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  • 1. Miguel HodgesGRAMMAR BOOK
  • 2. TABLE OF CONTENTSContent Slide number Present –ar, -er, -ir endings 3-4 Stem changers 5 Irregular “yo” 6 Saber vs. Conocer 7 Reflexives 8 “Se” impersonal 9 Dipthongs with accents 10 Verbs like -ger/-gir, -uir/-guir, -cer/-cir 11 Hace +____+ que +______ 12 Imperfecto 13 Preterite 14-
  • 3. PRESENT TENSE –AR/-ER/-IR In the present tense for verbs ending in –ar Person talked about Replaces -ar at the end Yo o Tú as Él/Ella/Usted a Nosotros amos Ellos/Ellas/Ustedes an In the present tense for verbs ending in -er Person talked about Replaces -er at the end Yo o Tú es Él/Ella/Usted E Nosotros emos Ellos/Ellas/Ustedes en
  • 4. PRESENT TENSE –AR/-ER/-IR CONT’D In the present tense for verbs ending in -ir Person talked about Replaces -ei at the end Yo o Tú Es Él/Ella/Usted E Nosotros imos Ellos/Ellas/Ustedes en
  • 5. STEM CHANGERS Also called “Boot verbs” it changes in all but nosotros. More than just the ending changes. The vowel in the stem changes. 3 catergories. eie, o ue, and ei. Common e ie verbs- Tener, Preferir Common oue verbs- Dormir, Poder, Jugar *Common ei verbs- Decir, Repetir, Servir. * This stem change only happens in –Ir verbs!
  • 6. IRREGULAR “YO” FORM caber (to fit) yo quepo  poner (to put, to place)yo caer (to fall) yo caigo pongo conducir (to drive) yo  saber (to know something - conduzco a fact)yo sé conocer (to know,) yo  salir (to leave)yo salgo conozco  seguir (to follow)yo sigo escoger (to choose )yo  traer (to bring)yo traigo escojo  valer (to be worth)yo valgo dirigir (to direct) yo dirijo  ver (to see)yo veo hacer (to do, to make) yo hago
  • 7. SABER VS. CONOCER When using saber it mean that you know a fact or how to do something. When using conocer it means you know a person or are familiar with something.
  • 8. REFLEXIVES When refering to a person doing an action. Person talked about Reflexive pronoun Yo Me Tú Te Él/Ella/Usted Se Nosotros Nos Ellos/Ellas/Ustedes Se
  • 9. “SE” IMPERSONAL When using an impersonal voice like “How do you spell truck?” in Spanish you place “se” in front to make it a general statements.
  • 10. DIPTHONGS WITH ACCENTSHere are some fairly common words that include diphthongs : puerto, tierra, siete, hay, cuida, ciudad, labio, hacia, paisano, canción, Europa, aire.
  • 11. VERBS LIKE GER/GIR, UIR/GUIR, CER/CIR For verbs that end in ger/gir, In the first person change the g to a j. In guir verbs, in the yo form the gu changes to g. In uir verbs add a y before a, e and, o. For cer/cir verbs, in the yo form, change the c to a z.
  • 12. HACE+ ______+QUE+_____ The second blank is to be filled with a verb in either the present or preterite form. The First Black is filled with an expression of time
  • 13. IMPERFECTO A past tense form for events without a specific time. For –er/-ir endings For –ar endings Person talked about Replaces -ar at the Person talked Replaces -ar at the end about end Yo ía Yo aba Tú Ías Tú abas Él/Ella/Usted Ía Él/Ella/Usted aba Nosotros Íamos Nosotros ábamos Ellos/Ellas/Ustedes ían Ellos/Ellas/Ustedes aban Trigger words Irregulars Trigger Words Translation Ser Ir Ver a menudo Often Era iba Veía A veces Sometimes Eras Ibas Veías Cada dia everyday Era Iba Veía Cada año Every year Con frecuencia frequently éramos Íbamos Veíamos generalmente Usually Erais Ibais Veíais siempre always eran Iban veían
  • 14. PRETERITE TENSE IRREGULARS In irregular car,gar, zar verbs only the yo form changes. Gar g to gu car c to qu zar z to c Spock Verbs Hacer Ir/Ser Dar/Ver Yo Fui D/V -i Hice Tú Fuiste D/V –iste Hiciste El/Ella/Usted Fue D/V –io Hizo Nosotros Fuimos D/V –imos Hicimos Ustedes/Ello Fueron D/V- ieron Hicieron s /Ellas
  • 15. IRREGULAR PRETERITE CONT’DAndar Anduv-Estar Estuv-Poder Pud-Poner Pus-Querer Quis- -eSaber Sup- -isteTener Tuv- -oVener Vin- -imosConducir Conduj- -ieronProducir Produj-Traducir Traduj-Decir Dij-Traer Traj-
  • 16. PRETERITE IRREGULAR In snake Verbs only the El/Ella/Usted form and Ellos/Ellas/Ustedes for changes Snakeys verbs are also like this except the I in these forms changes to a y Dormí Leí Dormiste Leiste Durmió Leyo Dormimos Leimos Durmieron leyeron Snakes Snakeys Preterite Trigger Words el otro día the other day el año pasado last year Ayer yesterday una vez once Anoche last night la semana pasada last week
