AS PE: Professional sport - overview


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AS PE: Professional sport - overview

  1. 1. Unit 1 – Social Basis of Sport and Recreation Professional Sport - Overview
  2. 2. Professional Sport - Overview <ul><li>History of Professional Sport in UK </li></ul><ul><li>Task: Spend two minutes discussing in pairs how professional sport started? </li></ul><ul><li>Started with upper class paying patrons in foot races, fights, cricket and horse-racing. </li></ul><ul><li>Oxbridge = making of rules </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in time = growth in spectators </li></ul>
  3. 3. Professional Sport - Overview <ul><li>Discuss in pairs: </li></ul><ul><li>What problems did professionalism face? </li></ul><ul><li>The problem was that middle/lower class men had to work. </li></ul><ul><li>They couldn’t take time out of work to play sport </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Broken Time’ payments were given by the upper class to these men to participate in different events. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Professional Sport - Overview <ul><li>Football – mass of people wanted to turn pro, if there was a split then the FA would have dis-assembled </li></ul><ul><li>RFU – only the north wanted to turn pro the split was not seen as a problem </li></ul><ul><li>Cricket – needed to turn pro as skilled performers were needed </li></ul><ul><li>Horse-Racing – again skilled performers needed </li></ul><ul><li>All because the upper classes had wagers on the outcome. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Professional Sport - Overview <ul><li>Rise of media = rise of professionalism </li></ul><ul><li>NGB’s – code of conduct, rules, control of money and transfer fees </li></ul><ul><li>CCPR – Central Council Physical Recreation (advisory) </li></ul><ul><li>IOC – largest governing body </li></ul><ul><li>FIFA – largest sporting governing body </li></ul>
  6. 6. Professional Sport - Overview <ul><li>Nurture of Talent </li></ul><ul><li>School Sport – began 1800’s = cricket, football, swimming, athletics, gymnastics. </li></ul><ul><li>ESFA – 1904 </li></ul><ul><li>1907 – first schools international Vs Wales </li></ul><ul><li>1944 – Education Act states that provision for physical education required. </li></ul><ul><li>Inter-school sport – local 2 national </li></ul>
  7. 7. International governing bodies <ul><li>IAAF </li></ul><ul><li>FIFA </li></ul><ul><li>IOC </li></ul><ul><li>PGA </li></ul><ul><li>IRB </li></ul><ul><li>ITF </li></ul><ul><li>FINA </li></ul><ul><li>WBC </li></ul><ul><li>WSF </li></ul><ul><li>FIVB </li></ul><ul><li>FIS </li></ul><ul><li>IBF </li></ul><ul><li>Golf </li></ul><ul><li>Athletics </li></ul><ul><li>Swimming </li></ul><ul><li>Skiing </li></ul><ul><li>Rugby </li></ul><ul><li>Badminton </li></ul><ul><li>Volleyball </li></ul><ul><li>Squash </li></ul><ul><li>Tennis </li></ul><ul><li>Olympics </li></ul><ul><li>Boxing </li></ul><ul><li>Football </li></ul>Task: Match the governing body with the correct sport
  8. 8. Spectatorism <ul><li>Saturday half day – working class were given the afternoon off to play games </li></ul><ul><li>Regular fixtures helped players play against each other and attract spectators. </li></ul><ul><li>Money from spectators paid wages and fund better players </li></ul>
  9. 9. Spectatorism <ul><li>An elite group of professional teams formed the football league in 1888. </li></ul><ul><li>Crickets county championship formed in a similar way. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Spectatorism <ul><li>Working in pairs – using the knowledge gained try to define the term spectatorism. </li></ul>
  11. 11. How has spectatorism transformed sport?
