Black Plague

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Black Plague

  1. 1. Intro To Black Death <ul><li>Unleashed a rampage of death across Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Lasted three years </li></ul><ul><li>25 to 50 percent of Europe’s population had fallen victim to pestilence </li></ul><ul><li>www.eyewitnesstohistory.com </li></ul><ul><li>By: Michelle </li></ul>
  2. 2. Forms of Black Death <ul><li>Bubonic Plague (infection of the lymph glands) </li></ul><ul><li>Septicemia Plague (infection of the blood) </li></ul><ul><li>Pneumonic Plague ( infection of the lungs) </li></ul><ul><li>Pneumonic Plague can spread from person to person </li></ul><ul><li>www.dhpe.org/infect/plague.html </li></ul><ul><li>By:Michelle </li></ul>
  3. 3. Causes of Black Death <ul><li>Bites from infected fleas </li></ul><ul><li>By direct contact with the tissue or body fluids of plague infected animals </li></ul><ul><li>By inhaling infectious airborne droplets from persons or animals with the plague </li></ul><ul><li>Chapple, Mike.&quot;Could we survive Plague? The Black Death Decimated Europe in the Middle Ages and a New Epidemic Is Closer Than We Think.&quot; Daily Post 1 Sept. 2004.[Liverpool, England].Print. </li></ul><ul><li>By: Michelle </li></ul>
  4. 4. Prevention of Black Death <ul><li>Controlling rodent fleas </li></ul><ul><li>Educating the public </li></ul><ul><li>Contacting the medical community in places where plague occurs </li></ul><ul><li>Barnett, Anthony. The Story of Rats: Their Impact on Us, and Our Impact on Them. Crows Nest, N.S.W.: Allen & Unwin. 2001. Print. </li></ul><ul><li>By: Michelle </li></ul>
  5. 5. Black Death in 1348 <ul><li>Coming out of the East, the Black Death reached the shores of Italy in the Spring of 1348 </li></ul><ul><li>Men, women, and children caught in it’s onslaught were bewildered, panicked and finally devastated. </li></ul><ul><li>They had no defense, and no understanding of the cause of the pestilence </li></ul><ul><li>Benedictow, Ole J. &quot;The Black Death: The Greatest Catastrophe Ever.&quot; History Today Mar. 2005. Print. </li></ul><ul><li>By: Michelle </li></ul>
  6. 6. Information about Black Plague <ul><li>Bacterial Disease </li></ul><ul><li>Spread by rodents and infected fleas </li></ul><ul><li>Caught by humans and other animals who were bitten by infected fleas </li></ul><ul><li>Defoe,Daniel. A Journal of the Plague Year. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 1998. Print </li></ul><ul><li>By: Michelle </li></ul>
  7. 7. Historical Timing of Black Plague <ul><li>The arrival of the Mongols and the Ottomans had disrupted trade routes </li></ul><ul><li>Certain areas of Europe were edging into depression </li></ul><ul><li>Climate was changing, with cooler and wetter weather creating lower crop yields </li></ul><ul><li>Population was increasing </li></ul><ul><li>The Church was in poor shape </li></ul><ul><li>The Hundred Years’ War added to the plague and famine </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulties created by war and a constricted economy were exacerbated by the Black Death </li></ul><ul><li>Encyclopedia article; Plague. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Columbia University Press. New York. 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>By: Michelle </li></ul>
  8. 8. Is The Children’s Game Lyrics really referring to the Black Death in 1348? <ul><li>Ring around the Rosy: One of the first visible signs of the infection were red rings surrounding a rosy bump, all over the victims body </li></ul><ul><li>Pockets full of Posy: The plague created “foul air” so carrying flowers helped them deal with the smell of death </li></ul><ul><li>Ashes, Ashes: This is referring to all the ashes in the air, after they had burned hundreds of dead bodies </li></ul><ul><li>We all fall down: This means that they too will eventually die of the plague </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Holmes, George. The Later Middle Ages, 1272-1485. Edinburgh: Thomas Nelson and Sons, 1962.iii.Print. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>By: Michelle </li></ul>
  9. 9. Symptoms of Black Death <ul><li>Symptoms occurred between 2 to 6 days </li></ul><ul><li>Hard, painful, burning lumps, on neck, underarms, and inner thighs </li></ul><ul><li>Lumps soon turned black, split open, and began to ooze blood </li></ul><ul><li>The average people who caught this disease died within a week </li></ul><ul><li>The ill would start to smell utterly revolting </li></ul><ul><li>Plague Facts.2005.Web.2 Dec. 2009.< www.dhpe.org/infect/plague.html >. </li></ul><ul><li>By: Michelle </li></ul>
