Pre-Industrial Britain: Limited leisure time Rural Communities Church Calendar Limited Transport Festivals Gentry/PeasantryPre-Industiral Society:The period of time prior to the Industrial Revolution (1750 – 1850)Ancient Origins: Festival Games:Early sport was based Revolved around churcharound. /agricultural calendar.preparation for war Release of aggression – mob(archery/jousting). football.
Less space/loss of common Less time land initially/long Saturday half working hours day/working holidays More psectatingthan playing Development ofas too many transport people not meant teams Effects of the Industrial Revolution could travel to enough opportunity on Sport play in other towns Led to need for national set of Reduction in violence/ rules need for fit and healthy workforce Development of factory/church teams that competed against others Condification and the Introduction of National Governing Bodies Towns and schools had localised rules Need for common set of rules Students brought rules to ‘Oxbridge Melting Pot’ Written rules recorded Development of competition Governing Bodies National Bodies to oversee rules, competitions and structure of sports
Army: Officers shared sports with working class Teachers: Colonial: soldiers Many former Former Public pupils became School boys teachers and working for the delivered similar British Empire sports abroad Church:Administration: Codification and the Nature ofWhen playing Diffusion of Sport schooling meantdays were over many boys tookmany joined up roles withingoverning the churchbodies to which led todevelop sport fromation offurther and teams.formulatenational rules Patronage: Industry: Patrons University: Once finished supported Provided greater school, students sporting events opportunity and went back to and resources fathers competitions factories. Forming of factory teams
The Olympic Games William Penny Brookes Barron Pierre De Courbetin Much Wenlock Games Festivals of sport All competing on a level playing field Amateur Competitors from all walks of life. Rise of sport as a Business: Development in transport and media coverage TV Audiences of over 4 Billion Exclusive TV rights Sponsorship and branding Shop Window – political/ propagada usesGlobalisation and its effects: Diffusion of sport across the globe with cultural adaptations Massive audience provide excellent stage to gain maximum exposure Examples include: o Berlin 1936 Nazi propaganda o Mexico 1968 Black power anti-racism salute o Moscow 1980 – US boycott o Los Angeles - 1984 Russian Boycott
Major Olympic GamesDate Venue Major Incident1896 Athens First olympics to be held1936 Berlin Hitlers games – nazi propeganda1968 Mexico Black Power1972 Munich Arab terrorists hijack Israeli Athletes1976 Monteal Games went bankrupt – spiralling costs due to increased security1980 Moscow USA Boycotted in protest of Soviet invasion of Afghanistan1984 Los Angeles ‘Hamburger’ Olympics – commercialisation ‘Tit for Tat’ – Russia Boycott1988 Seoul Ben Johnson stripped of 100m Olympic gold1996 Atlanta Controversy over Athens not being awarded century games went to Atlanta instead – home of major sponsor coca-cola2004 Athens On the eve of games two greek sprinters tested positive and banned Americanisation and Commercialisation: Peter Uberroth – ’86 LA games first to make profit ‘Hamburger’ Games Sponsorship and media fees Changes in ethics (amateur to gamesmanship) The Olympic Programme – sale of the 5 rings Exclusive TV rights ’96 Atlanta Games – Coca-cola
Sportmanship – Playing within the rules of the game Gamesmanship – Win at all costs – bending the rules in order to win Amateurism Competing for the love Remember to give examplesof the sport and without rewards Deviance in Sport Shamateurism Professionalism Custum of pre-1990 Competing for athletes who were monetry rewardsamateur but received unofficial payments via commercialscholarships or state bursaries The Professional Foul Deliberately trying to impede, obstruct or injure an oponent to get the right result. Stamping in rugby Professional foul in football (deliberate foul to prevent scoring) ‘Sacking’ (injuring) of quarter back
National and Testing and International Education and results Policy and research management standards Comprehensivedatabase of drug information Regular testing WADA World Anti-Drugs Agency Impossible to stay Set up in 1998 ahead of thebecause of doping chemists Mission: problems To promote and co-ordinate at international level the fight against Genetic Engineering doping in sport in all forms Drugs specifc to atheltes genetics Genetic info used to identify talent Athletes genetic composition modified to improve performance Cells of newly fertilised eggs to produce super athletes
Performance Pathways Use examples National and International level from your sport Club or County Level Participation – Fun/enjoyment Grass Roots level - young 3 main agencies:Make sure you know UK Sportsthe differences Agencies UK SPORT Support andbetween agencies: develop Olympic and ParalympicWhat are their main SPORT ENGLANDroles? UK SPORT More people active 2 million by 2012What level do they Distribution ofcater for? lottery money SPORT ENGLAND Develop fall off from school age.What are their aims? YST TOP ProgrammesWhat initiatives do Pathways YOUTH SPORTthey run? Sports Colleges TRUST PESSCL Strategy
Different Traditional Pathways Combat post 16 fall parthways for out from sport different sports. MAKE SURE YOU Pathways for aspring athletes The Post School Gap KNOW EXAMPLES!!E.G. ESFA On average only 5% of The School Sports PathwayCompetitions school children areEvents involved in competitive sport Sporting Future for All: Game Plan: Published in 2000 Increase in participation for Superseeded by the health benefits – 70% active National Framework Improvement in success in international competition – for Sport top five world rankings for individuals and teams National Framework for Sport: Joint Venture from UK Sport, UK Sports Institutes and governing bodies Making England an active and successful nation 2020 20 priority sports and 10 development sports Sport Search Programmes Identifying potential sporting talent Online system aimed at 11-17 year olds Objective to allow young people to assess their suitablility in 150 sports Gives links to clubs and facilities
Talent Identification Closed Loop Sports Open Loop Sports Know the difference and give examples Talent ID in Australia:Talent ID in East Germany: Dissapointment at Montreal Wanted to use Olympic Olympics in ‘76 success as a shop window AIS (Australian Institute of Every child was screened at 7 Sport) opened in1981 for sporting potential Scholarships to over 600 High scoring children invited athletes to train regularly 32 sports At age of 10 they were 75 full time coaches transferred to sports Seven satellite institues in boarding school all state capitals 6 hours sport 2 hours Developed Sports Search academic Based on fitness and body Elite athletes based at high measurements performance centres Every high school visited in build up to 2000 Sydney Talent ID in the UK Considered elitist as only 2% went through to 2nd round Talent search within the National Framework for Sport. Talent ID and fast track development EIS (English Institute of Sport) Employed dedicated talent ID spoecialists Searched the country Specifically for new olypic sports like basketball, handball and volleyball World Class Pathway World Class Performance Programme World Class Talent Identifying top performers World Class Development Providing top class facitlites World Class Podium Providing support
EIS High Performance Centres Top class facilities Provide a a comprehensive network of services Sports Science Sports Medicine and rehabilitiation Support personel SPORT SEARCH ATHLETE AWARDS SCHOOL GAMES Don’ts forget the other talent development programmes! GIFTED & TALENTED PERFORMANCETASS - Talented Athlete DO YOU AASE – AdvancedScholarship Scheme KNOW Apprentiship in Sporting WHAT THESE Excellence SCHEMES DO?
