A2 Physical Education Long Term Psychological Preparation
Learning Outcomes Appreciate the value of long-term psychological planning and interventions Develop applied knowledge and understanding of how to use goal setting over time Experience an applied methodology in performance profiling Understand the concept of motivation and how to explain sports performance through attribution theory Learn how to develop a performance psychologically through modern psychological trends Develop an appreciation of the importance of the group in a successful performance, and how to build cohesion.
What is Goal Setting? A goal is an objective we set for ourselves, or that is set for us by other influential people In a sports activity context we may wish to gain selection to a county team, achieve a personal best, to gain the next belt level in Taekwondo! Goal Setting
Why is Goal Settingimportant? Motivates the performer Enables the performer become more organised and efficient Allows the performer to plan training and performance programmes Provides performers with a structured pathway of development by focusing attention on key elements of performance Helps reduce anxiety and control arousal Builds self-confidence and increases effectiveness
Subjective and ObjectiveGoals What’s the difference? Subjective = general statements of intent – not stated in measurable terms (give an example) Objective = statements that focus on attaining a specific standard of proficiency, usually within a specified time (give an example)
Types of Goal Using the book (p104) make notes on the following: Outcome goals Performance goals Process goals Short-term goals Long-term goals (Adapted from Atherton 2003)
Goal-Setting StructureSMARTER Specific – goals should be clear and concise Measurable – goals need to be assessed through formal processes Agreed – goals should be discussed and agreed with others. Realistic – Goals must be genuine and not beyond the scope of the performer Time-bound - goals should reflect the short and long-term objectives of the performer Exciting – Goals need to provide the performer with stimulus to progress and achieve. Recorded - By recording their goals and creating a pathway for development, performers can see their agreed structure, time plan and processes for evaluation and measurement. Smart Targets
Basic Strategies for GoalSetting Plan and set your goals (short and long-term) Put into place strategies you know Planning and are realistic preparation Evaluate regularly and reward success Seek help of a tutor/coach and Education and agree on goals Acquisition Have a PLAN B at hand should things not go according to plan Implementation and Never lose sight of the long term goal follow-up Never be afraid to amend your short term goals
Factors Affecting SuccessfulGoal Setting Unrealistic Goals Too many goals – conflict Goals are beyond your control Inappropriate time frame No flexibility Inadequate review process Outcome goals overtake performance goals
Performance Profiling To identify areas that require psychological interventions Identify your psychological skills training (the systematic and consistent practice of mental and psychological skills) To aid your motivation and adherence to the programme To allow you to compare with and copy successful/elite performers
Underdogs Underdogs2 Why do underdogs succeed?? Many people have ‘bad games’ or ‘lose concentration’ or ‘freeze’ in a competitive situation – Why? Yet many don’t seek psychological solutions Mental Imagery, channel anxiety, positive arousal, motivation, self-belief, mental rehearsal, self talk, goal setting, muscle relaxation etc can all be trained to help performance Bend it like Beckham!!
Motivation Define the term Motivation. Using the text book summarise the following terms: Intrinsic Motivation Extrinsic Motivation Achievement Motivation (Murray and Gill) Nach Naf
A Psychological Skills TrainingProgramme Stage 1 – Introduction – learn the importance of the programme and conduct an honest appraisal Stage 2 – Construction- Construct a performance profile and undertake a series of strategies to enhance your desired goals profile goals Stage 3 – Implementation – make the psychological skills training programme a daily routine Stage 4 – Assessment – review and reconstruct your profile On winning the 2003 Rugby World Cup, Clive Woodward undertook an immediate performance analysis including psychological aspects – Why?
Nach Performers Select challenging Risks Perform better when being evaluated Take Risks Are not troubled by fear or failure Seek success and pride through high- ranking victories
Naf Performers Seek low risk challenges Perform worse when being evaluated Take the easy option Tend to concede defeat early and give up after failure Have a drive to avoid shame and failure
Situational Factors Probability of success (Ps) versus the probability of failure Incentive value of success (Is) versus incentive of failure (If) By beating a higher-ranked opponent in tennis you have matched the probability of success to incentive value of winning – by accepting the challenge and being successful, you will have achieved a more valued victory.
Explain how achievement motivation, sport psychology and coaching are important aspects of successful sport.
Case Study Boxers find it difficult to decide who to fight for the next fight. Why? Why do high-jumpers choose to miss a jump and enter a competition at a higher height? What factors would they need to take into account?
Attribution TheoryLook at the following scenarios and write down what reasons you would give after the event as to why you won or lost: You have been training all winter for the opening athletics meeting of the season. The previous year you had been the regional champion and you were confident that you were going to be champion again this season, even though you had gone up an age group. On this occasion you came third. Your team has won every game in the league and is now in the cup final against your closest rival. You are playing the match at the rival’s home ground, but you win. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TVUZCpDlaWQ&feature=related http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-UmuHna-mNs
Attribution Theory An approach that attempts to categorise the reasons we give for winning and losing – attribution refers to the perceived causes of events and behaviour What questions could we ask as to why a performance occurred the way it did?
