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section 3, chapter 3

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cell cycle and mitosis

cell cycle and mitosis

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  • 1. Stages of the Cell Cycle Interphase Mitosis Cytokinesis Cell Differentiation
  • 2. Interphase is a very active period of the cell’s life During interphase the cell grows and performs its routine functions Interphase can be divided into 3 sub-phases G1 phase (G = gap) S phase (S = synthesis) G2 phase
  • 3. G1 Phase The cell is active & grows during G1 phase G1 phase is followed by a restriction “checkpoint” that determines the cell’s fate: The cell may grow & divide The cell may remain active, but not divide The cell may undergo apoptosis = programmed cell death S Phase DNA synthesis occurs during S phase The cell replicates its DNA in preparation of cell division S phase
  • 4. Each cell in the body contains 46 chromosomes The 46 chromosomes are paired (diploid) 23 paternal (father) + 23 maternal (mother)
  • 5. Cell Division - produces 2 daughter cells from 1 cell Mitosis specifically refers to the division of a cell’s chromosomes. Karyokinesis is the division of the nucleus Cytokinesis is the division of the cytoplasm Mitosis occurs in Somatic (non-sex) cells – sex cells are formed from Meiosis Both daughter cells from mitosis retain the complete genome (46 chromosomes)
  • 6. There are 4 phases of mitosis 1. Prophase 2. Metaphase 3. Anaphase 4. Telophase Use PMAT to remember the order! Prophase Chromatin condenses into chromosomes Centrosomes move towards opposite poles of cell The nuclear envelope breaks down Spindle fibers arise from the centrosomes = asters
  • 7. Metaphase Spindle fibers attach to centromeres Chromosomes align along equator of cell Anaphase Spindle fibers shorten & pull on chromosomes Chromosomes separate & move towards opposite poles of cell Cytokinesis usually begins during anaphase
  • 8. Telophase Chromosomes complete migration Nuclear envelopes reform Chromosomes begin to unwind Cytokinesis completes Cytokinesis Division of Cytoplasm Begins during Anaphase & continues through Telophase Microfilament rings pinches off two cells from one End of Chapter 3