Learning Outcomes• By the end of the unit you should be able to: – Explain the concept of mass participation – Develop an understanding of the constraints on participation – Identify the role of the Sport for All Campaign – Build knowledge and understanding of reformative policies – Appreciate factors in designing models for the development of the long term athlete
The Concept of Mass ParticipationTask:In your own words explain what you think ismeant by the term Mass Participation
The Concept of Mass ParticipationTo encourage as many people aspossible to take up active lifestyles bybreaking down barriers/constraints thatprevent participation
Benefits of mass participationTask:Can you identify any benefits of massparticipation?Wrighty’s top tip!Think about intrinsic/extrinsic benefits
Benefits of mass participationTask:Can you identify any benefits of massparticipation? Intrinsic: Extrinsic: Promotes mental and physical • Helps people achieve healthier health lifestyles • creates safer communities Relieves stress/aggression • promotes positive behaviour and Promotes increased self esteem confidence Positive use of free time • improves educational attainment • helps build social networks within communities • reaches out to and engages with disaffected and hard to reach people
Lifetime SportsTask:2. Give a brief explanation of lifetime sports3. Name four possible lifetime sports1. A life time sport is one Four examples of that can be pursued lifetime sports include: throughout life. They • Golf are self paced with an • Cricket emphasis on low energy, fun and • Badminton enjoyment • Fitness
Is there a focus on lifetime sports in schools? How can lifetime sports be accommodated in schools?
Sport England’s participation segments Segment Approx % of UK Description populationSporty types 20 Those who participate in sport and are keen to continueMild enthusiasts 16 Those who participate in sport but could do moreOn The subs bench 44 Those who do not currently participate but could be persuaded if it was made easy enoughCouch potatoes 20 Those who do not participate and who dont want to. Have a negative attitude to sport – often established at an early age
What factors might inhibit aperson from participating in physical activity?
Basic requirements for accessing an active lifestyle• Fitness – a basic level of physical fitness• Ability – the skills required to participate in sport and recreation• Resources – access to kit and equipment• Time – leisure time away from the demands of work and other duties
Constraints on mass participation• Opportunity – do people have the chance to play?• Provision – where can people play?• Esteem – how will people feel when they play? O + P + E = Discrimination
Discrimination in sport and recreation arises from socio-cultural variables• There are five main areas of discrimination: gender, race, age, ability and socio-economic background.• The three elements in sport that are affected by discrimination are: provision, opportunity and esteem.• Stereotypical views have an important influence in sport affecting access and selection.• Stereotyping in sport often leads to myths and self- fulfilling prophecy.
Constraints on mass participation - discriminationDiscrimination:Unfair treatment (to anindividual or group)which results in theiraccess to sport andrecreation beinginhibited.
Task: Using the text book define the following terms• Opportunity• Provision• Esteem
Stereotypes and sporting MythsTask: Using examples and without the use of your text books, define the term Stereotype
‘White Men Can’t Jump’ This is NBA and Portland Trailblazers’ Ruby Fernandez who will be competing in the Slam Dunk contest http://www.youtube.co
‘Black Men Can’t Swim’This is Cullen Jones American Freestyle swimmer and Olympic Champion http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sVZrne7X5ww
Self –fulfilling prophecies This is a state where people believe a stereotypical view and take on the appointed characteristics.•Conforming to stereotypes•Displaying Characteristics•Choosing sports associated
Peer PressureTask: In pairs suggest examples of where peer pressure can have a negative impact on sport and participation.
Geographical Factors• Where a person lives.• Distance to facilities and natural resources• Different provision for those living in the city compared to those living in the countryside These can all affect the opportunity of access to sport and recreation
Educational Factors • Type of school • Type of PE experience • School Facilities • Current government policy extends opening of schools
Reformative PoliciesA reformative policy is a strategy orinitiative put in place to bring aboutchange. In terms of sport, this means toencourage people into physical activity Sport England has devised a number of Reformative policies in a bid to increase participation in sport and recreation
Sport England – Reformative policiesTask: Research the key aims of the following Sport England Reformative policies: – Making England Active – Multi Sport Hubs – Active Places – Active People Survey
Reformative PoliciesTask: Which reformative policies do you think would work best with which target groups.