Remember The four attributions, or reasons why we may or may not have been successful in a performance are: Ability – my level of skill, ability and technique Effort – how hard I work Luck – circumstances and incidents beyond prediction Task Difficulty – a measure of the task ahead
Attribution TheoryPerformers who apply the attribution theory tend to show self-serving bias.Explain
Attribution Theory Explained Attribution Theory Locus of causality Different Types of Attribution
Learned Helplessness Is when an athlete perceives defeat is inevitable and as a result of stable, internal and uncontrollable events. Based on past experiences Need attribution retraining Low confidence levels Poor self-esteem Naf Learned Helpnessness
Alternatively, performers high in achievement, Nach, display mastery orientation Confident In control of their own destiny Expect success Overcome failure
Attribution Retraining Focus on positive attribution rather than negative Shift focus from internal to external factors
How can you/your coachpositively effect the locus ofcausality? Change tactics Blame equipment Use a positive approach to failure Focus on the perfect model and copy Avoid citing lack of ability as cause of failure Make reasons for losing less personal
Developing as an athlete!http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E41xcy2gsyg
Characteristics of SuccessfulPerformers. Task: From a psychological standpoint, working in pairs suggest characteristics that lead to successful performers. Better Concentration Higher self-confidence More task-orientated thoughts More positive thoughts, determination & commitment Lower Anxiety Levels
What PsychologicalMethodologies can I use? Imagery Mental rehearsal Self-talk Goal-setting Progressive muscle-relaxation techniques Arousal regulation Concentration/attention techniques
Wagon Wheels Wagon wheels can be used to visualize and structure your performance components. These can include, but are not limited to: •Concentration •Courage •Imagery •Self- talk •Determination •Leadership •Consistency in effort •Confidence •Stress management •Communication •Motivation •Mental Preparation
Task Design your own blank Wagon Wheel. You will need to decide the psychological components for analysis. Then, using a scale of 1 – 10 (1 = a low/weak assessment; 10 = as good as you can be) complete a psychological profile for your chosen sport. It should now be possible to see where your psychological strengths and weaknesses lie. Is this subjective or objective? How can we make it better?
How Do we Learn? Can you remember how you learnt to ride a bike? Can you remember how you learnt to kick a football? How did you learn to do a forward roll?
Task: You have ten minutes in which to learn how to juggle with 3 balls. You will be allowed different forms of assistance in completing this task.
3 Stages of LearningDeveloped by Fitts and PosnerCognitive Associative AutonomousBeginning Intermediate Advanced oror Novice or Practice Fine-tuning 41
Cognitive Stage Learner Characteristics Teacher Cues Large # of Errors Increase corrective Attention to every detail feedback of activity Use short verbal cues Unable to screen out irrelevant information Use demonstrations, Inconsistent performance videotape, etc. Slow, jerky, Lots of opportunities to explore skill uncoordinated 42
Associative Stage Learner Characteristics Teacher Cues Fewer errors Distribute corrective feedback Motor program develops Stress correct fundamentals Performer discovers Accommodate differences in environmental the rate of skill development regularities Lots of opportunity for Anticipation develops practice Learns to monitor own feedback 43
Autonomous Stage Learner Characteristics Teacher Cues Motor program become Focus on strategy units of action Work on mental focus Decreased attention Develop learner diagnosis demands of skill Confidence increases, self-talks shifts to Encourage, motivate, strategy support Performance gains are slower 44
Performance Changes across theLearning StagesCHANGES IN RATE OF IMPROVEMENT Change in the rate of improvement is faster during the cognitive stage 45
Visualisation The process of creating a mental image of what you want to happen. Visualisation Take a minute and close your eyes. Think of something you want to achieve. Visualise it happening. Now right down the feelings that it brings about.
Case Study One Case Study Two Derek Randall David Beckham
Ritual Ritual has always been a significant psychological tool in sport. Ritual reflects culture and serves to unite and build a commonWhat other rituals do you know of? spirit with a singleDo you have any pre-match rituals? uniting cause.
Memory Short Term Long Term Memory Short term Sensory Store Where all our can process a limitless experiences and amount of information in a short space of time movement (20-30) seconds programmes are Important information is stored. passed to the Short Term Schema Theory can Memory distinguish non-elite ‘Work Space’ from elite performers Short Term Memory Test
Group Cohesion – by the end of the lesson youshould be able to answer the following: What is Group Cohesion? Why do some groups but not others become Cohesive? How does Cohesion develop over time? What are the positive and negative TEAM COHESION consequences of cohesion?
Group Cohesion according toCaron (1980) Groups exhibit the ‘a dynamic process following: reflected in the A Collective Identity tendency for a group A Sense of shared to stick together and purpose remain united in the Structured patterns of pursuit of its goals communication and objectives The total field of forces that cause members to remain in a group
Cohesion can be split into twoareas: Task Cohesion Social CohesionTask: Use the video to help you define the two without
Building Group Cohesion Forming Group meets or is assembled Heightened tension may Storming develop as roles are defined or tasks established Norming Rules and standards of behaviour are agreed as Performing cohesion is built The group matures and works together
Factors affecting thedevelopment of Cohesion Environmental Age, club membership, Factors location, employment or ethos Belief in the group, desire Personal Factors to win, social relationships Influence of Leadership Factors coach/manager The group as a whole, Team Factors targets set, ability and role of each member Group Cohesion?
TaskMake notes on strategies andmethods for enhancing group cohesion pages 132 and 133
What is Group Cohesion? Why do some groups but not others become Cohesive?
How does Cohesion develop over time? What are the positive and negative consequences of cohesion?