Dropout Prevention in California Schools through Civic Engagement

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Learn how civically engaging students through service-learning is a proven methodology for reducing dropout rates, building resiliency, and motivating students to become successful learners and effective citizens.

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  • These may be elements of a successful comprehensive service-learning project, but they do not qualify as service-learning on their own
  • These may be elements of a successful comprehensive service-learning project, but they do not qualify as service-learning on their own
  • Relationships: Caring, Belonging, Compassion Social Competence Empathy Sociability and Friendliness Trusting Independence: Positive Identity, Conviction, Autonomy Competence: Mastery, Persistence, Self Efficacy, Critical Thinking Creative: Resourceful, imaginative, flexible Optimism: Sense of purpose and meaning, altruistic, hopeful
  • Dropout Prevention in California Schools through Civic Engagement

    1. 1. Learn – Serve – Achieve Dropout Prevention in California Schools through Civic Engagement in Service Learning California Department of Education CalServe Initiative
    2. 2. <ul><li>The Cost of our Dropout Epidemic in America </li></ul><ul><li>Nearly one third of students fail to graduate with their class, nearly half of minorities </li></ul><ul><li>Dropouts: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>earn about $1 million less over their lifetimes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>are twice more likely to slip into poverty </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>are 8 times more likely to be in jail </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>are half as likely to vote and a fourth as likely to volunteer as college grads </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>create enormous economic costs to society </li></ul></ul></ul>
    3. 3. The Dropout Epidemic in California <ul><li>Approximately 1/3 of California high school students do not graduate. </li></ul><ul><li>Dropouts will spend more time unemployed, on government assistance, or cycling in and out of prison. </li></ul><ul><li>Dropouts will contribute about $60,000 less in taxes over a lifetime. </li></ul><ul><li>California loses about $46 billion a year (jail, government assistance, increase in crime). </li></ul>
    4. 4. Why Students Drop Out The Silent Epidemic: Perspectives of High School Dropouts <ul><li>There is no single reason why students drop out of high school. Respondents report different reasons: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A lack of connection to the school environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A perception that school is boring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feeling unmotivated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Academic challenges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The weight of real world events </li></ul></ul>A report by Civic Enterprises in association with Peter D. Hart Research Associates for the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, March 2006
    5. 5. Why Students Drop Out The Silent Epidemic: Perspectives of High School Dropouts <ul><li>47% said a major reason for dropping out was that classes were not interesting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bored and disengaged from high school </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spent time with people not interested in school </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evident among students who are motivated to work hard and have high GPAs. </li></ul></ul>A report by Civic Enterprises in association with Peter D. Hart Research Associates for the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, March 2006
    6. 6. Why Students Drop Out The Silent Epidemic: Perspectives of High School Dropouts <ul><li>69% not motivated or inspired to work hard </li></ul><ul><li>80% did one hour or less of homework each day </li></ul><ul><li>2/3 would work harder if expectations were higher </li></ul><ul><li>70% believe they could graduate if they tried harder </li></ul>A report by Civic Enterprises in association with Peter D. Hart Research Associates for the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, March 2006
    7. 7. Why Students Drop Out The Silent Epidemic: Perspectives of High School Dropouts <ul><li>Personal Reasons Cited: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>32% needed to get a job to earn money </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>26% became a parent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>22% had to care for a family member </li></ul></ul>A report by Civic Enterprises in association with Peter D. Hart Research Associates for the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, March 2006
