Planning for Wildfire - Adapting to Climate Change

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A presentation to municipal officials on wildfire, Firewise and climate change adaptation

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  • Here is a quick list of the topics we’re going to cover today.
  • Firewise Communities plays a critical role in areas outside the jurisdiction of government entities: private land in the wildland/urban interface (WUI). Through its facilitation and information resources, the national Firewise Communities program has been a model of cooperation between federal, tribal, state, and local government; private industry; nonprofit organizations; and community groups. At the heart of the program is a focus on personal responsibility. Communities are encouraged to adopt a long-term, proactive approach to protect their homes and resources from the risk of wildland fire – before a fire starts.
  • Wildfire is a natural phenomenon that has cycles and seasons just like floods, blizzards and windstorms. It has natural and beneficial functions in fire-adapted ecosystems.
  • The truth is: Wildfire is an element of nature. Although fire can be destructive, particularly where property and life are concerned, it is important to recognize that fire performs a vital role in the ecosystem. It is important to understand this because it is the context in which land management agencies make their decisions about fire management. We could spend this entire discussion just talking about fire’s role in the ecosystem, but since we have other topics to cover let’s focus on three key thoughts: Fire can replenish soil nutrients, remove dead and dying vegetation, and create the conditions for healthy re-growth. FOR MORE DETAIL: Fire has helped shape our wildlands for thousands of years, and is important for the survival of many plants and animals. Fire reduces accumulation of vegetation that can inhibit plant growth. Some plants and animals depend on fire for survival. Periodic fire stimulates growth, reproduction of plants, and provides wildlife habitat. USE REGIONAL EXAMPLES For example, lodgepole pine need fire to warm their cones, allowing them to open and drop seed. Fire behaves differently throughout the country. In addition to fuels (vegetation), fire behavior is affected by weather and terrain. Virtually all vegetation types in the United States can experience wildland fire. USE REGIONAL EXAMPLES Here in our area, we can expect to experience fire every XX years. This year, our area is at risk because (INSERT DETAILS, E.G. DROUGHT; DRY SEASON; FUELS; BUILD-UP. Be specific about types of fuels in the area. See “Hazard Assessment” section of “Communities Compatible with Nature” handout for examples.
  • Cape/Islands hold many examples of fire-dependent ecosystems, esp. pine barrens ecosystems. These systems/species need fire to thrive. There is a long history of natural fire and human uses of fire dating back to aboriginal use of fire (it’s in the paleontological and archaeological record). Fire Regime describes patterns of fire occurrences, frequency, size, severity, sometimes including fire effects on vegetation and other resources – in a given ecotype. Stand-replacing fire – infrequent large fire
  • Fire and humans adapt together.
  • In our current (last couple hundred years) history, fire has become the enemy and in general we have tried to exclude it from the landscape.
  • The problem with exclusion is that we inadvertently help to create conditions that make the inevitable fire greater in magnitude and potentially more destructive not just to human habitation but to the very ecosystems we wish to preserve and enhance.
  •   We live with wildfire as part of our environment whether we realize it or not. In many areas of the country, we have termed this tenuous relationship “the wildland/urban interface,” to try to describe a place or site where humans live amidst flammable vegetation.
  • However, in recent years our national program has been working to communicate that the WUI is not really a place but a set of conditions that can exist almost anywhere. Over the past century, America’s population has grown dramatically. Much of this growth has flowed into traditionally natural areas. This trend has created an extremely complex landscape that has come to be known as the wildland/urban interface. That term – wildland/urban interface – is the area in which encroaching development into forests, grasslands and farms has put lives, property and natural resources at risk from wildfire. We have developed tactics to battle wildland fire. However, if we really want to reduce loss of lives, homes, and properties, we must change our development, building, and landscaping practices. The bottom line: We can live compatibly with wildland fire while protecting our lives, homes, and natural areas by creating Firewise Communities.
  • Wildland Fire Behavior Elements -- How a Fire Burns To understand our wildfire risk, we need to understand a little bit about how wildfires spread. Fire is affected by fuels, weather, and terrain.
