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Intercultural training

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    Intercultural training Intercultural training Presentation Transcript

    • The project:The project: „„EExchange of experience and best practice ofxchange of experience and best practice of intercultural trainings"intercultural trainings" (INTEREX)(INTEREX) Intercultural TrainingIntercultural Training inin PolandPoland B U S I N E S S A N D D E V E L O P M E N T C E N T E RB U S I N E S S A N D D E V E L O P M E N T C E N T E R ul. Kurpiowska 5/77, 35-620 Rzeszów, Poland, tel./fax +4817 857 85 25, e-mail: bdc@bdcenter.pl, www. bdcenter.pl
    • TheThe Intercultural Training inIntercultural Training in PolandPoland TheThe IntIntroductionroduction B U S I N E S S A N D D E V E L O P M E N T C E N T E RB U S I N E S S A N D D E V E L O P M E N T C E N T E R ul. Kurpiowska 5/77, 35-620 Rzeszów, Poland, tel./fax +4817 857 85 25, e-mail: bdc@bdcenter.pl, www. bdcenter.pl
    • There are main elements of training: The Interview The Cultural differences – „pictures” from countries & discussion The summary of training „The business meeting with international partner” - exercise Stereotypes & exercise: „The our list of stereotypes” The Culture & Business. The quiz „Building the bridge instead the walls” Group Work: „What do we know and what don’t we know about different nations” „We are going to go to the international meeting” – expectations, doubts
    • Modern day corporate, public and nongovern- mental organisations now operate on a global scale. Whether you are posted on an interna- tional assignment, liaise regularly with overseas clients and colleagues or work in an internatio- nal environment, the ability to communicate effectively across cultures is key to your success. The Cultural differences – some informationThe Cultural differences – some information
    • Culture is defined as a system of values and beliefs which we share with others, all of which gives us a sense of belonging or identity. Each culture exhibits differing value and belief systems, which effect how people perceive reality and react to it. The Cultural differences – some informationThe Cultural differences – some information
    • Culture (by Steward Hall): „To say that two people belong to the same culture is to say that they interpret the world in roughly the same way and can express themselves, their thoughts and feelings about the world, in way which will be understood by each other. Thus culture depends on its participants interpreting meaningfully what is happening around them, and „making sense” of the world, in broadly similar ways” The Cultural differences – some informationThe Cultural differences – some information
    • In today’s global business environment, contact with foreign cultures can assume various forms. International assignments, cross-border negotiations and international teams are just a few examples where you may encounter differing customs, values and business practices. Such international contact will often expose you to different working styles and communication approaches which, in turn, can lead to the risk of misunderstandings and confusion. If we want to avoid misunderstanding and confusion we’ll need intercultural learning. The Cultural differences – some informationThe Cultural differences – some information
    •  The Iceberg Model of Culture  Geert Hofstede’s model of cultural dimensions  Edward T. and Mildred Reed Hall’s behavioural components of culture  Jacques Demorgon and Markus Molz’s discussion of culture The Intercultural Learning – Models of CultureThe Intercultural Learning – Models of Culture
    • The Iceberg Model of Culture The idea behind this model is that culture can be pictured as an iceberg: only a very small portion of the iceberg can be seen above the water line. We can say similar in culture. There are some visible parts: architecture, art, cooking, music, language, etc. But the powerful foundations of culture are more difficult to spot: the history of the group of people that hold the culture, their norms, values, basic assumptions about space, nature, time, etc. The iceberg model implies that the visible parts of culture are just expressions of its invisible parts. It also points out, how difficult it is at times to understand people with different cultural backgrounds – because we may spot the visible parts of “their iceberg”, but we cannot immediately see what are the foundations that these parts rest upon. The Intercultural Learning – Models of Culture:The Intercultural Learning – Models of Culture:
    • Geert Hofstede’s model of cultural dimensions Geert Hofstede’s idea about culture is based on one of the largest empirical studies done on cultural differences in the 1970s, for IBM. Hofstede describes culture as “the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of the human group from one another”. After several rounds of research, Hofstede identified the four dimensions, what he called:  power distance,  individualism/collectivism,  masculinity/femininity,  uncertainty avoidance. and after some additional research, he added the dimension of time orientation. The Intercultural Learning – Models of Culture:The Intercultural Learning – Models of Culture:
