understand the role of festivals in the history of sport
understand the emergence of rational sport as a result of the industrial revolution
understand the characteristics of sport in the twentieth and twenty-first century
understand the concept of deviance in sport
History of sport timeline Ancient Festival Popular Public Oxbridge Rational Origins Games Recreations Schools Sport 1 st 10 – 12 th 14 – 18 th Early 19 th Mid – 19 th End of 19 th M illennium Century Century Century Century Century
The Olympic Games
Origins in Ancient Greece, where they were held every four years as part of a religious ceremony to the god Zeus.
Baron Pierre de Coubertin introduced the modern Olympic Games in 1896.
The aim of the Games was to prevent war and develop more international friendship.
The Games for most of the twentieth century were amateur, with performers competing purely for enjoyment.
Development of sport
Sport in pre-industrial Britain was linked to a need for war preparation.
Early sports were divided by social class and background.
The church and local gentry were important in the organisation of festival games.
The Modern Olympic Games are a combination of ancient and modern festivals.
Industrialisation changed the way people lived, worked and played
Urbanisation – large populations moved into the cities and towns where there was a lack of space for recreation.
Industrialisation – life was based around the factory system and machine time.
Working conditions – initially were very poor for the lower classes, with long shifts and little free time. The twentieth century saw a gradual increase in free time; legislation brought in the Saturday half day, the Ten Hour Act and early closing for shop workers.
Economics – the systems of capitalism and industrial patronage led to the formation of work and church teams, which often developed into professional clubs.
The role of Oxbridge in the development of sport
The universities of Cambridge and Oxford played an important role in the development of sport.
They were the first place where compromise rules were developed.
They also developed regular fixtures – Varsity matches.
Blues became important role models and teachers.
The development of sport in the twentieth century
The rise of spectatorism and its influence on sport in the twentieth century.
The continued development of commercialisation and Americanisation in sport in the UK.
The influence the 1984 Olympics had on subsequent global games.