inc. All rights reserved. Page 6 of 8
  7. 7. What every CXO should know about the “Web 2.0” About the Author: Sajid Khan, President of MicroAgility, is responsible for MicroAgility’s strategy and vision, major client relationships, and leading key engagements. Sajid can be reached at skhan@microagility.com. To learn more about MicroAgility, please visit us at www.microagility.com © MicroAgility, Inc. All rights reserved. Page 7 of 8
  8. 8. What every CXO should know about the “Web 2.0” References: 1) Anderson, Chris (2004). quot;The Long Tail.quot; Wired. <http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/12.10/tail.html>. 2) O'Reilly, Tim (2005). quot;Design Patterns and Business Models for the Next Generation of Software.quot; What Is Web 2.0? <http://www.oreillynet.com/pub/a/oreilly/tim/news/2005/09/30/what-is-web-20.html>. 3) O'Reilly, Tim (2006). quot;Levels of the Game: The Hierarchy of Web 2.0 Applications.quot; O'Reilly radar. <http://radar.oreilly.com/2006/07/levels-of-the-game-the-hierarc.html>. 4) Dictionary, Oxford English (2007). quot;Wikiquot;. <http://dictionary.oed.com/cgi/entry/50293088>. 5) Encyclopedia, Britannica Online (2008). “Wikiquot;. <http://www.britannica.com/ebchecked/topic/1192819/wiki#tab=active~checked%2citems~checked&title=wi ki%20--%20britannica%20online%20encyclopedia>. 6) Cunningham, Ward (2002). quot;What Is Wiki?quot; <http://www.wiki.org/wiki.cgi?whatiswiki>. 7) Libby, Dan (1999). quot;RSS 0.91 Spec, revision 3.quot; Netscape Communications. <http://web.archive.org/web/20001204093600/my.netscape.com/publish/formats/rss-spec-0.91.html>. 8) The Guardian (2007). quot;Web feeds | RSSquot;. <http://www.guardian.co.uk/webfeeds/0,, 1309488,00.html>. 9) Voss, Jakob (2007). quot;Tagging, Folksonomy & Co - Renaissance of Manual Indexing?quot; Proceedings of the International Symposium of Information Science: 234–254. <http://arxiv.org/abs/cs/0701072>. 10) O'Reilly, Tim (2004). quot;Web 2.0 Conference.quot; <http://conferences.oreillynet.com/pub/w/32/presentations.html>. 11) Graham, Paul (2005). quot;Web 2.0.quot; <http://http://www.paulgraham.com/web20.html>. © MicroAgility, Inc. All rights reserved. Page 8 of 8