The gods and_goddesses_marconiPresentation Transcript
The Gods and Goddesses Greek and Roman Mythology Sophomore English
What is Greek Mythology? • The people of ancient Greece shared stories called myths about the gods, goddesses, and heroes • Each god or goddess was worshipped as a deity and ruled over certain areas of the Greeks’ lives. • These exciting stories explained natural phenomena that could not be explained by science in the ancient world.
Uranus – the sky
falls in love with
Mother Earth – Gaea
Their children represent the forces of nature .
The Titans Represent the forces of nature earthquakes, storms, tornadoes
Cronos marries Rhea
1 st children – ugly and misshapen
Cronos sends to Tartarus
2 nd children
Prophecy – Cronos will be overthrown by one of his children, just as he overthrew his father.
Cronos swallows each of his children as they are born.
Because they are immortal, they exist within him.
Sixth child, Zeus
Rhea - tires of losing her children
-gives Cronos a stone to swallow
-hides Zeus on earth.
-when grown, Zeus challenges Cronos for the throne
Zeus frees the hundred-handed ones and the cyclops from Tartarus
They force Cronos to disgorge Zeus’s brothers and sisters
The six brothers and sisters form the basis of the Olympic Gods
Zeus – ruler of the sky
Ruler of the Olympic Gods
Married to Hera, his sister
Symbol – lightning bolt
Poseidon – ruler of the sea
2 nd to Zeus
Palace beneath the sea
Married to Amphitrite - daughter of old sea god, Neros
Chariot pulled by white horses
Called the Earthshaker
Symbol - trident
Hera – goddess of marriage, queen of the gods
Married to Zeus, her brother
Symbol - peacock
Athena – goddess of intellect
Strategy in war
Patron of cities
Arts and crafts
Sprang fully grown from Zeus’s head
“ gray eyed goddess”
Symbols– spear, helmet, owl
Zeus suffered from
Hephaestus struck his
Athena emerged fully
Athena and Arachne
Arachne was famous in town for being a very skillful weaver and spinner
Arachne was very vain and couldn’t stop boasting about her talent
Athena challenged Arachne to a weaving challenge; Arachne disrespected the gods during this
Athena turned Arachne into a spider for her lack of respect / vanity.
Apollo – god of the sun
Music - lyre
Truth - Oracle at Delphi
Athletic – patron of the Olympic games
Most beautiful of the gods
– chariot with white horses, pulled the sun across the sky
- archer, golden arrows
Echo was a wood nymph who loved
a youth by the name of Narcissus.
Narcissus was a beautiful creature
loved by many, but Narcissus loved no one.
Myth warns against self-love and self-absorption.
Narcissus and Echo
Daedalus and Icarus were an Athenian craftsman and his son.
They were exiled in Crete after Daedalus murdered his apprentice whose skill was greater than his master's.
When the father and son were imprisoned by the king of Crete, the inventor made wings from feathers and wax so that he and his son could escape by flying away.
Despite his father's warnings, Icarus flew too close the sun.
The wax in his wings melted and he perished while his father flew to safety
DAEDALUS AND ICARUS
The name "Psyche" means "Soul" and her union with Eros (aka Cupid) tells the story of how Love and Soul came to be together.
Eros = Modern Day Cupid
Eros & Psyche will never be separated
EROS AND PSYCHE
Themis was the Titan goddess of divine law and order--the traditional rules of conduct first established by the gods
She is typically used to represent lady justice in modern courts (depicted as blindfolded and impartial.
Titan god of forethought
Was entrusted with the task of molding mankind out of clay
Stole fire from heaven and delivered it to mankind
Was arrested and bound to a stake on Mount Kaukasos where an eagle was set to feed upon his ever-regenerating liver
The Muses were brought to life to make the world more joyful
Apollo was the main teacher of the Muses
Calliope (Epic Poetry)
Erato (Love Poetry)
Three sea nymphs who lured sailors to their death with a bewitching song
They were formerly handmaidens of the goddess Persephone.
When the girl was secretly abducted by Hades, Demeter gave them the bodies of birds, and sent to assist in the search.
Artemis – goddess of the hunt
Protector of wild things
Despised the weakness of love
Twin to Apollo
Symbol – archer, silver arrows, short tunic
Aphrodite – goddess of love and beauty
Born from the foam of the sea
Ruled the hearts of men
Mistress of feminine charm
Son – Eros (Cupid)
Hermes – messenger of the gods
Patron of gamblers
Patron of commerce and trade
Conducts souls to the underworld
Symbols – winged cap, sandals, caduceus
Hephaestus – god of smiths and fire
Son of Hera
Ugly and lame
Kindly and peaceful
Married to Aphrodite
Made weapons and jewelry for the gods
Ares – god of war
Handsome, but vain
Disliked by other gods- except for Aphrodite
Liked bloodshed and cruelty
Twins sons – Romulus and Remus raised by wolves, founders of Rome