  • 17. COMPARATIVES AND SUPERLATIVES To form the comparisons of equality using adjectives or adverbs, use the following formula: tan + adjective (adverb) + como To form comparisons of equality with nouns, use the following formula: tanto(-a,-os,-as) + noun + como In Spanish, inequality is expressed by using one of the following formulae: más (menos) + adjective + que más (menos) + adverb + que más (menos) + noun + que The absolute superlative for adjectives has three possible forms. muy + adjective sumamente + adjective adjective + ísimo (-a, -os, -as) In Spanish, the relative superlative construction is similar to the comparative. definite article + noun + más (menos) + adjective + de
  • 18. FUTURO The future tense is used to tell what "will" happen, or what "shall" happen. Regular verbs in the future tense are conjugated by adding the following endings to the infinitive form of the verb: -é, -ás, -á, - emos, -éis, -án
  • 19. FUTURO Irregulars Trigger wordsDecir Dir- MañanaHaber Habr- Pasado mañanaHacer Har- Año que vienePoder Podr- Año proximoPoner Pondr es un/ dos/tres horasQuerer Querr-Saber Sabr-Salir Saldr-Tener Tendr-Valer Valdr-Venir Vendr-
  • 20. PRETERITE V. IMPERFECTPreterite is an action that has definite beginning and end.Imperfect has not definite beginning or end.
  • 21. FUTURE V. CONDITIONAL Future tense is used when you could say “I will” in english. Such as I will go to the movies( Yo Iré a la cinema) Conditional Is used when you would say “Would, Should, or could”
  • 22. POR V. PARA Uses of por Uses of Para Motion or general Destination…toward, in the location…around through along by direction of, Duration of an action…for Deadline or a specific time during in in the future Reason or motive for an action . . . Purpose or goal + because of, on account of, on infinitive…. In order to behalf of Purpose + noun… for, Object of search used for Means by which something is Recipient of done… by, by way of, by means of something…for Exchange or substitution…in Comparison with others or exchange for an opinion… for, considering Unit of measure…per, by In the employ of…for
  • 23. POR V. PARA CONTD Por • Para Through portal • Destination Location Paraguay Portugal • Purpose Parasites Time Porever stay in our body to Cause of stay alive • To make an opinion Porpoise Paradon me Exchange export/ import
  • 24. COMMANDSNegative Tú Affirmative TúUsed to tell family young people, or friends not to do Telling family, friends or young people to do aa certain thing. certain thing.Formed by taking the yo form of a verb and replacing Formed by using the third person singularthe o with –as for er and ir verbs and –es for ar verbs Negative Usted Affirmative Usted Used to tell older people or higher ranking Used to tell older people or higher ranking people not to do something. people to do something. Formed by taking the yo form and replacing the Formed by taking the yo form and replacing o with a (Singular) or an (Plural) for eri and ir the o with a (Singular) or an (Plural) for eri and verbs and e (Singular) or en (Plural) for ar verbs ir verbs and e (Singular) or en (Plural) for ar verbs
  • 25. PRESENT PERFECT TENSE This form is used when you say” He/She has…” or “ I have…” or “We have been…..” So combining the auxiliary verb has or have with something done in the past. Haber changes to he has ha hemos Add ado to the end of ar verbs And ido to the end of ir and er verbs
  • 26. DIRECT OBJECT PRONOUNS Object that receives the action Me=me You=te Him, her or it= lo, la We=nos Them= los, las I have the pen= La tengo
  • 27. ADVERBS Usually words that end in ly in english ex.rapidly Mente is added to the end of the feminine form of the verb Tall=altamente Short=Bajamente
  • 28. SUBJUNTIVE Conjugated with opposite vowel Used for WEDDING W wish Irregulars Emotion Conducir conduzca Doubt Decir Diga Oir Oiga Denial Dar De Impersonal expressions Estar Este Negation Ir Vaya Guesses Saber Sepa Ser Sea Hacer Haya
  • 29. “SE” IMPERSONAL When using an impersonal voice like “How do you spell truck?” in Spanish you place “se” in front to make it a general statements.
  • 30. PROGRESSIVES USING IR, ANDAR, AND SEGUIR Ir+ present participle= is slowly but surely___ing Andar+present participle=is going around____ing Seguir+present participle= is still ____ing