  • Wildland Fire Behavior Elements - FUELS A quick vocabulary lesson as we discuss fuels: Fuel includes anything that burns – trees, grass, structures such as fences, homes – even lawn furniture. When talking about what will cause a home to ignite, the primary fuels that could lead to an ignition are surface, ladder, and crown fuels. Surface fuels: Primarily flammable material on the ground. Dry grass, shrubs, pine needles, dead branches, etc. Surface fires tend to be relatively low-intensity fires, and don’t usually put homes at risk. UNLESS THERE IS A CONTINUOUS PATH OF FUELS THAT LEAD TO THE HOME. But we can fix that. Ladder fuels: Flammable material that can carry fire to the tops of trees. Tall brush, low branches, etc. These can lead to crown fires.
  • Wildland Fire Behavior Elements - FUELS (Cont) Crown fuels: Crowns are the tops of trees – also called canopies. When fire reaches this level, it becomes a high-intensity, fast moving fire. These are the most difficult to control. Research shows homes must be within 100 feet of the flames to be directly ignited by a crown fire. But what gets homes here are FIREBRANDS. Firebrands are burning embers that can be carried up to a mile or more by strong winds, and can start spot ignitions away from the main fire. It’s these firebrands that put most homes at risk during a high intensity fire.
  • Wildland Fire Behavior Elements - Weather Dry, windy weather contributes significantly to the spread of wildfire. Drought conditions accompanied by low humidity lead to dry vegetation that burns easily. Wind can cause fires to grow quickly, die down, or change direction. And don’t forget that during high intensity fires, strong winds can carry those firebrands that can start separate fires – up to a mile or more. Weather conditions also can change quite rapidly – from “no problem” to “high alert” in a matter of hours. (OR MINUTES??)
  • Wildland Fire Behavior Elements - Terrain Fire is also affected by terrain (topography). Generally, fire moves more quickly uphill (slope) and has longer flames than on level ground or when spreading downhill. This is because the fire “preheats” the fuels above it, drying out vegetation and enabling fuels to ignite more quickly. The direction of the slope and the amount of sunlight an area receives also can impact fire behavior. Generally south-facing slopes receive more sunlight, that leads to dryer fuels. A house at the top of a “chimney” is at an increased risk as well. A chimney effect occurs when an area such as a drainage, gulch, or ravine retains heat and channels wind, causing fire to burn even hotter and faster up the hill.
  • Assessing Wildfire Hazards in the Home Ignition Zone The conditions and events preceding interface fire disasters are surprisingly predictable and follow an identifiable sequence of combustion requirements. The animated graphic in the following slide introduces the predictable occurrences that lead to disasters in the W/UI. Based on what we have learned, what actions can be taken to reduce the loss of homes in the W/UI?
  • Assessing Wildfire Hazards in the Home Ignition Zone This animated slide is used to introduce the sequence of events leading up to a W/UI Disaster. Pause and discuss each element as it is presented on the screen and then move on to the next element by clicking mouse or keyboard to advance. Severe Fire Conditions. Wildland/Urban Interface Fire Disasters are frequently preceded by extreme weather conditions such as high wind speed and low humidity. The specifics of such extreme weather conditions vary from region to region and are often reflected in the issuance of “Red Flag Warnings” by the National Weather Service in conjunction with local wildland fire agencies as a necessary adjunct to the National Fire Danger Rating System. An extreme weather or climate condition is the first element of a Wildland/Urban Interface Fire Disaster. Point out that the National (wildland) Fire Danger Rating System is quite effective at predicting when such disastrous wildfires are likely to occur. However, fires destroying really large numbers (e.g. dozens or hundreds) of homes happen much less often and have not been reported or been associated with “extreme” Fire Danger Rating.
  • Assessing Wildfire Hazards in the Home Ignition Zone Animated slide designed to demonstrate the impact that stopping the transition from the wildland fire to an urban fire has on preventing W/UI Disasters. The focus of this program is showing how we can stop the transition from the wildland fire to the W/UI fire. When individual homes ignite or a single wildland ignition occurs, local fire agencies’ standard operating procedures (SOPs) are very effective. The success rate in containing these ignitions is routinely in the 98%-99% range. When ignitions occur in dense fuels (whether structural or vegetative) during periods of severe fire conditions, numerous homes may become involved. Rapidly spreading fire cannot be stopped and our suppression efforts are dramatically reduced. The world sees the resulting “wildland/urban fire disaster” on the evening news. Standard fire suppression operations are largely ineffective against severe wildland fire behavior, driven by high winds and producing huge flames, along with intense heat and showering firebrands. Even the effectiveness of well equipped fire departments is hampered to perform even the simplest task, like placing a hose stream on a flaming house. Often, during these situations fire fighters must “fall back” to implement their own necessary life safety procedures.