    8. 8. Why Students Drop Out The Silent Epidemic: Perspectives of High School Dropouts <ul><li>Academic Challenges: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>35% said “failing in school” was a major factor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3 out of 10 could not keep up with schoolwork </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>43% missed too many days and could not catch up </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>45% already “behind” when they entered high school </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>32% required to repeat a grade before dropping out </li></ul></ul>A report by Civic Enterprises in association with Peter D. Hart Research Associates for the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, March 2006
    9. 9. <ul><li>Two Reports Suggested the Potential for Service-Learning to Address issues of Dropout and Civic Engagement </li></ul><ul><li>The Silent Epidemic: Perspectives of High School Dropouts </li></ul><ul><li>America’s Civic Health Index: Broken Engagement </li></ul>
    10. 10. <ul><li>81% - Opportunities for real-world learning (service- learning, internships) to make classroom more relevant </li></ul><ul><li>81% - Better teachers who keep classes interesting </li></ul><ul><li>75% - Smaller classes with more individual instruction </li></ul><ul><li>71% - Better communication between parents & school, get parents more involved </li></ul><ul><li>71% - Parents make sure their kids go to school every day </li></ul><ul><li>70% - Increase supervision at school: ensure students attend classes </li></ul>Service-Learning Tops the List of Ways Schools Can Improve, According to Dropouts
    11. 11. <ul><li>Recommended Policies to Address Dropout </li></ul><ul><li>Improve teaching and curricula to make school more relevant and engaging and enhance the connections between school and work </li></ul><ul><li>Improve instruction and access to supports for struggling students </li></ul><ul><li>Build a school climate that fosters academics </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure strong adult-student relationships within the school </li></ul>SERVICE-LEARNING CAN ADDRESS EACH OF THESE RECOMMENDATIONS
    12. 12. <ul><li>Measured 40 indicators of civic health over last 30 years </li></ul><ul><li>Only 3% of Americans who attend club meetings and work on community projects are dropouts </li></ul><ul><li>Compared to college graduates, dropouts are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1/2 as likely to vote </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1/4 as likely to volunteer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1/3 as likely to attend club meetings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1/2 as likely to engage in public work in communities </li></ul></ul>America’s Civic Health Index: Broken Engagement
    13. 13. 15 Effective Strategies for Dropout Prevention <ul><li>School and Community Perspective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Systemic Renewal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>School-Community Collaboration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Safe Learning Environments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Early Interventions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Family Engagement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Early Childhood Education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Early Literacy Development </li></ul></ul>College of Health, Education and Human Development at Clemson University National Dropout Prevention Center/Network
    14. 14. 15 Effective Strategies for Dropout Prevention <ul><li>Basic Core Strategies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mentoring/Tutoring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Service-Learning* </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alternative Schooling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After-School Opportunities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Making the Most of Instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Professional Development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Active Learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Educational Technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individualized Instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Career and Technical Education </li></ul></ul>College of Health, Education and Human Development at Clemson University National Dropout Prevention Center/Network
    15. 15. 15 Effective Strategies for Dropout Prevention National Dropout Prevention Center/Network <ul><li>*Service-Learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Service-learning connects meaningful community service experiences with academic learning. This teaching/learning method promotes personal and social growth, career development and civic responsibility and can be a powerful vehicle for effective school reform at all grade levels. </li></ul></ul>College of Health, Education and Human Development at Clemson University National Dropout Prevention Center/Network
    16. 16. <ul><li>Service-learning is a teaching and learning strategy that integrates meaningful community service with instruction and reflection to enrich the learning experience, teach civic responsibility, and strengthen communities. </li></ul><ul><li>Learn and Serve America’s National Service-Learning Clearinghouse </li></ul>What is Service-Learning? The service provides a context for learning.