  12. 12. Professional Sport – UK Organisation <ul><li>UKSI development structure </li></ul><ul><li>Sport England </li></ul><ul><li>Sport Scotland </li></ul><ul><li>Sports Council for Northern Ireland </li></ul><ul><li>Sports Council for Wales </li></ul><ul><li>These all have centres of excellence and are placed on a regional and national scale. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Task <ul><li>Using the text books research the regional centres of excellence and state the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Name of centre </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Location </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sports catered for </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. National Sports Centres <ul><li>Bisham Abbey </li></ul><ul><li>Lilleshall </li></ul><ul><li>Play-y-Brenin </li></ul><ul><li>Crystal Palace </li></ul><ul><li>Holme Pierrepont </li></ul><ul><li>Lilleshall </li></ul>
  15. 15. National Training Camps <ul><li>Swimming – University of Bath </li></ul><ul><li>Water Sports – Holmes Pierrepont </li></ul><ul><li>Gymnastics – Lilleshall </li></ul><ul><li>Cycling – Manchester </li></ul><ul><li>Football – Lilleshall </li></ul><ul><li>Athletics – Crystal Palace </li></ul><ul><li>Tennis – Bisham Abbey </li></ul>
  16. 16. UKSI Network Centres <ul><li>East </li></ul><ul><li>East Midlands </li></ul><ul><li>North </li></ul><ul><li>North West </li></ul><ul><li>South </li></ul><ul><li>South Coast </li></ul><ul><li>South East </li></ul><ul><li>South West </li></ul><ul><li>West Midlands </li></ul><ul><li>Yorkshire </li></ul><ul><li>University of East Anglia </li></ul><ul><li>Holme Pierrepont </li></ul><ul><li>Gateshead </li></ul><ul><li>Manchester </li></ul><ul><li>Bisham Abbey </li></ul><ul><li>Southampton University </li></ul><ul><li>Crystal Palace </li></ul><ul><li>University of Bath </li></ul><ul><li>Lilleshall </li></ul><ul><li>Sheffield </li></ul>
  17. 17. Professional Sport - Overview <ul><li>Clubs </li></ul><ul><li>Have well established infrastructures that are named academies </li></ul><ul><li>This has changed over the years from a ‘hit and miss’ plan to a highly organised structure </li></ul><ul><li>Schools </li></ul><ul><li>The use of school sport to identify potential elite performers </li></ul>
  18. 18. Other Initiatives <ul><li>Elite Coach Education programme – run by BOA and Sportscoach UK. </li></ul><ul><li>Provides for the needs of coaches at the very highest level. </li></ul><ul><li>ACE UK (Athletic Career and Education Services) programme helps develop career and educational opportunities for athletes both during and after their time in sport. </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Former English Sports Council </li></ul><ul><li>More people involved in sport </li></ul><ul><li>More places to play sport </li></ul><ul><li>More medals in elite sport </li></ul><ul><li>Advice on many issues: </li></ul><ul><li>Lottery funding </li></ul><ul><li>Women </li></ul><ul><li>Disability </li></ul><ul><li>Racial equality </li></ul><ul><li>NGB investments </li></ul>
  20. 20. Professional Sport - Overview <ul><li>Sport England World Class Programmes </li></ul><ul><li>World Class Performance </li></ul><ul><li>World Class Potential </li></ul><ul><li>World Class Start and Commonwealth Games </li></ul><ul><li>All programmes fund athletes and this funding is through the government and the national lottery. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Professional Sport - Overview <ul><li>European models of Sports Excellence </li></ul><ul><li>INSEP </li></ul><ul><li>East German Schooling </li></ul><ul><li>Funding from government </li></ul>
  22. 22. INSEP <ul><li>Young athletes in residence receive a normal education. </li></ul><ul><li>Provision for more than 25 sports on site. </li></ul><ul><li>French sports federation provide 90% of funding. </li></ul><ul><li>Public companies MUST invest a small part of their profit to sports development, </li></ul><ul><li>Centralised approach. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Model of Sporting Excellence: France Ministry of Youth and Sport French Olympic Committee Sports Governing Bodies INSEP Regional INSEP’s Elite Performers
  24. 24. Finland <ul><li>Elite sport in Finland does not have a government arm. </li></ul><ul><li>Size is far smaller than France. </li></ul><ul><li>Sports bodies run their own elite sports. </li></ul><ul><li>The majority of Finnish professional athletes live abroad. </li></ul><ul><li>Government funding focuses on local/minority groups. </li></ul><ul><li>The objective of the FSF (Finnish Sports Federation) is to promote health of the whole population – not elite sport. </li></ul><ul><li>Finns consider exercise to be very important. </li></ul><ul><li>Sport does attract allot of high level corporate sponsorship. </li></ul><ul><li>Lotteries provide a large proportion of public sports funding. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Model of Sporting Excellence: Finland Government Private and Sponsorship Elite Athletes Grass-roots sport Local Groups Finnish Olympic Committee
  26. 26. Professional Sport - Overview <ul><li>Commercialisation and Americanisation </li></ul><ul><li>TV </li></ul><ul><li>Media </li></ul><ul><li>Winning more than taking part </li></ul><ul><li>Money </li></ul>
  27. 27. Commercialisation <ul><li>Sport provides the market place for business. </li></ul><ul><li>Business provides the finance for sport. </li></ul><ul><li>The scholarship system in US colleges was seen as a form of professionalism. </li></ul><ul><li>The popularity of sport on TV meant the professional sport and TV became inseparable. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Commercialisation and ‘Americanisation’ Central (socialist) and Private (amateur) funding Replaced or enhanced by sponsorship Potentially massive Global/European audience Increased income for sports Increased market for sponsors