Causes<br />A. Triple Alliance-Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy<br />B. Triple Entente-France Britain Russia<br /> 1. these countries had treaty to help each other if attacked<br /> 2. Balance of Power- no one country more powerful<br /> 3.treaties caused tension<br />C. Militarism-countries build up weapons and forces<br />D. Imperialism-disputes between Europeans over distant colonies<br />E. Nationalism- some extreme nationalists causing tension (pride in country)<br />The Last Straw<br />A. Murder in Sarajevo (6/1914)<br /> 1. Serb nationalist (Blackhand) kills heir to Austrian throne. <br />B. Austria attacks Serbia<br /> 1.Germans aid Austrian because of Triple Alliance<br /> 2. called The Central Powers<br />C. Russia protects Serbians<br /> 1. Britain, Belgium and France help because of Triple Entente<br /> 2. called the Allies<br />D. Because of militarization war escalates (grows) to much of western world<br />
III. War on two fronts (war fought in two different places)<br />A. Fronts caused by German Attack<br /> 1. French stop and split German forces in half<br />B. Western Front-France<br /> 1.Trench Warfare- trenches with bob wire covers<br /> 2.New weapons- machine guns, bombs, poison gas, planes<br /> 3.Stalemate-no real wins, battles a draw<br /> a. made war long<br />C. Eastern Front-Russia<br /> 1. Russian badly beaten, starving, many killed<br /> 2. Russian Revolution-people overthrow government<br /> 3. Czar Nicholas out and family executed<br /> 4. New Bolshevik gov’t backs out of war.<br />
WWI and America<br />D. Other fronts and Allies<br /> 1. Italy<br /> 2. China, Japan, Australia and New Zealand<br /> a. take German colonies<br /> 3. Ottoman Empire (Turkey)<br /> 4. Africa, Middle East<br />E. USA- neutral until <br />Zimmerman Note – Germans ask Mexico to invade US<br />Sinking of Lusitanian by German U-Boat (sub)<br /> 1. Many Americans killed<br /> 2. Joined Allies-already providing material support<br /> 3. Protect USA $ in Europe<br /> USA involvement won war in one year<br /> 4. John J Pershing is commander of American Expeditionary Force (AEF)- kept separate from European forces.<br /> 5. Veteran’s Day- Nov 11th is the day the WWI ended.<br />
Alvin York- captured 132 Germans , almost single-handedly.<br />Billy Mitchell- father of modern Air Force<br />Doughnut Girls-Salvation Army workers<br />James Reese Europe- father of Ragtime, in Harlem Hellfighters -369 Infantry Regiment NY<br />
World War I: Over Here<br />Created labor shortages. <br /> 1000’s of African Americans left the South for jobs in North. <br /> Established large black communities in Northern cities. <br /> New York, Philadelphia, and Chicago.<br />Labor shortages provided jobs for women and minorities<br /> Streetcar conductors, railroad workers, shipbuilders and farming<br />
Treaty of Versailles<br />No real enforcement arm<br />Appeasement<br />Disdain for the League <br />Japan denied racially equality; a clause in League of Nations <br />Germany saddled with war guilt 33$ billion and lose of colonies, territory <br />4 billion marks = 1$ US<br />European allies more concerned with territorially gains than a stable system.<br />American politicians are too isolationist, racist, xenophobic or partisan to back the League of Nations<br />Americans of Irish, Italian and German descent unhappy with the results of treaty negotiations<br />Wilson’s unwillingness to compromise and subsequent stroke.<br />The despair in Europe sets the stage for totalitarian dictators and fascism.<br />Hitler charmed Germans by identifying with the beliefs of common Germans and fixing their economy.<br />
New Soviet Union<br />Treaty of Brest-Litovsk<br />Royal family executed 1918; a symbolic end of the old order.<br />Allied troops stay on Eastern Front to help White Russians after WWI<br />US refuses to use US troops in Russian Civil War, but did send about 10,000 "advisors"<br />Soviets distrust US, because they would recognize them diplomatically or in the peace deal in Paris. <br />All this besides ideologically opposed to each other. <br />Red Scare and Palmer Raids in US after WWI had some of the worst violations of American citizens civil liberties…tortured, deported, detained without due process because they were “radicals.” (Communists, anarchists, labor leaders…some were, some weren’t)<br />
Women mustered support for woman suffrage through WWI participation and favorable depiction in media.<br /> The 19th Amendment ratified by the states in 1920.<br />Many women quickly became bored with women’s rights and political activism declined<br />
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