    17. 17. Service-learning is not : <ul><li>An episodic volunteer program </li></ul><ul><li>An add-on to an existing school or college curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>Completing minimum service hours in order to graduate </li></ul><ul><li>Service assigned as a form of punishment </li></ul><ul><li>Only for high school or college students </li></ul><ul><li>One-sided: benefiting only students or only the community </li></ul>National Commission on Service-Learning
    18. 18. Service-learning… <ul><ul><ul><li>Links to academic content and standards </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Involves young people in helping to determine and meet real, defined community needs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is reciprocal in nature, benefiting both the community and the service providers by combining a service experience with a learning experience </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can be used in any subject area so long as it is appropriate to learning goal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Works at all ages, even among young children </li></ul></ul></ul>National Commission on Service-Learning
    19. 19. Service-learning… <ul><li>Kids Consortium Activity - What is it? </li></ul><ul><li>In small groups learn the difference between </li></ul><ul><li>-community service </li></ul><ul><li>-community-based learning </li></ul><ul><li>-service learning </li></ul>
    20. 20. Service-learning can: <ul><li>Build Civic Competence </li></ul><ul><li>Improve Academic Achievement </li></ul><ul><li>Build Strong Student-Adult Relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Make Learning Meaningful </li></ul><ul><li>Help students connect to the school environment </li></ul><ul><li>Building Resilience </li></ul>
    21. 21. Service-Learning - Build Civic Competence <ul><li>Prepare all of America’s young people to be competent and responsible citizens who: </li></ul><ul><li>are informed and thoughtful and have a knowledge of history and how American democracy works. </li></ul><ul><li>participate in their communities and work with others to address cultural, social, and </li></ul><ul><li>political issues. </li></ul><ul><li>act politically by having the skills, knowledge and commitment to accomplish public purposes. </li></ul><ul><li>are socially responsible, tolerant, and believe in the capacity to make a difference. </li></ul>Educating for Democracy California Campaign for the Civic Mission of Schools
    22. 22. Six Promising Approaches for Civic Education Instruction in government, history, law, and democracy. Discussion of current local, national, and international issues and events. Service-learning activities linked to classroom instruction and civic outcomes. Extra-curricular activities that get youth involved in their schools and communities. Student participation in school/classroom governance and decision-making. Simulations of democratic processes such as mock trials or legislative deliberations that promote more political knowledge and interest. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Civic Mission of Schools Plus, interaction with adult role models, especially those whose work relates to civic knowledge, skills, or dispositions.
    23. 23. Service-Learning - Build Civic Competence Marshall High School Los Angeles Unified School District Students in history and government classes meet one day a week to identify and address public policy issues related to teen pregnancy, race relations, drug and alcohol abuse, domestic abuse, and the drop out rate. Each group meets with “experts&quot; on their issue and collaborate with students from local colleges and universities to develop solutions.
    24. 24. Service-Learning - Build Civic Competence Los Angeles County Office of Education Afflerbaugh-Paige Juvenile Court School Students utilize We the People: Project Citizen to address a problem of concern to them - lack of career technical education course offerings in their educational program Students presented their public policy proposal at the LACOE Board of Education and Project Citizen State showcase
    25. 25. Service-Learning - Build Strong Student-Adult Relationships Eureka Unified School District Humboldt State University S-L interns partnered with 5th grade classes and gave interactive presentations on hunger issues. 5 th graders then created posters to advertise their school’s canned food drive and identify the most needed food donations.
    26. 26. Center for Multicultural Cooperation After‑School Chavez Service Club Punjabi students wearing turbans were being bullied and did not want to attend the afterschool program. M iddle grade students produced a digital story about a Punjab community leader and showed it to the school. Students (and school personnel) learned about the community's culture as they produced video documentaries. Service-Learning - Make Learning Meaningful www.digiclub.org
    27. 27. Lake Elizabeth At-risk students learned geography, biology, and history by participating in a multi-year hands on restoration of Stiver’s Lagoon. This City/School/Non-profit partnership resulted in improved attendance and academic performance for 9 th & 10 th grade students. Service-Learning - Improve Academic Achievement
    28. 28. Service-Learning - Help students connect to the school environment Project Fremont Students in World History and 10 th grade English investigated the needs of immigrant groups in Fremont. “ Project Fremont helps the diverse population of Fremont feel more comfortable away from their original countries.”