    • Edward T. and Mildred Reed Hall’s behavioural components of culture This couple developed their model of culture from a very practical point of view: They wanted to give good advice to US-American businessmen who were to travel and work abroad. On the basis of their study they developed several dimensions of difference. These dimensions were all associated with either communication patterns, or with space, or time: - Fast and Slow Messages, - High and Low Context of information, - Territoriality, - Personal Space, - Monochronic and Polychronic Time. The Intercultural Learning – Models of Culture:The Intercultural Learning – Models of Culture:
    • Jacques Demorgon and Markus Molz’s discussion of culture Demorgon and Molz introduce what we would call a model of culture. Culture can only be understood, they say, when one connects it with the concept of adaptation. Humans are constantly challenged to establish a lasting relationship between their inner world (needs, ideas, etc.) and the outer world (environment, other people, etc.). They do this in concrete situations that should form the basis for analysis. In all of these situations, individuals shape their environment (every person can influence what is happening around him/herself), and are shaped by their environment (every person can change with what is happening around him/herself). Both, shaping the environment, and being shaped by it, are the two sides of the coin „adaptation”. The Intercultural Learning – Models of Culture:The Intercultural Learning – Models of Culture:
    • The intercultural learning is a process. This process demands that you know yourself, and where you come from, before being able to understand others. It is a challenging process as it involves very deeply rooted ideas about what is good and bad, about structuring the world and your life. Intercultural learning is a challenge to one’s identity. The intercultural learning is essentially about learning how to live together, learning how to live in a diverse world. The Intercultural Learning – Conclusions:The Intercultural Learning – Conclusions:
    • TheThe Intercultural Training inIntercultural Training in PolandPoland The „pictures” fromThe „pictures” from countriescountries B U S I N E S S A N D D E V E L O P M E N T C E N T E RB U S I N E S S A N D D E V E L O P M E N T C E N T E R ul. Kurpiowska 5/77, 35-620 Rzeszów, Poland, tel./fax +4817 857 85 25, e-mail: bdc@bdcenter.pl, www. bdcenter.pl
    • The Austria - FACTSThe Austria - FACTS Background Once the center of power for the large Austro- Hungarian Empire, Austria was reduced to a small republic after its defeat in World War I. Following annexation by Nazi Germany in 1938 and subsequent occupation by the victorious Allies in 1945, Austria's status remained unclear for a decade. A State Treaty signed in 1955 ended the occupation, recognized Austria's independence, and forbade unification with Germany. A constitutional law that same year declared the country's "perpetual neutrality" as a condition for Soviet military withdrawal. Following the Soviet Union's collapse in 1991 and Austria's entry into the European Union in 1995, some Austrian's have called into question this neutrality. A prosperous, democratic country, Austria entered the European Monetary Union in 1999. Based on CIA – The World Factbooks
    • The Austria - FACTSThe Austria - FACTS Important Information Location: Central Europe, north of Italy and Slovenia Area: total: 83,870 sq km Border countries: Czech Republic 362 km, Germany 784 km, Hungary 366 km, Italy 430 km, Liechtenstein 35 km, Slovakia 91 km, Slovenia 330 km, Switzerland 164 km Climate: temperate; continental, cloudy; Natural resources: oil, coal, lignite, timber, iron ore, copper, zinc, antimony, magnesite, tungsten, graphite, salt, Population: 8,174,762 (July 2004 est.) Ethnic groups: German 88.5%, indigenous minorities 1.5% (includes Croatians, Slovenes, Hungarians, Czechs, Slovaks, Roma), recent immigrant groups 10% (includes Turks, Bosnians, Serbians, Croatians) (2001) Religions: Roman Catholic 73.6%, Protestant 4.7%, Muslim 4.2%, other 0.1%, none 17.4% Languages: German (official nationwide), Slovene (official in Carinthia), Croatian (official in Burgenland), Hungarian (official in Burgenland). Based on CIA – The World Factbooks
    • The China - FACTSThe China - FACTS Background For centuries China stood as a leading civilization, outpacing the rest of the world in the arts and sciences, but in the 19th and early 20th centuries, the country was beset by civil unrest, major famines, military defeats, and foreign occupation. After World War II, the Communists under MAO Zedong established an autocratic socialist system that, while ensuring China's sovereignty, imposed strict controls over everyday life and cost the lives of tens of millions of people. After 1978, his successor DENG Xiaoping and other leaders focused on market-oriented economic development and by 2000 output had quadrupled. For much of the population, living standards have improved dramatically and the room for personal choice has expanded, yet political controls remain tight.