Leadership and Volunteering• Performers in sport require coaches and administrators to organise, officiate and lead their sport. Sport England recognises that if it wants to promote participation it must also encourage more people into leadership and volunteering.• Currently around 1.2 million individuals regularly coach sport in the UK (1 in 50 of the UK population) and there are 6 million sports volunteers actively involved in the UK. It is important to remember, however, that the large majority of coaching in the UK is carried out by non-qualified unpaid part-time volunteers.• There are a number of schemes that have been developed in an attempt to encourage more people into sports leadership and volunteering:
Leadership and Volunteering• Sport Leaders Awards – these are overseen by the organisation Sport Leaders UK. The awards are primarily aimed at school and college students.• Step into Sport is a joint initiative delivered by the Youth Sport Trust, Sport England and Sports Leaders UK. It provides opportunities for young people aged 14–19 to get involved in leadership and volunteering in sport.
Local SchemesMany local authorityleisure departmentsand sports clubs havedeveloped their ownprogrammes aimed atpromotingparticipation.e.g.– Ironing services to encourage women– Ageing well sessions– GP referral schemes These are either included in the price or heavily subsidised
County and School Partnerships• 45 County Sports Partnerships• Develop and streamline a localised network of clubs, coaches, volunteers and competitions• 400 School Sports Partnerships• Provide focus for delivery of PESSCL project Task: Check out the Sport England website link on the blog for partnerships in your area
Technical Developments and Cultural TrendsTask: In pairs discuss possible new technical developments and cultural trends that could positively influence a person’s choice in taking up physical activity
London 2012 Private Gyms Adrenaline SportsFashion Media Technology
‘Sport For All’• Sport for all Campaign was set up in 1972 to highlight the value of sport and promote the idea that sport should be available to all.• Initially set up to provide more facilities and opportunities to access sport.• Campaign has diversified to focus on target groups• Campaigns such as – ‘50 and All to Play For’ (older people) – ‘What’s your Sport?’ (women)
Task• Research the following: – Women’s Sports Foundation (WSF) – English Federation of Disability Sport – Football Against Racism in Europe (FARE)
Long-term athlete developmentLTAD programme attempts to createclear pathways in sport by: 1. Promoting Pathways that introduce people into sport 2. Promoting pathways that allow people progression in that sport
Long-term athlete development The basic LTADprogramme identifies six key stages:
FUNdamentals• To teach fundamental movement and motor skills• Boys 6-9 years• Girls 6-8 years• FUN
Learning to Train • Major stage • Further skill development • Boys 9-12 years • Girls 8-11 years • 80% skill training • 20% competitive games
Training to Train• Based on fitness• Building aerobic capacity, develop speed and strength• Further sport specific skill training• Boys 12-16 years• Girls11-15 years
Training to Compete • Optimise fitness levels appropriate to their sport • Develop position specific skills • Develop overall competitive performance
Training to Win• Final Stage• Working towards podium performance• Maximise fitness• Tactical and decision making• Males 19+• Females18+
Retirement and Active for Life• Move from one sport to another sport• Competitive to recreational• Highly competitive to lifelong competition (age groups)• Retiring from competitive sport and moving to volunteer roles
Balyi and Hamilton (2004)Two models for stages in LTAD Early Specialisation Late Specialisation Task: Can you suggest any sports that would fall into either category?
• Early Specialisation • Late Specialisation – Gymnastics – Athletics – Swimming – Team games – Figure Skating – Combat Sports – Diving – Rowing – Table tennis Require early Training should not specialised training commence before the age of ten