    29. 29. Resilience <ul><li>The capacity to spring back, rebound, successfully adapt in the face of adversity, and develop social and academic competence despite exposure to severe stress. </li></ul><ul><li>Wolin & Wolin, Project Resilience </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.projectresilience.com/ </li></ul>
    30. 30. Resiliency Attributes <ul><li>Relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Independence </li></ul><ul><li>Competence </li></ul><ul><li>Creativity </li></ul><ul><li>Optimism </li></ul><ul><li>Taken from Bouncing Back: Strengthening Resilience Through Service-Learning, 2008 </li></ul>
    31. 31. Service-Learning - Building Resilience Service-Learning can provide students with opportunities to become resilient in counteracting a number of risk factors associated with school dropout. National Dropout Prevention Center/Network
    32. 32. Bouncing Back, Strengthening Resilience Through Service-Learning , National Dropout Prevention Center/Network, 2008 Service-Learning & Building Resilience
    33. 33. Bouncing Back, Strengthening Resilience Through Service-Learning , National Dropout Prevention Center/Network, 2008 Service-Learning & Building Resilience
    34. 34. <ul><li>Research </li></ul><ul><li>Nationally representative survey of 807 high school students </li></ul><ul><li>Focus groups of service-learning teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Interviews with students from service-learning programs </li></ul><ul><li>National literature review of both service-learning and dropout </li></ul>
    35. 35. <ul><li>Research: </li></ul><ul><li>Connection to School Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Poor attendance is the best predictor of dropping out </li></ul><ul><li>82% of service-learning students (and 79% of all students, and 80% of at-risk students) would feel more positive about school if they had more service-learning </li></ul><ul><li>Service-learning teachers said that service-learning led to stronger relationships with students </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers said that service-learning improved attendance </li></ul><ul><li>Other research shows connection between service-learning and higher attendance (Laird and Black, 2002; Shumer, 1994; Rolzinski, 1990) </li></ul>
    36. 36. <ul><li>Connection to School Environment </li></ul>Service-learning teacher from Kansas City “ I would absolutely think that it impacts attendance, because it goes back to if they’re doing something that they enjoy.” “ Service-learning makes me want to come to school, because it's not the same thing all the time.” Service-learning student
    37. 38. <ul><li>Research: </li></ul><ul><li>Classroom Engagement </li></ul><ul><li>Boring classes and a lack of a challenging curriculum often lead to disengagement and dropout </li></ul><ul><li>45% of service-learning students said their service-learning classes were more worthwhile than other classes; only 3% said they are less worthwhile </li></ul><ul><li>Other research confirms that service-learning has a significant effect on school engagement (Melchior, 1999) </li></ul>
    38. 39. <ul><li>Engaging Students and Opening Minds </li></ul>Service-learning teacher from New York “ There are so many stereotypes that I think service-learning helps to break down.” “ It’s a better experience because you’re not in a class sitting down writing on the board. You’re outside doing hands-on activities learning about what’s around you.” Service-learning student
    39. 40. <ul><li>Research: </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>69% of dropouts are not motivated to work hard in school and 66% would have worked harder if more had been demanded of them </li></ul><ul><li>77% of service-learning students say service-learning classes have a very or a fairly big effect on motivating them to work hard </li></ul><ul><li>Other research shows that service-learning improves self-confidence, sense of empowerment (Switzer, Simmons, Dew, Regalski and Wang, 1995) </li></ul>
    40. 41. <ul><li>Motivation </li></ul>“ As far as this young man goes, he wasn’t doing anything in his classes and was probably on a good line for dropping out and not finishing high school.” With the motivation of the service-learning, however, he graduated from high school. Service-learning teacher from Arizona
    41. 43. <ul><li>Research: </li></ul><ul><li>Academic Performance </li></ul><ul><li>35% of dropouts say they were failing in school </li></ul><ul><li>57% had difficulty passing from one grade to the next </li></ul><ul><li>Service-learning has been shown to improve grades, test scores, homework completion, and reduce the achievement gap (Akujobi and Simmons, 1997; Billig and Klute, 2003; Klute, 2002; Melchior and Bailis, 2002; Scales and Roehlkepartain, 2005; Shumer, 1994; Schmidt, Shumow, and Kackar, 2007; Rolzinski, 1990) </li></ul>
    42. 44. <ul><li>Academic Performance </li></ul>Service-learning teacher who organizes a project where her students write a book and share it with younger students “ I know for a fact that for the first time, and I’ve been teaching English almost 30 years, those kids know that subject matter better than any other research paper they’ve done.”