    • The China - FACTSThe China - FACTS Important Information Location: Eastern Asia, bordering the East China Sea, Korea Bay, Yellow Sea, and South China Sea, between North Korea and Vietnam Area: total: 9,596,960 sq km Border countries: Afghanistan 76 km, Bhutan 470 km, Burma 2,185 km, India 3,380 km, Kazakhstan 1,533 km, North Korea 1,416 km, Kyrgyzstan 858 km, Laos 423 km, Mongolia 4,677 km, Nepal 1,236 km, Pakistan 523 km, Russia (northeast) 3,605 km, Russia (northwest) 40 km, Tajikistan 414 km, Vietnam 1,281 km regional borders: Hong Kong 30 km, Macau 0.34 km Climate: extremely diverse; tropical in south to subarctic in north Natural resources: coal, iron ore, petroleum, natural gas, mercury, tin, tungsten, antimony, manganese, molybdenum, vanadium, magnetite, aluminum, lead, zinc, uranium Population: 1,298,847,624 (July 2004 est.) Ethnic groups: Han Chinese 91.9%, Zhuang, Uygur, Hui, Yi, Tibetan, Miao, Manchu, Mongol, Buyi, Korean, and other nationalities 8.1% Religions: Daoist (Taoist), Buddhist, Muslim 1%-2%, Christian 3%-4% Languages: Standard Chinese or Mandarin (Putonghua, based on the Beijing dialect), Yue (Cantonese), Wu (Shanghaiese), Minbei (Fuzhou), Minnan (Hokkien-Taiwanese), Xiang, Gan, Hakka dialects Based on CIA – The World Factbooks
    • The Iran - FACTSThe Iran - FACTS Background Known as Persia until 1935, Iran became an Islamic republic in 1979 after the ruling monarchy was overthrown and the shah was forced into exile. Conservative clerical forces established a theocratic system of government with ultimate political authority nominally vested in a learned religious scholar. Iranian- US relations have been strained since a group of Iranian students seized the US Embassy in Tehran on 4 November 1979 and held it until 20 January 1981. During 1980-88, Iran fought a bloody, indecisive war with Iraq that eventually expanded into the Persian Gulf and led to clashes between US Navy and Iranian military forces between 1987-1988. Iran has been designated a state sponsor of terrorism for its activities in Lebanon and elsewhere in the world and remains subject to US economic sanctions and export controls because of its continued involvement. Based on CIA – The World Factbooks
    • The Iran - FACTSThe Iran - FACTS Important Information Location: Middle East, bordering the Gulf of Oman, the Persian Gulf, and the Caspian Sea, between Iraq and Pakistan Area: total: 1.648 million sq km Border countries: Afghanistan 936 km, Armenia 35 km, Azerbaijan- proper 432 km, Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave 179 km, Iraq 1,458 km, Pakistan 909 km, Turkey 499 km, Turkmenistan 992 km Climate: mostly arid or semiarid, subtropical along Caspian coast Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper, iron ore, lead, manganese, zinc, sulfur Population: 69,018,924 (July 2004 est.) Ethnic groups: Persian 51%, Azeri 24%, Gilaki and Mazandarani 8%, Kurd 7%, Arab 3%, Lur 2%, Baloch 2%, Turkmen 2%, other 1% Religions: Shi'a Muslim 89%, Sunni Muslim 9%, Zoroastrian, Jewish, Christian, and Baha'i 2% Languages: Persian and Persian dialects 58%, Turkic and Turkic dialects 26%,Kurdish 9%, Luri 2%, Balochi 1%, Arabic 1%, Turkish 1%, other 2% Based on CIA – The World Factbooks
    • The Latvia - FACTSThe Latvia - FACTS Background After a brief period of independence between the two World Wars, Latvia was annexed by the USSR in 1940. It reestablished its independence in 1991 following the breakup of the Soviet Union. Although the last Russian troops left in 1994, the status of the Russian minority (some 30% of the population) remains of concern to Moscow. Latvia joined both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004. Based on CIA – The World Factbooks
    • The Latvia - FACTSThe Latvia - FACTS Important Information Location: Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, between Estonia and Lithuania Area: total: 64,589 sq km Border countries: Belarus 141 km, Estonia 339 km, Lithuania 453 km, Russia 217 km Climate: maritime; wet, moderate winters Natural resources: peat, limestone, dolomite, amber, hydropower, wood, arable land Population: 2,306,306 (July 2004 est.) Ethnic groups: Latvian 57.7%, Russian 29.6%, Belarusian 4.1%, Ukrainian 2.7%, Polish 2.5%, Lithuanian 1.4%, other 2% (2002) Religions: Lutheran, Roman Catholic, Russian Orthodox Languages: Latvian (official), Lithuanian, Russian, other Based on CIA – The World Factbooks
    • The Poland - FACTSThe Poland - FACTS Background Poland is an ancient nation that was conceived around the middle of the 10th century. Its golden age occurred in the 16th century. During the following century, the strengthening of the gentry and internal disorders weakened the nation. In a series of agreements between 1772 and 1795, Russia, Prussia, and Austria partitioned Poland amongst themselves. Poland regained its independence in 1918 only to be overrun by Germany and the Soviet Union in World War II. It became a Soviet satellite state following the war, but its government was comparatively tolerant and progressive. Labor turmoil in 1980 led to the formation of the independent trade union "Solidarity" that over time became a political force and by 1990 had swept parliamentary elections and the presidency. A "shock therapy" program during the early 1990s enabled the country to transform its economy into one of the most robust in Central Europe, but Poland currently suffers low GDP growth and high unemployment. Solidarity suffered a major defeat in the 2001 parliamentary elections when it failed to elect a single deputy to the lower house of Parliament, and the new leaders of the Solidarity Trade Union subsequently pledged to reduce the Trade Union's political role. Poland joined NATO in 1999 and the European Union in 2004. Based on CIA – The World Factbooks
