Chapter 6 long term psych

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Chapter 6 long term psych

  1. 1. A2 Physical Education Long Term Psychological Preparation
  2. 2. Learning Outcomes       Appreciate the value of long-term psychological planning and interventions Develop applied knowledge and understanding of how to use goal setting over time Experience an applied methodology in performance profiling Understand the concept of motivation and how to explain sports performance through attribution theory Learn how to develop a performance psychologically through modern psychological trends Develop an appreciation of the importance of the group in a successful performance, and how to build cohesion.
  3. 3. What is Goal Setting?  A goal is an objective we set for ourselves, or that is set for us by other influential people  In a sports activity context we may wish to gain selection to a county team, achieve a personal best, to gain the next belt level in Taekwondo!  Goal Setting
  4. 4. Why is Goal Setting important?       Motivates the performer Enables the performer become more organised and efficient Allows the performer to plan training and performance programmes Provides performers with a structured pathway of development by focusing attention on key elements of performance Helps reduce anxiety and control arousal Builds self-confidence and increases effectiveness
  5. 5. Subjective and Objective Goals  What’s the difference?  Subjective = general statements of intent – not stated in measurable terms (give an example)  Objective = statements that focus on attaining a specific standard of proficiency, usually within a specified time (give an example)
  6. 6. Types of Goal  Using the book (p104) make notes on the following:      Outcome goals Performance goals Process goals Short-term goals Long-term goals  (Adapted from Atherton 2003)
  7. 7. Goal-Setting Structure SMARTER         Specific – goals should be clear and concise Measurable – goals need to be assessed through formal processes Agreed – goals should be discussed and agreed with others. Realistic – Goals must be genuine and not beyond the scope of the performer Time-bound - goals should reflect the short and long-term objectives of the performer Exciting – Goals need to provide the performer with stimulus to progress and achieve. Recorded - By recording their goals and creating a pathway for development, performers can see their agreed structure, time plan and processes for evaluation and measurement. Smart Targets
  8. 8. Basic Strategies for Goal Setting Plan and set your goals (short and long-term)   Planning and preparation Education and Acquisition Put into place strategies you know are realistic Evaluate regularly and reward success Seek help of a tutor/coach and agree on goals Have a PLAN B at hand should things not go according to plan  Implementation and follow-up Never lose sight of the long term goal Never be afraid to amend your short term goals
  9. 9. Factors Affecting Successful Goal Setting        Unrealistic Goals Too many goals – conflict Goals are beyond your control Inappropriate time frame No flexibility Inadequate review process Outcome goals overtake performance goals
  10. 10. Characteristics of Successful Performers.  Task: From a psychological standpoint, working in pairs suggest characteristics that lead to successful performers.      Better Concentration Higher self-confidence More task-orientated thoughts More positive thoughts, determination & commitment Lower Anxiety Levels
  11. 11. What Psychological Methodologies can I use?        Imagery Mental rehearsal Self-talk Goal-setting Progressive muscle-relaxation techniques Arousal regulation Concentration/attention techniques
  12. 12. Wagon Wheels  Wagon wheels can be used to visualize and structure your performance components. These can include, but are not limited to: •Concentration •Imagery •Determination •Consistency in effort •Stress management •Motivation •Courage •Self- talk •Leadership •Confidence •Communication •Mental Preparation
  13. 13. Wagon Wheels
  14. 14. Task     Design your own blank Wagon Wheel. You will need to decide the psychological components for analysis. Then, using a scale of 1 – 10 (1 = a low/weak assessment; 10 = as good as you can be) complete a psychological profile for your chosen sport. It should now be possible to see where your psychological strengths and weaknesses lie. Is this subjective or objective? How can we make it better?
