Grammar book


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Grammar book

  1. 1. Miguel HodgesGRAMMAR BOOK
  2. 2. TABLE OF CONTENTSContent Slide number Present –ar, -er, -ir endings 1- 2 Stem changers 3 Irregular “yo” 4 Saber vs. Conocer 5 Reflexives 6 “Se” impersonal 7 Dipthongs with accents 8 Verbs like -ger/-gir, -uir/-guir, -cer/-cir 9 Hace +____+ que +______ 10 Imperfecto 11 Preterite 12- 14 Comparatives and Superlatives 15 Futuro 16-17
  3. 3. PRESENT TENSE –AR/-ER/-IR In the present tense for verbs ending in –ar Person talked about Replaces -ar at the end Yo o Tú as Él/Ella/Usted a Nosotros amos Ellos/Ellas/Ustedes an In the present tense for verbs ending in -er Person talked about Replaces -er at the end Yo o Tú es Él/Ella/Usted E Nosotros emos Ellos/Ellas/Ustedes en
  4. 4. PRESENT TENSE –AR/-ER/-IR CONT’D In the present tense for verbs ending in -ir Person talked about Replaces -ei at the end Yo o Tú Es Él/Ella/Usted E Nosotros imos Ellos/Ellas/Ustedes en
  5. 5. STEM CHANGERS Also called “Boot verbs” it changes in all but nosotros. More than just the ending changes. The vowel in the stem changes. 3 catergories. eie, o ue, and ei. Common e ie verbs- Tener, Preferir Common oue verbs- Dormir, Poder, Jugar *Common ei verbs- Decir, Repetir, Servir. * This stem change only happens in –Ir verbs!
  6. 6. IRREGULAR “YO” FORM caber (to fit) yo quepo  poner (to put, to place)yo caer (to fall) yo caigo pongo conducir (to drive) yo  saber (to know something - conduzco a fact)yo sé conocer (to know,) yo  salir (to leave)yo salgo conozco  seguir (to follow)yo sigo escoger (to choose )yo  traer (to bring)yo traigo escojo  valer (to be worth)yo valgo dirigir (to direct) yo dirijo  ver (to see)yo veo hacer (to do, to make) yo hago
  7. 7. SABER VS. CONOCER When using saber it mean that you know a fact or how to do something. When using conocer it means you know a person or are familiar with something.
  8. 8. REFLEXIVES When refering to a person doing an action. Person talked about Reflexive pronoun Yo Me Tú Te Él/Ella/Usted Se Nosotros Nos Ellos/Ellas/Ustedes Se
  9. 9. “SE” IMPERSONAL When using an impersonal voice like “How do you spell truck?” in Spanish you place “se” in front to make it a general statements.
  10. 10. DIPTHONGS WITH ACCENTSHere are some fairly common words that include diphthongs : puerto, tierra, siete, hay, cuida, ciudad, labio, hacia, paisano, canción, Europa, aire.
  11. 11. VERBS LIKE GER/GIR, UIR/GUIR, CER/CIR For verbs that end in ger/gir, In the first person change the g to a j. In guir verbs, in the yo form the gu changes to g. In uir verbs add a y before a, e and, o. For cer/cir verbs, in the yo form, change the c to a z.
  12. 12. HACE+ ______+QUE+_____ The second blank is to be filled with a verb in either the present or preterite form. The First Black is filled with an expression of time
  13. 13. IMPERFECTO A past tense form for events without a specific time. For –er/-ir endings For –ar endings Person talked about Replaces -ar at the Person talked Replaces -ar at the end about end Yo ía Yo aba Tú Ías Tú abas Él/Ella/Usted Ía Él/Ella/Usted aba Nosotros Íamos Nosotros ábamos Ellos/Ellas/Ustedes ían Ellos/Ellas/Ustedes aban Trigger words Irregulars Trigger Words Translation Ser Ir Ver a menudo Often Era iba Veía A veces Sometimes Eras Ibas Veías Cada dia everyday Era Iba Veía Cada año Every year Con frecuencia frequently éramos Íbamos Veíamos generalmente Usually Erais Ibais Veíais siempre always eran Iban veían
  14. 14. PRETERITE TENSE IRREGULARS In irregular car,gar, zar verbs only the yo form changes. Gar g to gu car c to qu zar z to c Spock Verbs Hacer Ir/Ser Dar/Ver Yo Fui D/V -i Hice Tú Fuiste D/V –iste Hiciste El/Ella/Usted Fue D/V –io Hizo Nosotros Fuimos D/V –imos Hicimos Ustedes/Ello Fueron D/V- ieron Hicieron s /Ellas
  15. 15. IRREGULAR PRETERITE CONT’DAndar Anduv-Estar Estuv-Poder Pud-Poner Pus-Querer Quis- -eSaber Sup- -isteTener Tuv- -oVener Vin- -imosConducir Conduj- -ieronProducir Produj-Traducir Traduj-Decir Dij-Traer Traj-
  16. 16. PRETERITE IRREGULAR In snake Verbs only the El/Ella/Usted form and Ellos/Ellas/Ustedes for changes Snakeys verbs are also like this except the I in these forms changes to a y Dormí Leí Dormiste Leiste Durmió Leyo Dormimos Leimos Durmieron leyeron Snakes Snakeys Preterite Trigger Words el otro día the other day el año pasado last year Ayer yesterday una vez once Anoche last night la semana pasada last week
  17. 17. COMPARATIVES AND SUPERLATIVES To form the comparisons of equality using adjectives or adverbs, use the following formula: tan + adjective (adverb) + como To form comparisons of equality with nouns, use the following formula: tanto(-a,-os,-as) + noun + como In Spanish, inequality is expressed by using one of the following formulae: más (menos) + adjective + que más (menos) + adverb + que más (menos) + noun + que The absolute superlative for adjectives has three possible forms. muy + adjective sumamente + adjective adjective + ísimo (-a, -os, -as) In Spanish, the relative superlative construction is similar to the comparative. definite article + noun + más (menos) + adjective + de
  18. 18. FUTURO The future tense is used to tell what "will" happen, or what "shall" happen. Regular verbs in the future tense are conjugated by adding the following endings to the infinitive form of the verb: -é, -ás, -á, - emos, -éis, -án
  19. 19. FUTURO Irregulars Trigger wordsDecir Dir- MañanaHaber Habr- Pasado mañanaHacer Har- Año que vienePoder Podr- Año proximoPoner Pondr es un/ dos/tres horasQuerer Querr-Saber Sabr-Salir Saldr-Tener Tendr-Valer Valdr-Venir Vendr-