    • The Poland - FACTSThe Poland - FACTS Important Information Location: Central Europe, east of Germany Area: total: 312,685 sq km Border countries: Belarus 407 km, Czech Republic 658 km, Germany 456 km, Lithuania 91 km, Russia (Kaliningrad Oblast) 206 km, Slovakia 444 km, Ukraine 526 km Climate: temperate with cold, cloudy, moderately severe winters with frequent precipitation; mild summers with frequent showers and thundershowers Population: 38,626,349 (July 2004 est.) Ethnic groups: Polish 96.7%, German 0.4%, Belarusian 0.1%, Ukrainian 0.1%, other 2.7% (2002) Religions: Roman Catholic 95% (about 75% practicing), Eastern Orthodox, Protestant, and other 5% Languages: Polish Based on CIA – The World Factbooks
    • The Ukraine - FACTSThe Ukraine - FACTS Background Ukraine was the center of the first Slavic state, Kievan Rus, which during the 10th and 11th centuries was the largest and most powerful state in Europe. A new Ukrainian state, the Cossack Hetmanate, was established during the mid-17th century after an uprising against the Poles. Despite continuous Muscovite pressure, the Hetmanate managed to remain autonomous for well over 100 years. During the latter part of the 18th century, most Ukrainian ethnographic territory was absorbed by the Russian Empire. Following the collapse of czarist Russia in 1917, Ukraine was able to bring about a short-lived period of independence (1917-1920), but was reconquered and forced to endure a brutal Soviet rule that engineered two artificial famines (1921-22 and 1932-33) in which over 8 million died. In World War II, German and Soviet armies were responsible for some 7 to 8 million more deaths. Although final independence for Ukraine was achieved in 1991 with the dissolution of the USSR, democracy remained elusive as the legacy of state control and endemic corruption stalled efforts at economic reform, privatization, and civil liberties. A peaceful mass protest "Orange Revolution" in the closing months of 2004 forced the authorites to overturn a rigged presidential election and to allow a new internationally monitored vote that swept into power a reformist slate under Viktor YUSHCHENKO. Based on CIA – The World Factbooks
    • The Ukraine - FACTSThe Ukraine - FACTS Important Information Location: Eastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Poland, Romania, and Moldova in the west and Russia in the east Area: total: 603,700 sq km Border countries: Belarus 891 km, Hungary 103 km, Moldova 939 km, Poland 526 km, Romania (south) 169 km, Romania (west) 362 km, Russia 1,576 km, Slovakia 97 km Population: 47,732,079 (July 2004 est.) Ethnic groups: Ukrainian 77.8%, Russian 17.3%, Belarusian 0.6%, Moldovan 0.5%, Crimean Tatar 0.5%, Bulgarian 0.4%, Hungarian 0.3%, Romanian 0.3%, Polish 0.3%, Jewish 0.2%, other 1.8% (2001) Religions: Ukrainian Orthodox - Kiev Patriarchate 19%, Ukrainian Orthodox - Moscow Patriarchate 9%, Ukrainian Greek Catholic 6%, Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox 1.7%, Protestant, Jewish, none 38% (2004 est.) Languages: Ukrainian, Russian, Romanian, Polish, Hungarian Based on CIA – The World Factbooks
    • TheThe Intercultural Training inIntercultural Training in PolandPoland The „pictures” from countriesThe „pictures” from countries Let’s start the exercisesLet’s start the exercises B U S I N E S S A N D D E V E L O P M E N T C E N T E RB U S I N E S S A N D D E V E L O P M E N T C E N T E R ul. Kurpiowska 5/77, 35-620 Rzeszów, Poland, tel./fax +4817 857 85 25, e-mail: bdc@bdcenter.pl, www. bdcenter.pl
    • TheThe Intercultural Training inIntercultural Training in PolandPoland The StereotypesThe Stereotypes B U S I N E S S A N D D E V E L O P M E N T C E N T E RB U S I N E S S A N D D E V E L O P M E N T C E N T E R ul. Kurpiowska 5/77, 35-620 Rzeszów, Poland, tel./fax +4817 857 85 25, e-mail: bdc@bdcenter.pl, www. bdcenter.pl
    • In characteristics of doing business in different cultures, it is difficult to avoid creating stereotypes. The descriptions and characteristics attributed to different cultures are only a very general and rough introduction. They can only provide a very broad framework. It is even more important to talk with people from these cultures and study in more depth to understand the variations and nuances that are critical for successful business in different cultural settings. The StereotypesThe Stereotypes
    • Here are some samples of dilemma that your company/organisation might face: 1 Your country believes in gender equality. What happens when a woman from your country is treated by locals as a second-class citizen, following that country’s customs? What obligations does her company have to her? How should she respond? 2 Your company has strict rules on receiving gifts. However, in the country in which you are working, it is customary to exchange gifts. Without offending your business partners (distributors, suppliers, etc.), what should you do? What should your company do? 3 The company overseas subsidiary to which you are posted appears to be taking advantage of the excess of qualified workers seeking employment even though your company provides much sought after employment. Your conscience is bothered. What should you do? What rights and obligations does your company have in such a situation? The StereotypesThe Stereotypes
