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section 4,chapter 2

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carbohydrates, lipids, chemistry

carbohydrates, lipids, chemistry

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section 4,chapter 2 section 4,chapter 2 Presentation Transcript

  • Section 4, Chapter 2 Organic Molecules
  • Organic Molecules Molecules that contain carbon Organic Synthesis Small molecules (monomers) join together to form larger molecules (polymers) Monomer portion of a polymer
  • Covalent Bonds formed by Carbon C 12.01 6 Atomic Number of Carbon = 6 2 electrons in 1st shell 4 electrons in 2nd shell Note there are 4 empty spaces in the 2nd shell available for covalent bonds.
  • Examples of covalent bonds formed by carbon Carbon can form 4 covalent bonds Carbon can also form double or even triple bonds Carbon to Carbon bonds can form long chains hydrocarbon
  • Polymers and Monomers Large organic molecules, called polymers consist of repeating subunits, called monomers. Example: Starch is a polysaccharide composed of many glucose molecules (monosaccharides) joined together.
  • major organic macromolecules of the cell Monomer Polymer Monosaccharide (simple sugars) Disaccharides (double sugars) Polysaccharides (complex carbohydrates) Amino Acids Proteins Fatty Acids + Glycerol Fats* *Not truly a polymer Nucleotides Nucleic Acids
  • Carbohydrates Simple carbohydrates = sugars Monosaccharides Disaccharides Complex Carbohydrates Also called Polysaccharides Composed of several simple carbohydrates
  • monosaccharides Twice as many Hydrogen as Oxygen atoms Example: Glucose (C6H12O6)
  • disaccharides 2 monosaccharides bonded together Examples of disaccharides
  • polysaccharide Built of simple carbohydrates
  • examples of polysaccharides Starch – easily digested Cellulose- Plant polysaccharide, indigestible by humans Glycogen – storage form of energy, synthesized by liver Glycogen
  • Glycerol Molecule OH (in red) represents sites of fatty acid attachments
  • Unsaturated fat