Folk• any group of people set apart by identifiable culture within or without the larger mainstream culture;• the group retains that culture and identity long enough for a body of folk expressions and behaviors to develop;• members express that identity through consistent interaction with each member of the group
folklore“any bit of knowledge handed down fromgeneration to generation, which describes ordepicts the beliefs and lifestyle of the ancestorsof a chosen ethnic group, is rendered unique tothat group, and is respected” (Damiana Eugenio)• study of folklore is a relatively new endeavor, started sometime in the 19th century• Started by the Grimm brothers, Christian Andersen
The Grimm Brothers Hans Christian Andersen Jacob and Wilhelm
Original French version of Little Red Riding Original version of Little Mermaid by Hood (by Charles Perrault) Andersen
Snow White (1857) by Sleeping Beauty (1696 ) Original French versionGrimm Brothers (by Charles Perrault)
Tradition• from Latin trado meaning “I give”;• tested by time (at least 60 years or three generations) and space• Culture undergoes diffusion, or the spread of culture is influenced by other cultures and languages• Chabacano language becomes extinct, the need to preserve it is even more significant
categories of folklore1. Prose: oral narrativesA. Fairy tales/magic tales/aswang stories-results of man’s fascination of the supernatural andthe unknown-example “Ibong Adarna”B. Novella/Romantic tales-realistic tendencies; emphasis on human frailties;hero is a human being who relies on his wit,wisdom, strength to overcome his adversaries; fatecannot be escaped-Oedipus Rex
C. Religious tales• has close relationship to our Christian beliefs, the fight between Good and Evil and the former triumphs over the latter; the saints are humanized; stories handed down by the Church and the folk-started during Medieval periodD. Simple tales• jokes, anecdotes, tales of lying, numskull
E. Legends• stories used by folks to explain occurrences, phenomena, etc.• loose in structure; localized stories that the folks are familiar with; almost an authority of history related to places and other things; they are didactic or educational, serving to inform children about the things around them; are used to warn them of dangers; what is it? Why is it so? What can be done?• *Check the book Legends of the Sto. Niño• -Collect the legends of Fort Pilar, of barangays,• -stories about phenomena and sicknesses• -stories based on folk faith or religious worship
2. Physical FolklifeA. Folk architecture• -how traditional people build and arrange their houses and buildings,• -some manifest influence of feng shui (e.g., door facing another door; oro, plata, mata; cardinal directions; etc.)B. Folk costumeC. Folk cookery• -traditional domestic cooking, the food itself, preparation, preservation, and ramification• -document the psychological and morphological aspects• -food habits, food names, names of meals, food served every mealD. Arts & crafts
3. Social Folk Customs• -celebrations, festivals, games, religion, folk medicine• *Document the way the informant tells it and not the way you want it; present the data from the informant’s point of view,4. Performing Folk Arts• -dance, drama, music
documentation process• Informant: source of open data – a tradition bearer both active (who knows and practices) and passive (who knows but does not practice)• Fieldworker: the one collecting, documenting• Fieldwork: collecting of raw data from the field
• keep in mind the purpose of documentation preservation of the language and the informants are collaborators of this endeavor; don’t get carried away
In doing field work, the field worker must do the following:1. prepare materials in advance, practice using the equipment,(recorders and cassettes)2. check if the equipment is functioning3. familiarize with the language of the informants (folks) you wish to interview4. consider the daily activities of the informants5. check himself if he is fit and healthy physically, mentally, and even emotionally6. show a humble demeanor as the informants can easily tell whether the former is sincere or not7. learn how to establish rapport with possible contacts; ask from them information about the informant
8. Before doing the fieldwork, make sure toestablish contacts. The contacts may take you to theleads (informants)9. -know the habits of the informants10. -ask permission from the informants if thecollection can be done;11. -appeal to their sense of pride12. -show importance to them13. -check if there are previous collection on theareas you wish to research on14. know those who served as informants inprevious research; they can also be yourinformants, but know about their experiences
15. -prepare an annotated bibliography beforestarting the research and check if these areavailable16. -after recording, make sure to label thetapes properly. You can start by introducingwhat is about to be recorded (introductorycomments);17. -work with pairs; take turns who willinterview and who will record
Don’t interrupt. Let the informant share continuously. Treat yourinformant with utmost reverence.
SUMMARY• Prepare a list of contacts (e.g., barangay officials, media men, people in the markets, parks, barbershops, etc.)• Prepare equipment to be used; non- directional recorder• Practice with relatives (FOLLOWING THE TIPS ON HOW TO INTERVIEW)• For performances, make sure these are captured through video cameras.
• in folk song, field recording is useless unless fully documented• minimal information for recording: 4Ws, where, when, who, what• the information is for labeling purposes as well• if possible, ask more information about the song, the instruments, the process in making the instruments, etc.
What to do?• 1. Look for possible informants in your barangay. He/she must be knowledgeable about folk stories, songs, etc.The informant must meet the following criteriaa. Must be 60 years old and aboveb. Born and raised in Zamboanga Cityc. Fluent in chabacano language (monolingual if possible)d. Physically, emotionally, mentally able for interview
2. There must be three (3) members per group.Preferably, the group must have somebody whospeaks chabacano. There must also be male inthe group. Decide who will interview, write anddocument (camera, record)3. The group must submit 1 documentedfolklore every week. This is equivalent to 1 longexam. This will be collected every secondmeeting of the week.4. The documentation includes the form,pictures, video, and the transcription.
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