    • What can we do to avoid stereotypes?What can we do to avoid stereotypes? The StereotypesThe Stereotypes
    • TheThe Intercultural Training inIntercultural Training in PolandPoland The Culture&BusinessThe Culture&Business B U S I N E S S A N D D E V E L O P M E N T C E N T E RB U S I N E S S A N D D E V E L O P M E N T C E N T E R ul. Kurpiowska 5/77, 35-620 Rzeszów, Poland, tel./fax +4817 857 85 25, e-mail: bdc@bdcenter.pl, www. bdcenter.pl
    • CHINA Business practices in China The exchanging of business cards in customary in Chinese business culture. One side should be printed in English and one in Chinese. You should present your card with both hands and with the Chinese side facing up. When accepting your colleague's card study it carefully before placing it on the table, never in the back pocket, as this is extremely disrespectful. During negotiations, humbleness and patience is the key to success. The Chinese sense of time means that they use it knowingly and there is always enough. In most cases, initial meetings may be more of a social opportunity as oppose to a negotiation discussion. An important element before commencing a business meeting in China is to engage in small talk. Be prepared, as this may include quite personal questions. The Culture&BusinessThe Culture&Business Based on „Intercultural Communication” by Jodie R. Gorrill, M.A.
    • CHINA (Part two) Chinese business etiquette (Do's and Don'ts)  DO maintain eye contact with your interlocutor, avoiding eye contact is considered untrustworthy.  DO address your Chinese counterparts with a title and their last name. If the person does not have a title, use ‘Mr' or ‘Madam'.  DO wait for your Chinese counterpart to initiate formal greetings. Handshakes are the most popular gesture.  DON'T assume that a nod is a sign of agreement. More often than not, it signifies that the person is simply listening.  DON'T show excessive emotion whilst conducting business, as it may seem unfriendly  DON'T use direct negative replies, as they are considered impolite. Instead of saying ‘no', answer ‘maybe' or ‘I'll think about it.‘ The Culture&BusinessThe Culture&Business Based on „Intercultural Communication” by Jodie R. Gorrill, M.A.
    • INDIA Business practices in India Meetings in India will generally begin with friendly small talk. This may include personal questions about your family and is seen as a way of building rapport and trust before business. In India, the family unit is highly valued, therefore showing interest and respect towards your Indian counterpart's family is vital for establishing successful relationships. In Indian culture disagreement is rarely expressed in a direct manner. The word ‘no' is often avoided and is replaced by other non-verbal cues and indirect communication. The Culture&BusinessThe Culture&Business Based on „Intercultural Communication” by Jodie R. Gorrill, M.A.
    • INDIA Indian business etiquette (Do's and Don'ts)  DO use titles wherever possible, such as “Professor” or “Doctor”. If your Indian counterpart does not have a title, use “Mr”, “Mrs”, or “Miss”.  DO wait for a female business colleague to initiate the greeting. Indian men do not generally shake hands with women out of respect.  DO remain polite and honest at all times in order to prove that your objectives are sincere.  DON'T be aggressive in your business negotiations – it can show disrespect.  DON'T take large or expensive gifts as this may cause embarrassment. If you do take a gift make sure you present the gift with both hands.  DON'T refuse any food or drink offered to you during business meetings as this may cause offence. In addition, it is useful to bear in mind that traditionally, Indians are vegetarians and do not drink alcohol The Culture&BusinessThe Culture&Business Based on „Intercultural Communication” by Jodie R. Gorrill, M.A.
    • JAPAN Business practices in Japan Business in Japan cannot begin until the exchange of business cards or ‘meishi' has been completed. Use both hands to present your card, which should be printed in both languages. On receiving your counterpart's business card make a show of examining it carefully before placing it on the table. It is important to deal with another's business card with care. A significant part of former Japanese business protocol was gift giving. In contemporary Japanese business culture, although not expected, the gesture is still practiced and will be accepted with gratitude. However, be careful not to take too big a gift as it may be regarded as a bribe. It is good business practice to engage in small talk before negotiations. Expect your Japanese counterpart to ask questions regarding your education, family and social life. More private questions are not acceptable. In Japanese business protocol contracts are not necessarily final agreements or a sign that business in over. In Japan, looking after partners or clients even after business is very important. Aftercare and long-term relationships are positively encouraged. The Culture&BusinessThe Culture&Business Based on „Intercultural Communication” by Jodie R. Gorrill, M.A.