Lifelong InvolvementMass Participation:Break through constraints toencourage everyone to take upan active lifestyle Intrinsic and Extrinsic benefits Benefits for society Benefits for crime rate/anti social behaviour Benefits for Health Service Benefits for the economy Leadership and Volunteer Schemes Sports Leaders Awards Lifetime Sports: Overseen by Sport Leaders Pursue throughout life UK – aimed at school aged Eg’s are golf and students. badminton Self-paced sports Step into Sport Low impact Joint venture from Sport Fun and Enjoyment England, YST and Sports Aim to guide school Leaders aimed at getting leavers to active lifetime 14-19 year olds involved in sports and prevent fall leadership and coaching. out from physical activity
Sport England’s Paricipation SegmentsDO YOU KNOW EXAMPLES OF TARGET GROUPS?
Opportunity: Provision: Esteem: Time Facilities Societies Money Inner City view/judgement Ability Rural ‘Traditional’ Equipment gender sports Hire StereotypesEducational: Geographical : Peer Pressure: Dependent on Where a Negative schooling and person Teenage experiences lives fall out School Give eg’s facilities SPORT FOR ALL CAMPAIGN: Introduced in 1972 Highlights vlaue of sport and need to be active To increase the opportunities available Particularly focussing on target groups
Making England Active: Multi-sports HubsAims to help people of all Community sportsages start and remain in centres offering asport multitude of sportsIncrease opportunities Educational, health andDevelop a network of social welfare servicesclubs, coaches and Sport England see thesevolunteers as key for boosting participation Reformative Policies Active Places: Public Service Web based resource Agreement: Search for facilities in Department of Culture, locality Media and Sport and Makes it easier to get Sport England involved Target – 85% of children accessing 2 hours of PE by 2008 Target – Increase participation by 3% in Active People Survey: target groups Sport England survey Track targets every three years
Concessions:Programming: Reuced session fees Sport centres use and mmbership particular sessions rates for target aimed at target groups groups Schemes in place to Women only/over provide greater 50’s etc opportunities Local Shemes: Age well sessions Ironing services Free creches GP referrals Reformative Programmes County and School Partnerships: 43 County Sports Partnerships Develop & streamline network of clubs, coaches, volunteers and competitions 400 school sports partnerships Delivery of PESSCL
Technical Developments and Cultural Trends Private gyms and health clubs Fashion and the role of the media Technology and access cheaper equipment Adrenalin and Adventure sports Impact of the 2012 Olympic GamesSpecialist AgenciesWomen’s Sports Foundation (WSF)Aim – to promote opportunities for women in sport WSF Awards – aids preparation for international competition Elite Sports workshops (dealing with media, gaining sponsorships) National Action Plan – to help achieve sporting equality Women into high performance coaching Women Get Set Go – enabling women to get into leadership Women in Sports Resources – assist schools, clubs etcEnglish Federation of Disabiliy Sport The national body for developing sport for people with disabilities Works closely with: o British Amputee and Les Autres Sport Association o British Blind Sport o Wheelpower British Wheelchair sport o Mencap Sport o UK Deaf Sport Promote inclusion and equality ‘Count Me In’ programmeKick It Out Lets kick racism out of football
Long Term Athlete Football against Racism in Europe (FARE) Development Philosophy To provide: Pathways that introduce people into sport Pathways that allow people to progress in that sportFun and enjoymentBoys aged 6-9 and girls 6-8Fundemental motor skillsMajor learning stageBoys aged 9-12 and girls 8-1180% train 20% copmpetitionBuild an aeroibc base, speed,strength etcBoys aged 12-16 and girls 11-15Fitness over competitionOptimise fitnessDevelop position specific skillsMales 16-23 and females 15-21Final stageWorking towards podiumperformanceMaximise fitness and technicalMales 19+ and Females 18+At the end of careerMoving from one sport to anotherMove from competitive torecreationalCoaching/ officiating/ media etc