  • Wildfires are inevitable in fire-adapted ecosystems. During large interface fires hundreds of structures an hour may be ignited. No fire suppression system in the world can stop losses from these large conflagrations.
  • The increase in background fires is due to rainfall increases (and fuel loads) in the West. The big catastrophic fires occur in the East.
  • In mid-June 2008, strong winds fed a large wildfire (6,000 acres) through the Porters Lake area about 15 miles northeast of the capital city. Fires forced the evacuation of 5,000 people (about 800 households). The out-of-control wildfire constantly changed direction and burned for 36 hours, feeding off dead, dried-out trees toppled almost five years earlier during a major windstorm. Powerful gusts to 45 mph and thick black smoke were the biggest challenges facing firefighters. Power was knocked out to 8,100 homes after fire damaged a transmission line. Exits along a major highway were closed and traffic was rerouted, causing a massive traffic jam east of the capital city. Two homes were destroyed and several damaged.   Any guesses as to where this was?
  • Focus on mitigation/preventative actions that reduce losses before the event . Reduce potential fire intensity that the vegetation will influence. Reduce the structure ’ s ignitibility. All these activities will create Firewise communities and allow us to live more compatibly with the natural phenomenon of wildfire – and adapt to climate change impacts
  • Let’s start with the home itself – the center of the home ignition zone 1. Even if a landscape is designed in perfect compliance with Firewise recommendations, fire may still reach your home. Remember that heavy winds can carry firebrands over the tops of trees to land on a roof. If that were to happen to your home, your home’s exterior must play an important role in preventing ignitions that could lead to total home destruction. When considering improvements to reduce wildfire vulnerability, the key is to consider the home as part of the entire home ignition zone – the house itself and its immediate surroundings within 100 to 200 feet. The home’s vulnerability depends on how much flammable vegetation and other hazards are surrounding it, in relation to the vulnerability of the home’s construction materials. The higher the fire intensities within the home ignition zone, and the greater the firebrand exposure from the wildfire, the more you need non-flammable construction materials and a resistant building design.
  • Assessing Wildfire Hazards in the Home Ignition Zone If it is attached to the house it is part of the house.
  • As we discussed before, assessment of wildfire risks is going to be very different depending on the level you’re focused on, and the purpose of the planning
  • Planning for Wildfire - Adapting to Climate Change

    1. 1. Planning for Wildfires Using Firewise to Adapt to Future Climate Conditions
    2. 2. Plan to Protect Workshop April 8, 2009 Michele Steinberg – Firewise Communities Program
    3. 3. Agenda <ul><li>Wildfire – it’s natural! </li></ul><ul><li>Wildland/Urban Interface – what is it? </li></ul><ul><li>Climate Change and Wildfire Impacts </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptation to Changing Conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Resources to help you </li></ul>
    4. 4. The big idea <ul><li>We CAN live compatibly with nature (wildfire)… </li></ul><ul><li>… IF we understand and adapt to the conditions that put our homes and values at risk. </li></ul>
    5. 5. National Firewise Communities ® Program <ul><li>VISION: Wildland fires can occur in areas of residential development without the occurrence of disastrous loss. </li></ul><ul><li>MISSION: To promote community-wide responsibility in the use of technology, policy and practices that minimize the loss of life and property to wildland fire independent of fire fighting efforts. </li></ul>
    6. 6. Firewise program sponsors <ul><li>USDA-Forest Service </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Department of the Interior </li></ul><ul><li>National Fire Protection Association </li></ul><ul><li>National Association of State Foresters </li></ul><ul><li>Federal Emergency Management Agency </li></ul><ul><li>International Association of Fire Chiefs </li></ul><ul><li>National Association of State Fire Marshals </li></ul><ul><li>National Emergency Management Association </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Fire Administration </li></ul>
    7. 7. Wildfire – it’s natural!