  10. 10. Black Death in Relationship to William Shakespeare <ul><li>William Shakespeare lost, brothers, sisters, close friends, and fellow actors </li></ul><ul><li>William Shakespeare lived in the Elizabethan Era, the same time when the Plague stated </li></ul><ul><li>Theaters often closed due to the pestilence </li></ul><ul><li>Actors and writers would leave London to try to escape the Plague </li></ul><ul><li>The Black Death, 1348 Ibis, 2001. Web. 3, Dec. 2009.< http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/plague.htm >. </li></ul><ul><li>By: Michelle </li></ul>
  11. 11. Work Cited <ul><li>Chapple, Mike.&quot;Could we survive Plague? The Black Death Decimated Europe in the Middle Ages and a New Epidemic Is Closer Than We Think.&quot; Daily Post 1 Sept. 2004.[Liverpool, England].Print. </li></ul><ul><li>Barnett, Anthony. The Story of Rats: Their Impact on Us, and Our Impact on Them. Crows Nest, N.S.W.: Allen & Unwin. 2001. Print. </li></ul><ul><li>Benedictow, Ole J. &quot;The Black Death: The Greatest Catastrophe Ever.&quot; History Today Mar. 2005. Print. </li></ul><ul><li>Defoe,Daniel. A Journal of the Plague Year. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 1998. Print. </li></ul><ul><li>Encyclopedia article; Plague. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Columbia University Press. New York. 2009. </li></ul><ul><li>Holmes, George. The Later Middle Ages, 1272-1485. Edinburgh: Thomas Nelson and Sons, 1962.iii.Print. </li></ul><ul><li>Plague Facts.2005.Web.2 Dec. 2009.< www.dhpe.org/infect/plague.html >. </li></ul><ul><li>Totaro, Rebecca.&quot;English Plague and New World Promise.&quot; Utopian Studies 10 (1999). Print. </li></ul><ul><li>The Black Death, 1348 Ibis, 2001. Web. 3, Dec. 2009.< http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/plague.htm >. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Alchemy <ul><li>A medieval philosophy and early form of chemistry </li></ul><ul><li>Aims were the transmutation of base metals into gold, the discovery of a cure for all diseases, and the preparation of a potion that gives external youth </li></ul><ul><li>The imagined substance was capable of turning other metals into gold was called the philosopher’s stone </li></ul><ul><li>Alchemy. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition: Columbia Universtiy Press.New </li></ul><ul><li>York.2009.Print. </li></ul><ul><li>By: Carlos </li></ul>
  13. 13. Definition of Alchemy <ul><li>A medieval chemical philosophy having as it’s asserted aims the transmutation of base metals into gold, the discovery of the panacea, and the preparation of the elixir of longevity </li></ul><ul><li>A seemingly magical power or process of transmuting </li></ul><ul><li>The hypothetical substance sought by alchemists that was believed to transform base metals into gold and give eternal life </li></ul><ul><li>www.thefreedictionary.com/alchemy </li></ul><ul><li>By: Carlos </li></ul>
  14. 14. Practitioners of Alchemy <ul><li>Their goals were so unrealistic, and because they had trouble achieving them, people in the Middle Ages gave them the reputation of fakers and con artists </li></ul><ul><li>While they never succeeded in turning lead into gold (one of their main goals), they did make discoveries that helped to shape modern chemistry </li></ul><ul><li>Alchemists invented early forms of some of the laboratory equipment used today, including beakers, crucibles, filters and stirring rods. Alchemy In the Middle Ages.2009.Web.2 Dec. 2009. </li></ul><ul><li><www.historymedren.about.com/od/alchemy/Alchemy_in_the _Middle_Ages.htm>. </li></ul><ul><li>By: Carlos </li></ul>
  15. 15. Alchemists <ul><li>They discovered and purified a number of chemical elements, including mercury, sulfur, and arsenic </li></ul><ul><li>The methods they developed are still important today </li></ul><ul><li>They were one of the first people to have discovered chemical elements </li></ul><ul><li>Alchemy.The Free Dictionary Farlex, 2009. Web. 4 Dec. 2009. < http://www.thefreedictionary.com/alchemy >. </li></ul><ul><li>By: Carlos </li></ul>