    • JAPAN Japanese business etiquette (Do's and Don'ts)  DO use apologies where the intention is serious and express gratitude frequently as it is considered polite in Japan.  DO avoid confrontation or showing negative emotions during business negations. Express opinions openly but evade direct or aggressive refusals.  DO greet your counterparts with the proper respect and politeness. If your counterpart bows make sure you return the gesture, which is usually performed shortly and shallowly. More often than not, a handshake is sufficient.  DON'T give excessive praise or encouragement to a single Japanese colleague in front of others. Remember that the group is often more important than the individual.  DON'T address your Japanese counterpart by their first name unless invited to do so. Use the titles ‘Mr' or ‘Mrs' or add ‘san' to their family name; for example, Mr Hiroshima will be “Hiroshima san”  DON'T use large hand gestures, unusual facial expressions or dramatic movements. The Japanese do not talk with their hands. The Culture&BusinessThe Culture&Business Based on „Intercultural Communication” by Jodie R. Gorrill, M.A.
    • RUSSIA Business practices in Russia Business cards are essential. If possible, ensure that one side is printed in Russian and one side in English. Presentations should be straightforward and comprehensible. Although many principal concerns are discussed in an informal environment final negotiations will be conducted in the office. Generally, when beginning a meeting, the head of the organisation will open the discussion and introductions should then be made in order of importance. The Culture&BusinessThe Culture&Business Based on „Intercultural Communication” by Jodie R. Gorrill, M.A.
    • RUSSIA Russian business etiquette (Do's and Don'ts)  DO shake hands firmly when greeting and leaving your Russian partners and make direct eye contact.  DO partake in small talk, which normally involves talk of family and personal matters, before dealing with business.  DO take a gift that symbolizes the stature of your company and the importance of the impending business deal, preferably an item characteristic of your local area or one that displays the company logo.  DON'T be afraid to show some emotion, the Russians won't!  DON'T as the Russian proverb states ‘hurry to reply', but ‘hurry to listen'.  DON'T praise or reward anyone in public as it may be viewed with suspicion or cause envy and jealousy. Remember the collective rules over the individual. The Culture&BusinessThe Culture&Business Based on „Intercultural Communication” by Jodie R. Gorrill, M.A.
    • FRANCE Business practices in France In French business culture it is customary to only use first names when invited to do so. Sometimes the French will introduce themselves by saying their surname first, followed by their Christian name. Lunch is the best place to forge business relationships in France. The subject of business, however, should only be brought up by the host and at a later stage in the meal. A business meeting should begin and end with a brisk handshake accompanied by an appropriate greeting and the exchanging of business cards. Despite the formality of French business culture, it is not uncommon practice to stray from the agenda during meetings. Initial meetings are often dedicated to information sharing and discussion, rather than reaching final decisions. The Culture&BusinessThe Culture&Business Based on „Intercultural Communication” by Jodie R. Gorrill, M.A.
    • FRANCE Business etiquette (Do’s and Don’ts)  DO maintain a constant air of formality and reserve during all business practices and at all levels within the business, using titles wherever possible.  DO make direct but moderate eye contact with your French business colleagues.  DO try to learn a few basic French phrases and use them whenever possible. Your efforts will not go unnoticed.  DON’T discuss your family or other personal matters during negotiations.  DON’T be put off by frequent differences in opinion and rigorous debate during business negotiations. The French will appreciate your ability to defend your position.  DON’T rush or display signs of impatience with your French counterparts. The French take their time before arriving at a decision. The Culture&BusinessThe Culture&Business Based on „Intercultural Communication” by Jodie R. Gorrill, M.A.
    • THE UNITED KONGDOM Business practices in the UK Business meetings in the UK are often structured but not too formal and begin and end with social conversation. First names are used almost immediately with all colleagues. Exceptions are very senior managers. However, you should always wait to be invited to use first names before doing so yourself. Business cards are an essential prop and are usually exchanged. Negotiations and decisions are usually open and flexible. Your British counterparts will favour a win/win approach. The Culture&BusinessThe Culture&Business Based on „Intercultural Communication” by Jodie R. Gorrill, M.A.
    • THE UNITED KONGDOM British business etiquette (Do's and Don'ts)  DO respect personal space. The British value their space and keeping an acceptable distance is advised.  DO remember to shake hands on first meetings. It is considered polite to do so.  DO make direct eye-contact with your British counterpart, however remember to keep it to a minimum or it could be considered impolite or rude.  DON'T ask personal questions regarding your British counterpart's background, occupation or income.  DON'T underestimate the importance of humour in all aspects of business in the UK.  DON'T forget that instructions are often disguised as polite requests. The Culture&BusinessThe Culture&Business Based on „Intercultural Communication” by Jodie R. Gorrill, M.A.