    8. 8. Fire on Cape Cod? <ul><li>What’s our experience? </li></ul><ul><li>What’s natural? </li></ul><ul><li>What is a “wildfire”? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trees? Shrubs? Grass? Marsh? Trash? </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Normal Peak Fire Seasons January
    10. 10. Normal Peak Fire Seasons February
    11. 11. Normal Peak Fire Seasons March
    12. 12. Normal Peak Fire Seasons April
    13. 13. Normal Peak Fire Seasons May
    14. 14. Normal Peak Fire Seasons June
    15. 15. Normal Peak Fire Seasons July
    16. 16. Normal Peak Fire Seasons August
    17. 17. Normal Peak Fire Seasons September
    18. 18. Normal Peak Fire Seasons October
    19. 19. Normal Peak Fire Seasons November
    20. 20. Normal Peak Fire Seasons December
    21. 21. Understanding Wildfire <ul><li>Fire is an essential, natural process: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Replenishes soil nutrients </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Removes dead and dying vegetation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creates conditions for healthy re-growth </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Fire Terminology <ul><li>Fire-adapted ecosystem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ponderosa pines </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fire-dependent ecosystem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pyrophitic species LOVE fire! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fire regime </li></ul><ul><li>Stand-replacing fire </li></ul>
    23. 23. Pitch pine-scrub oak barrens  Fire !
    24. 24. <ul><li>Public opinion has historically categorized home loss to wildfire as an unavoidable disaster </li></ul><ul><li>Until the early 1990s, the concept of mitigation was not part of the wildfire management conversation </li></ul>WILDFIRE: THE ENEMY Cedar Fire - 2003, San Diego, California
    25. 25. Today’s Situation <ul><li>History of fire prevention and suppression threatens our ecosystems </li></ul>
    26. 26. Today’s Situation <ul><li>Risk of larger fires results from fire exclusion policy </li></ul>
    27. 27. Today’s Situation <ul><li>Effects on plant and animal life during a catastrophic wildfire can be severe </li></ul>
    28. 28. Wildland/Urban Interface – what is it?
    29. 29. Wildland/Urban Interface <ul><li>We may not recognize it, but many of us live in it ! </li></ul>
    30. 30. Wildland/Urban Interface <ul><li>Not a place or a zone </li></ul><ul><li>A set of conditions under which a wildland fire reaches beyond trees, brush, and other natural fuels to ignite homes and their immediate surroundings. </li></ul>
    31. 31. Wildfire Behavior and How Homes Ignite <ul><li>Fuels </li></ul><ul><li>Weather </li></ul><ul><li>Terrain </li></ul>
    32. 32. How Homes Ignite <ul><li>Fuels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Surface fuels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ladder fuels </li></ul></ul>
    33. 33. How Homes Ignite <ul><li>Fuels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Surface fuels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ladder fuels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crown fuels </li></ul></ul>
    34. 34. How Homes Ignite <ul><li>Fuels </li></ul><ul><li>Weather </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dry weather, low humidity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wind </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drought conditions </li></ul></ul>
    35. 35. How Homes Ignite <ul><li>Fuels </li></ul><ul><li>Weather </li></ul><ul><li>Terrain </li></ul>Chimney Slope Slope
    36. 36. How do interface losses occur?
    37. 37. Wildland Fire Rapid fire spread and/or High intensity Severe Fire Conditions Fuel, Weather, and Topography Overwhelmed Fire Suppression Too much fire and too few resources Reduced Fire Protection Lack of resources leads to reduced effectiveness DISASTER! Many homes totally destroyed Urban Fire Multiple, simultaneous ignitions
    38. 38. Wildland Fire Rapid fire spread and/or High intensity Severe Fire Conditions Fuel, Weather, and Topography Overwhelmed Fire Suppression Too much fire, Too few resources Reduced Fire Protection Lack of resources = Reduced effectiveness DISASTER! Many totally destroyed homes Urban Fire Multiple, simultaneous ignitions Stop the transition from the Wildland fire to an Urban fire and the likelihood of a Disaster is significantly reduced
    39. 39. Inferno by the sea: Residents still recall 1941’s Great Fire that wiped out a Marshfield neighborhood By SARAH COFFEY The Patriot Ledger MARSHFIELD – To one young child, “It looked like the whole world was on fire.” Other Marshfield residents vividly recall narrow escapes, exploding beer cans, burned firetrucks and a massive casino consumed in a fireball. Marshfield’s Great Fire of 1941 wiped out the entire Ocean Bluff section of town on April 21. Within four hours, it burned 446 homes , 96 garages, 12 stores, two hotels, a post office, a church and the casino, leaving behind just brick chimneys and concrete steps. Damage was estimated at $1.5 million, more than a fifth of the town’s assessed value. Thirty families were left homeless, escaping only with the clothes on their backs. No one died. Hundreds of firefighters from dozens of area departments fought the fire, but only a few were injured.