  15. 15. Psychological Profile - My Wagon Wheel Passing Teamwork Emotional Control Communication Imagery Concentration 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 First Touch Self Belief Focus Anticipation Situational Awareness Goal Setting Tactical Knowledge Competitiveness Motivation Coping Discipline Pain Tolerance Relaxed Speed Athlete Score Coaches Score
  16. 16. Performance Profiling     To identify areas that require psychological interventions Identify your psychological skills training (the systematic and consistent practice of mental and psychological skills) To aid your motivation and adherence to the programme To allow you to compare with and copy successful/elite performers
  17. 17.        Underdogs Underdogs2 Why do underdogs succeed?? Many people have ‘bad games’ or ‘lose concentration’ or ‘freeze’ in a competitive situation – Why? Yet many don’t seek psychological solutions Mental Imagery, channel anxiety, positive arousal, motivation, self-belief, mental rehearsal, self talk, goal setting, muscle relaxation etc can all be trained to help performance Bend it like Beckham!!
  18. 18. A Psychological Skills Training Programme      Stage 1 – Introduction – learn the importance of the programme and conduct an honest appraisal Stage 2 – Construction- Construct a performance profile and undertake a series of strategies to enhance your desired goals profile goals Stage 3 – Implementation – make the psychological skills training programme a daily routine Stage 4 – Assessment – review and reconstruct your profile On winning the 2003 Rugby World Cup, Clive Woodward undertook an immediate performance analysis including psychological aspects – Why?
  19. 19.  Complete the motivation tasks.
  20. 20. Motivation   Define the term Motivation. Using the text book summarise the following terms:      Intrinsic Motivation Extrinsic Motivation Achievement Motivation (Murray and Gill) Nach Naf
  21. 21. Nach Performers      Select challenging Risks Perform better when being evaluated Take Risks Are not troubled by fear or failure Seek success and pride through high-ranking victories
  22. 22. Naf Performers      Seek low risk challenges Perform worse when being evaluated Take the easy option Tend to concede defeat early and give up after failure Have a drive to avoid shame and failure
  23. 23.   Legend Legendary – look at his face!
  24. 24. Situational Factors    Probability of success (Ps) versus the probability of failure (Pf) Incentive value of success (Is) versus incentive of failure (If) By beating a higher-ranked opponent in tennis you have matched the probability of success to incentive value of winning – by accepting the challenge and being successful, you will have achieved a more valued victory.
  25. 25.  Explain how achievement motivation, sport psychology and coaching are important aspects of successful sport. Pg 113
  26. 26. Case Study  Boxers find it difficult to decide who to fight for the next fight. Why?  Why do high-jumpers choose to miss a jump and enter a competition at a higher height? What factors would they need to take into account?
  27. 27. Attribution Theory Look at the following scenarios and write down what reasons you would give after the event as to why you won or lost:     You have been training all winter for the opening athletics meeting of the season. The previous year you had been the regional champion and you were confident that you were going to be champion again this season, even though you had gone up an age group. On this occasion you came third. Your team has won every game in the league and is now in the cup final against your closest rival. You are playing the match at the rival’s home ground, but you win. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TVUZCpDlaWQ&feature=relat ed http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-UmuHna-mNs
  28. 28. Attribution Theory   An approach that attempts to categorise the reasons we give for winning and losing – attribution refers to the perceived causes of events and behaviour What questions could we ask as to why a performance occurred the way it did?
  29. 29. Remember  The four attributions, or reasons why we may or may not have been successful in a performance are:     Ability – my level of skill, ability and technique Effort – how hard I work Luck – circumstances and incidents beyond prediction Task Difficulty – a measure of the task ahead
  30. 30. Attribution Theory Locus of Causality
  31. 31. Attribution Theory Performers who apply the attribution theory tend to show self-serving bias. Explain
  32. 32. Attribution Theory Explained    Attribution Theory Locus of causality Different Types of Attribution
  33. 33. Learned Helplessness       Is when an athlete perceives defeat is inevitable and as a result of stable, internal and uncontrollable events. Based on past experiences Need attribution retraining Low confidence levels Poor self-esteem Naf
  34. 34.      Alternatively, performers high in achievement, Nach, display mastery orientation Confident In control of their own destiny Expect success Overcome failure
  35. 35. Attribution Retraining   Focus on positive attribution rather than negative Shift focus from internal to external factors
  36. 36. How can you/your coach positively effect the locus of causality?       Change tactics Blame equipment Use a positive approach to failure Focus on the perfect model and copy Avoid citing lack of ability as cause of failure Make reasons for losing less personal
  37. 37. Visualisation  The process of creating a mental image of what you want to happen.  Visualisation  Take a minute and close your eyes. Think of something you want to achieve. Visualise it happening. Now right down the feelings that it brings about.