    43. 45. <ul><li>Academic Performance </li></ul>Service-learning teacher “ I think one of the benefits of service-learning, as far as at-risk learners, is that you’re providing a very different type of educational opportunity. So I think of my kinesthetic learners, my students who really can’t stay in their seats for a 40-minute period, but who flourish when you tell them, ‘you need to plant trees’. And they’re the ones who are at the forefront, planting just hundreds in a day, because this is something where they know they can be successful.” “ Service-learning makes us think outside the box. There is more to learning than a textbook and a bunch of tests.” Service-learning student
    44. 46. <ul><li>Research: </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>62% of dropouts say more classroom discipline is necessary </li></ul><ul><li>57% say schools need to do more to prevent violence </li></ul><ul><li>Other research shows that service-learning improves behavior (Switzer, Simmons, Dew, Regalski and Wang, 1995; Schmidt, Shumow, and Kackar, 2007) </li></ul>
    45. 47. <ul><li>Research: </li></ul><ul><li>Overall Effect on Graduation </li></ul><ul><li>Percent of students who say that service-learning would have a very big or a fairly big effect on keeping dropouts in school: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>64% of all students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>70% of Hispanic students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>74% of African American students </li></ul></ul>
    46. 48. <ul><li>Overall Effect on Graduation </li></ul>Service-learning teacher “ I think you would end up with a higher graduation rate,” one teacher explained, “because if they’re more engaged in their classes, they’re going to come to school. It’s active, authentic learning, and they’re getting more out of it.” “ I really feel like I am a different person because before service-learning I didn’t really look at my community the way I do now. Before I used to not really pay attention to anything. After all these classes I look at my community and see that there have to be some changes made.” Service-learning student
    47. 49. 12 Regions of the CA Service-Learning Network Regional Service Learning Leads provide leadership and collaborate with others to build capacity for service learning in K-12 schools throughout their regions. Regional Service-Learning Trainers provide technical assistance to teachers, schools, districts and community partners Go to www.yscal.org to find the Regional Lead in your region! Region 12 (LAUSD)
    48. 50. Resources for California <ul><li>The Campaign for the Civic Mission of Schools </li></ul><ul><li>www.civicmissionofschools.org </li></ul><ul><li>The California Campaign for the Civic Mission of Schools http://www.cms-ca.org </li></ul>Constitutional Rights Foundation www.crf-usa.org Center for Civic Education www.civiced.org National Council for the Social Studies www.ncss.org CalServe Initiative www .cde.ca.gov/ci/cr/sl Excel Youth Zone XYZ http://www.excelyouthzone.org National Service Learning Clearinghouse http://www.servicelearning.org
    49. 51. CRF and LACOE Service-Learning Web Sites www.crf-usa.org/service-learning www.lacoe.edu/servicelearningla
    50. 52. Other list serves to inform our network <ul><li>National Center for Drop Out Prevention Network (Service-Learning) - http://www.dropoutprevention.org/effstrat/service_learning/overview.htm </li></ul><ul><li>The National Dropout Prevention Center/Network (NDPC/N) was begun in 1986 to serve as a clearinghouse on issues related to dropout prevention and to offer strategies designed to increase the graduation rate in America's schools. </li></ul><ul><li>National Service Learning Partnership - http://www.service-learningpartnership.org/site/PageServer?pagename=reus_homepage </li></ul><ul><li>NSLP is a nationwide network of members advancing service learning as a core part of every young person’s life and education. Offering free online training and resources about community-based service-learning, including Affinity Groups – a great way to stay connected and enhance professional development. </li></ul><ul><li>http://nslp.convio.net/site/PageServer?pagename=reus_homepage </li></ul><ul><li>National Service Learning Clearing House - http://www.servicelearning.org/ </li></ul><ul><li>The Clearing House is America’s most comprehensive service-learning resource. </li></ul>
    51. 53. From Dropouts to Downturns: Why Service is America ’ s Solution <ul><li>America today is facing a series of crises that also represent for us a true opportunity to innovate in a way that bets on American </li></ul>David Eisner, Chief Executive Officer of the Corporation for National and Community Service, Nov. 13, 2008 citizens to be a part of the solutions in ways that are both new and that hearken back to our earliest traditions.
    52. 54. From Dropouts to Downturns: Why Service is America ’ s Solution <ul><li>The drivers of this opportunity are these: </li></ul><ul><li>The need is dire.
Our resources are scarce.
Our service and volunteering infrastructure is ready.
 </li></ul>David Eisner, Chief Executive Officer of the Corporation for National and Community Service, Nov. 13, 2008 Our youth are ready. And Americans of all ages are waiting to be asked. This is an incredible moment, and we must seize it.

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