    40. 40. What Have We Learned? <ul><li>Wildfires are inevitable in fire-adapted ecosystems </li></ul><ul><li>During large interface fires, hundreds of structures an hour may be ignited </li></ul><ul><li>No fire suppression system in the world can stop losses from these large conflagrations </li></ul>
    41. 41. Climate Change and Wildfire Impacts <ul><li>Wet-dry cycles are more extreme </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wet – more vegetation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dry – more fire to burn the extra fuel </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Temperature Increases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Species changes; fire regime alterations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ecosystem alterations/stresses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Create conditions ripe for wildfire </li></ul></ul>
    42. 42. MC1 Simulated Change in Biomass Consumed by Fire 21 st Century Compared to 20 th Century High Warming CGCM1 Small Warming HADCM2SUL < - 200 > 200 g/m 2 2035 Fire ‘ Background’ fires Increase in the West Catastrophic fires Occur in the East
    43. 43. Recent Fire Example <ul><li>Mid-June 2008 - 15 miles from capital city </li></ul><ul><li>5000 people (800 homes) evacuated for days </li></ul><ul><li>Strong winds change fire direction </li></ul><ul><li>6000 acres burn </li></ul><ul><li>Fuel from “blowdown” </li></ul><ul><li>Power out – 8,100 </li></ul><ul><li>Two homes gone </li></ul>
    44. 44. Adaptation to Changing Conditions <ul><li>We live here now. What can we do? </li></ul><ul><li>How do we influence the future? </li></ul>
    45. 45. Refocusing our efforts <ul><li>Focus on mitigation/preventive actions that reduce losses before the event </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce potential fire intensity that the vegetation will influence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce the structure’s ignitability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take wildfire into account in our long-range development plans </li></ul></ul>
    46. 46. A look at wildfire behavior <ul><li>No Wildfire Preparation = No Win </li></ul>San Diego, California - 2003
    47. 47. Wildfire Preparation = Big Win <ul><li>Fires burned past these New Mexico homes </li></ul>
    48. 48. Wildfire Preparation = Big Win <ul><li>In January 2006, fire burned up to all four sides of this Oklahoma home. The house survived; the pickup did not </li></ul>
    49. 49. Research Gives us Clues <ul><li>Two studies of California wildfire survival. Qualifier: Homes did not have shake/shingle roofs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Belair-Brentwood Fire (1961) - 95% home survival with 30-60 feet of clearance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Painted Cave Fire (1990) - 86% home survival with at least 30 feet of clearance </li></ul></ul>
    50. 50. Research on home ignition <ul><li>International Crown Fire Modeling Experiment (1998) - Northwest Territories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crown fire must be less than 100 feet to ignite a wood wall </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>33 feet - heavy char; few ignitions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>66 feet - no char or scorch </li></ul></ul></ul>
    51. 51. It’s the little things – that take homes down
    52. 52. Home Ignition Zone <ul><li>This suggests property owners play a role in protecting their homes </li></ul><ul><li>We can modify our “home ignition zones” </li></ul>
    53. 53. The Home Ignition Zone <ul><li>Home ignition zone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A house burns because of its interrelationship with everything in its immediate surroundings (100 -200 feet) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What happens within this zone is critical to structure survival </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A wildfire’s potential relationship with a house can be interrupted here </li></ul></ul>
    54. 54. Homes can survive <ul><li>Homes can survive wildfires by judicious use of standard residential building materials and landscape design </li></ul>
    55. 55. Look at Firewise construction <ul><li>The Home Ignition Zone includes the home, in addition to its immediate surroundings up to 200 feet. </li></ul>If it’s attached to the house, it’s part of the house.
    56. 56. If it’s attached, it’s part of the house!