  16. 16. Alchemy in the Middle Ages <ul><li>Alchemy in the Middle Ages was a mixture of scicence, philosophy, and mysticism. </li></ul><ul><li>Far from operating within modern definitions of a scientific discipline, medieval alchemists approached their craft with a holistic attitude. </li></ul><ul><li>They believed that purity of mind, body, and sprit was necessary to pursue the alchemical quest successfully. </li></ul><ul><li>Henderson, Joesph L, and Dyane N. Sherwood, Transformation of the Psyche: The Symbolic Alchemy. London: Brunner-Routledge,2003.Print. </li></ul><ul><li>By: Carlos </li></ul>
  17. 17. Beliefs of Alchemists <ul><li>At the heart of medieval alchemy was the idea that all matter was composed of four elements: earth, air, fire, and water </li></ul><ul><li>With the right combination of elements on earth it was theorized that any substance might be formed. </li></ul><ul><li>Alchemists believed that the “transmutation” of one substance into another was possible </li></ul><ul><li>Osler, Margaret J. &quot;Atoms and Alchemy; Chemsitry and the Experimental Origins of Scientific Revolution.&quot; Journal of History 42 (2007).Print. </li></ul><ul><li>By: Carlos </li></ul>
  18. 18. Symbols of Alchemy <ul><li>Medieval alchemy was much as an art as a science </li></ul><ul><li>Probationers preserved their secrets </li></ul><ul><li>With an obfuscating system of symbols and mysterious names for the materials they studied, they kept their studies undercover </li></ul><ul><li>Read, John.Prelude to Chemistry: An Outline Of Alchemy, It's Literature and Relationships.New York: Macmilan, 1937.Print. </li></ul><ul><li>By: Carlos </li></ul>
  19. 19. Origins and history of alchemy <ul><li>Alchemy originated in ancient times, evolving independently in china, India, and Greece </li></ul><ul><li>In all these areas the practice ultimately degenerated into superstition, but it migrated to Egypt and survived as a scholarly discipline </li></ul><ul><li>By the 13 th century it was discussed seriously by leading philosophers, scientists, and theologians. </li></ul><ul><li>Salant, Nathan S. The Mystery of Human Relationship: Alchemy and the Transformation of the Self.London:Routledge,1998.Print. </li></ul><ul><li>By: Carlos </li></ul>
  20. 20. Goals <ul><li>To discover the relationship of man to the cosmos and take advantage of that relationship to the betterment to mankind. </li></ul><ul><li>To find the “philosopher’s stone,” an elusive substance that was believed to make possible the creation of an elixir of immortality and the transmutation of common substances into gold. </li></ul><ul><li>In the later middle ages, to use alchemy as a tool in advancement of medicine </li></ul><ul><li>Slessor, Catherine.&quot;Alchemy and Invention.&quot; The Architectural Review Oct. 1998.Print. </li></ul><ul><li>By: Carlos </li></ul>
  21. 21. Achievements <ul><li>Medieval alchemists produced hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, potash and sodium carbonate. </li></ul><ul><li>Thought their experiments, medieval alchemists invented and developed laboratory devices and procedures that are, in modified form, still used today </li></ul><ul><li>The practice of alchemy laid the foundation for the development f chemistry as a scientific discipline </li></ul><ul><li>Alchemy In the Middle Ages.2009.Web.2 Dec. 2009. <www.historymedren.about.com/od/alchemy/Alchemy_in_the _Middle_Ages.htm>. </li></ul><ul><li>By: Carlos </li></ul>
  22. 22. Work Cited <ul><li>Alchemy. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition: Columbia Universtiy Press.New York.2009.Print. </li></ul><ul><li>Alchemy In the Middle Ages.2009.Web.2 Dec. 2009. <www.historymedren.about.com/od/alchemy/Alchemy_in_the _Middle_Ages.htm>. </li></ul><ul><li>Alchemy.The Free Dictionary Farlex, 2009. Web. 4 Dec. 2009. < http://www.thefreedictionary.com/alchemy >. </li></ul><ul><li>Henderson, Joesph L, and Dyane N. Sherwood, Transformation of the Psyche: The Symbolic Alchemy. London: Brunner-Routledge,2003.Print. </li></ul><ul><li>Osler, Margaret J. &quot;Atoms and Alchemy; Chemsitry and the Experimental Origins of Scientific Revolution.&quot; Journal of History 42 (2007).Print. </li></ul><ul><li>Read, John.Prelude to Chemistry: An Outline Of Alchemy, It's Literature and Relationships.New York: Macmilan, 1937.Print. </li></ul><ul><li>Salant, Nathan S. The Mystery of Human Relationship: Alchemy and the Transformation of the Self.London:Routledge,1998.Print. </li></ul><ul><li>Slessor, Catherine.&quot;Alchemy and Invention.&quot; The Architectural Review Oct. 1998.Print. </li></ul>

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