    • GERMAN Business practices First names are generally only used with family and close friends and colleagues. Therefore, always use last names and appropriate titles. You will often find that colleagues who have worked together for years still maintain this level of formality. Business meetings follow a formal procedure. German managers work from precise and detailed agendas, which are usually followed rigorously; moreover, meetings always aim for decisive outcomes and results, rather than providing a forum for open and general discussion. German business protocol requires that colleagues should be greeted with a firm, but brief, handshake on both arrival and departure. In German business dealings, it is important to provide solid facts and examples to back up proposals, given the German preference for analytical thinking and rational explanations. The Culture&BusinessThe Culture&Business Based on „Intercultural Communication” by Jodie R. Gorrill, M.A.
    • GERMAN Business Etiquette (Do’s and Don’ts)  DO take plenty of business cards with you and ensure they include full details of your background, qualifications, and titles.  DO maintain direct eye-contact when addressing German colleagues, especially during initial introductions.  DO use the formal version of you (“Sie”), unless someone specifically invites you to use the informal “Du” form. It is usually best to let your German counterpart take the initiative of proposing the informal form of address (this implies readiness to develop a personal relationship).  DON’T discuss personal matters during business negotiations, as this is considered to deviate from the task at hand.  DON’T attempt to continue negotiations after a contract has been signed. Your German colleagues may view this with suspicion, which could lead to an unsuccessful business agreement.  DON’T use exaggerated or indirect communication styles during business meetings with you German counterparts. It creates an impression of insincerity and dishonesty. The Culture&BusinessThe Culture&Business Based on „Intercultural Communication” by Jodie R. Gorrill, M.A.
    • SPAIN Business practices The decision-making process in Spain is usually unhurried and can be a gradual, detailed procedure that involves consideration from various levels within the company. In this respect, maintaining good relationships with your Spanish counterparts from all positions are vital for success. When arriving at an appointment it is advised to present your business card to the receptionist. Wherever possible, business cards should be printed in English on one side and in Spanish on the other. You should present your card with the Spanish side facing the recipient. An initial introduction at both business and social meetings generally include a formal handshake whilst making direct eye contact and is extended to everyone present, male and female. The Culture&BusinessThe Culture&Business Based on „Intercultural Communication” by Jodie R. Gorrill, M.A.
    • SPAIN Business etiquette (Do's and Don'ts)  DO remain patient in all dealings with your Spanish counterparts. The Spanish are sometimes noted for their relaxed approach to business and Spanish bureaucracy can be frustrating. However, be wary of the ‘mañana' stereotype as you will find that certainly in the northern regions such as Catalonia and the Basque Country that deadlines and punctuality are much more closely adhered to.  DO try to maintain a friendly and personal atmosphere during negotiations. In order to be effective in Spain, Spanish business culture also requires a sense of self-dignity, consideration and diplomacy.  DON'T expect to enter into business discussions at the start of a meeting. Your Spanish colleagues will want to establish a familiar environment on which to build new business relationships. This may include asking personal questions regarding your family life and background.  DON'T presume that business can be explicitly discussed over meals, it is generally considered a sociable activity and therefore you should wait until your Spanish colleagues initiate such conversation.  DON'T display signs of over assertiveness or superiority. Your Spanish counterparts will appreciate a more modest approach to business negotiations. The Culture&BusinessThe Culture&Business Based on „Intercultural Communication” by Jodie R. Gorrill, M.A.
    • THE USA Business practices in the United States It is customary to begin and end business meetings with a brief but firm handshake. Maintaining direct eye contact during this initial greeting and whenever in conversation is also essential, as it demonstrates to your American colleagues your interest and sincerity. The exchanging of business cards is a casual affair in the US and as such demands no clear ritual or set of rules. Americans regard business cards as a resource for future information. On the occasions when they are exchanged, it may be done either during introductions or when leaving. During negotiations, it is important to remember that the aim of most business discussions in the US is to arrive at a signed contract. Americans consider negotiations as problem-solving situations based on mutual benefit and personal strengths. Subsequently, emphasis is placed on one’s financial position and business power. When doing business in the US, you will be expected to adhere to rules and guidelines that your US business counterparts must also follow. Company policy and business procedures such as legally binding contracts, are aspects of American business culture that require strict compliancy. The Culture&BusinessThe Culture&Business Based on „Intercultural Communication” by Jodie R. Gorrill, M.A.