    57. 57. Firewise Recommends… <ul><li>Rated roofs (A, B or C) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Levels refer to the size of a burning firebrand placed on the roof assembly </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fire-resistant building materials </li></ul><ul><li>Fire-resistant plant materials </li></ul>
    58. 58. Community Action and Recognition – an adaptation model Firewise Communities/USA ®
    59. 59. Why Firewise recognition? <ul><li>Wildfires will continue as an ecological phenomenon </li></ul><ul><li>Most homes are located on private property </li></ul><ul><li>Landowners prefer to exercise their right to make choices related to their surroundings </li></ul><ul><li>Often, they are under the impression that there is nothing they can do </li></ul>
    60. 60. Why Firewise recognition? <ul><li>Firewise Communities/USA offers communities the information to change this situation </li></ul><ul><li>The program requires sustained community action in order for recognition status to be achieved and maintained </li></ul>
    61. 61. Firewise Communities/USA Criteria <ul><li>Complete an assessment of community wildfire risk </li></ul><ul><li>Form a board or committee and create an action plan </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct a Firewise Day annually </li></ul><ul><li>Document local activity of at least $2/capita in value </li></ul><ul><li>Submit an application for recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Renew status annually </li></ul>
    62. 62. Why do we want renewal? <ul><li>Steps 3-5 – Firewise Day, $2/capita investment, and report (renewal form) must be repeated annually </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sustained community action needed to improve fire safety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vegetation grows back – emphasis on maintenance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ One-shot” recognition has little to no long-term impact on a community’s ignition resistance </li></ul></ul>
    63. 63. The Big Idea <ul><li>Firewise concepts become ingrained and “normal” because we do them every day </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior change models include recycling and seat belt use </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Firewise concepts can be supported by regulation and codes, but ultimately must be embraced by residents </li></ul>
    64. 64. Firewise Communities/USA - Facts <ul><li>1999 pilot; 2002 official launch with 12 sites </li></ul><ul><li>Now 456 sites in 37 states -- and growing! </li></ul><ul><li>Residents are accepting their role in mitigating wildfire hazards </li></ul><ul><li>Communities have invested more than $39 million since 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>70 sites involved 5+ years </li></ul>
    65. 65. Communities Using this Adaptation <ul><li>Turkey Hill neighborhood, Holbrook, Mass. </li></ul><ul><li>Lake Arrowhead, Waterboro, Maine </li></ul><ul><li>Chocorua Ski & Beach Association, Tamworth, NH </li></ul><ul><li>Cragsmoor, New York </li></ul>
    66. 66. Future Development Adaptations <ul><li>Planning, Zoning, Construction </li></ul><ul><li>Firewise “from the ground up” </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure and engineering </li></ul>
    67. 67. Firewise from the ground up <ul><li>Firewise in design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lots/common areas mitigated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access, egress and water supply addressed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Firewise construction and landscaping for new homes </li></ul></ul>
    68. 68. Firewise from the ground up <ul><li>Firewise in the fine print </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Firewise concepts in the covenants (CC&Rs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Firewise design guidelines in the architectural design rules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Firewise roofing/siding/decking/windows </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Firewise landscaping or defensible space </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maintenance requirements </li></ul></ul></ul>
    69. 69. Coming Soon…”Safer from the Start” <ul><li>New guide for Firewise-friendly development </li></ul><ul><li>Aimed at developers AND residents of community associations </li></ul><ul><li>Recommendations based on Firewise research and NFPA standards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NFPA 1144, Reducing Structure Ignition Hazards from Wildland Fire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NFPA 1141, Fire Protection Infrastructure for Land Development in Suburban and Rural Areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NFPA 1142, Water Supplies for Suburban and Rural Fire Fighting </li></ul></ul>
    70. 70. Two Major Considerations in Planning <ul><li>Level of Planning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Single home </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subdivision Level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>City/County Complex </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Focus (purpose) of Planning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Home Ignition Zone assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neighborhood action plan (Firewise Communities/USA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Community Wildfire Protection Plan </li></ul></ul>
    71. 71. Three Major Hazard Concerns <ul><li>Fuels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Change in concern from structure to vegetation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fire frequency and severity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Change in concern from small ignitions to landscape fire </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Topography </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Change in concern from near houses to landscape scale </li></ul></ul>
    72. 73. Communities Compatible with Nature <ul><li>Firewise development can be: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Beautiful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aesthetically pleasing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmentally friendly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affordable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And…successful in saving homes from wildfire! </li></ul></ul>
    73. 74. Questions? Discussion? Thank You! Michele Steinberg 617-984-7487 [email_address]

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