  38. 38.   Case Study Derek Randall
  39. 39. Ritual   What other rituals do you know of? Do you have any pre-match rituals? Ritual has always been a significant psychological tool in sport. Ritual reflects culture and serves to unite and build a common spirit with a single uniting cause.
  40. 40. Memory      Short Term Short term Sensory Store can process a limitless amount of information in a short space of time (2030) seconds Important information is passed to the Short Term Memory ‘Work Space’ Short Term Memory Test    Long Term Memory Where all our experiences and movement programmes are stored. Schema Theory can distinguish non-elite from elite performers
  41. 41. Group Cohesion – by the end of the week you should be able to answer the following:     What is Group Cohesion? Why do some groups but not others become Cohesive? How does Cohesion develop over time? What are the positive and negative consequences of cohesion? TEAM COHESION
  42. 42. Group Cohesion according to Caron (1980)  Groups exhibit the following:    A Collective Identity A Sense of shared purpose Structured patterns of communication  ‘a dynamic process reflected in the tendency for a group to stick together and remain united in the pursuit of its goals and objectives The total field of forces that cause members to remain in a group
  43. 43. Cohesion can be split into two areas:  Task Cohesion  Social Cohesion Task: Use the video to help you define the two without using textbooks
  44. 44. Building Group Cohesion  Forming  Storming  Norming     Performing  Group meets or is assembled Heightened tension may develop as roles are defined or tasks established Rules and standards of behaviour are agreed as cohesion is built The group matures and works together
  45. 45. Factors affecting the development of Cohesion  Environmental Factors     Personal Factors Leadership Factors    Team Factors Age, club membership, location, employment or ethos Belief in the group, desire to win, social relationships Influence of coach/manager The group as a whole, targets set, ability and role of each member Group Cohesion?
  46. 46. Task Make notes on strategies and methods for enhancing group cohesion pages 132 and 133
  47. 47.  What is Group Cohesion?  Why do some groups but not others become Cohesive?
  48. 48.  How does Cohesion develop over time?  What are the positive and negative consequences of cohesion?
  49. 49. How Do we Learn?    Can you remember how you learnt to ride a bike? Can you remember how you learnt to kick a football? How did you learn to do a forward roll?
  50. 50. Task:   You have ten minutes in which to learn how to juggle with 3 balls. You will be allowed different forms of assistance in completing this task.
  51. 51. 3 Stages of Learning Developed by Fitts and Posner Cognitive Associative Beginning or Novice Intermediate or Practice Autonomous Advanced or Fine-tuning 52
  52. 52. Cognitive Stage Learner Characteristics  Large # of Errors  Attention to every detail of activity  Unable to screen out irrelevant information  Slow, jerky,  Increase corrective feedback  Use short verbal cues  Use demonstrations, videotape, etc.  Lots of opportunities to explore skill Inconsistent performance  uncoordinated Teacher Cues 53
  53. 53. Associative Stage Learner Characteristics  Fewer errors  Motor program develops  Performer discovers environmental regularities  Anticipation develops  Learns to monitor own feedback Teacher Cues  Distribute corrective feedback  Stress correct fundamentals  Accommodate differences in the rate of skill development  Lots of opportunity for practice 54
  54. 54. Autonomous Stage Learner Characteristics Teacher Cues  Motor program become units of action  Focus on strategy  Decreased attention demands  Confidence increases, self-talks shifts to strategy  Develop learner diagnosis of skill  Work on mental focus  Encourage, motivate, support  Performance gains are slower 55

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