    • THE USA American business etiquette (Do's and Don'ts)  DO address your American business colleagues with a title, such as “Dr”, “Ms”, “Mr”, or “Mrs”, and their last name when meeting someone for the first time. You may find that, your American counterparts will insist on using first names almost immediately; this is not a sign of familiarity but simply reflects the casual business style of Americans and their emphasis on equality.  DO say “please” and “thank you” to everyone for even the smallest kindness. Politeness is highly valued in the United States and Americans will expect you to be as polite as they are.  DO be prepared to partake in preliminary small talk with your American counterparts at the beginning of a business meeting. This will often include topics such as sport or the weather and is seen as a way to lessen apprehension and create a comfortable environment before entering into business affairs.  DON’T expect all companies to be the same. Business culture in the US differs from company to company on many levels, including industry, region and business structure. It is advised to research as much as possible about the individual business culture of your American associates before meeting with them.  DON’T make any other form of physical contact such as hugging when greeting your American counterpart for the first time. Americans respect their privacy and personal space.  DON’T be offended or surprised if your American colleagues cannot accept a gift. Gift giving is often discouraged or limited by many US companies and therefore most employees are unable to accept them. The Culture&BusinessThe Culture&Business Based on „Intercultural Communication” by Jodie R. Gorrill, M.A.
    • CHINA Answers 1. False. He is simply asking you how you are and enquiring after your health. 2. False. This is a symbol of death used at funerals and should never be done. 3. True. 4. True. 5. False. You are expected to leave before them. The Culture quizThe Culture quiz Based on „Intercultural Communication” by Jodie R. Gorrill, M.A.
    • INDIA Answers 1. False. It is a visual way to communicate to the speaker that you understand what they are saying or that you agree with him. 2. True. 3. False. It is customary to greet the oldest members first as a sign of respect. 4. True. 5. False. The correct way is to hold your hands together below your chin, nod or bow slightly, and say “namaste". However, handshakes are also appropriate in contemporary Indian culture. The Culture quizThe Culture quiz Based on „Intercultural Communication” by Jodie R. Gorrill, M.A.
    • JAPAN Answers 1. False. The most senior member of the team generally enters the room first, followed by his subordinates in order of rank. The least senior member will sit closest to the door. 2. True. 3. False. Silence is often used as part of the thought process and is never thought of as uncomfortable. 4. True. It is generally used when it is not known what feelings to express. 5. True. It is a positive sign that you are enjoying it! The Culture quizThe Culture quiz Based on „Intercultural Communication” by Jodie R. Gorrill, M.A.
    • RUSSIA Answers 1. False. It is considered bad luck to shake hands over a threshold and should be done either inside or outside. 2. True. Even numbers of flowers are only given at funerals and are a sign of bad luck. 3. True. A Russian superstition that is still present today. 4. True. 5. False. The Western sign for ‘OK' is considered rude in Russia. The Culture quizThe Culture quiz Based on „Intercultural Communication” by Jodie R. Gorrill, M.A.
    • FRANCE Answers 1. True. 2. False. A French host will be expected to carefully choose the wine to match the meal. 3. False. Interrupting is a sign that you are interested in what your business colleagues have to say. 4. True. 5. False. Leaving food on your plate is considered impolite. The Culture quizThe Culture quiz Based on „Intercultural Communication” by Jodie R. Gorrill, M.A.
    • THE UNITED KONGDOM Answers 1. True. It is important to respect rank in the UK. 2. False. Asking about another's salary in the UK is particularly offensive and should never be done. 3. True. 4. False. Never arrive early. It is advised to arrive 10-20 minutes after the stated time when visiting someone's home. 5. True. The Culture quizThe Culture quiz Based on „Intercultural Communication” by Jodie R. Gorrill, M.A.
    • GERMAN Answers 1. True 2. True. 3. False. It is customary for everyone to wait until the host has drunk first. 4. True. 5. False. You will generally find that Germans are very private people and will therefore keep their office doors closed. The Culture quizThe Culture quiz Based on „Intercultural Communication” by Jodie R. Gorrill, M.A.
    • SPAIN Answers 1. False. Employees from varying levels within a company rarely mix during business lunches. 2. True. 3. True. 4. True. 5. False. In Spain, gifts are not normally exchanged at business meetings. However, if they are given, it is usually only after the successful completion of a deal. The Culture quizThe Culture quiz Based on „Intercultural Communication” by Jodie R. Gorrill, M.A.
    • THE USA Answers 1. True. 2. True. 3. False. Building company as oppose to personal relationships and getting the best deal are valued higher in American business culture. 4. True 5. False. This gesture is often used to show camaraderie, appreciation or praise in America and as such should be taken as a compliment. The Culture quizThe Culture quiz Based on „Intercultural Communication” by Jodie R. Gorrill, M.A.
    • TheThe Intercultural Training inIntercultural Training in PolandPoland THANK YOU FOR YOURTHANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTIONATTENTION B U S I N E S S A N D D E V E L O P M E N T C E N T E RB U S I N E S S A N D D E V E L O P M E N T C E N T E R ul. Kurpiowska 5/77, 35-620 Rzeszów, Poland, tel./fax +4817 857 85 25, e-mail: bdc@bdcenter.pl, www. bdcenter.pl