Chapter 8, Section 1

Joints
Joints, also called articulations, are functional junctions
between two bones
The science of joints is called arthrology.
...
Classification of Joints
Classifications based on amount of movement
1. Synarthrotic = immovable
2. Amphiarthrotic = sligh...
Fibrous Joints
There are three (3) types of fibrous joints:
• Syndesmosis
• Suture
• Gomphosis
1. Syndesmosis:
Bones are c...
Fibrous Joints
2. Suture:
• Thin layer of dense
connective tissue
• Connects flat bones of the
skull (sutural ligaments)
•...
Cartilaginous Joints
• There are two (2) types of cartilaginous joints:
• Synchondrosis
• Symphysis
1. Synchondrosis
• Bon...
Cartilaginous Joints
2. Symphysis
• A pad of fibrocartilage
between two bones
•

Examples include the pubic
symphysis and ...
General Structure of Synovial Joints
Synovial Joints are Freely movable (Diarthrotic)
Structures include:
• Articular cart...
General Structure of Synovial Joints
Structures include:
• Ligaments – bundles of
collagenous fibers that
reinforce the jo...
Types of Synovial Joints
1. Ball-and-socket
•
•
•
•

rounded head + cup-shaped socket.
Movement in all planes (multi-axial...
Types of Synovial Joints
3. Plane (Gliding) Joint
• Flattened bones slide across each
other
• Includes carpals and tarsals...
Types of Synovial Joints
5. Pivot Joint
• Rotation around a central axis
(uni-axial)
• Joint between radius and ulna
• Joi...
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section 1, chapter 8: joints

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section 1, chapter 8: joints

  1. 1. Chapter 8, Section 1 Joints
  2. 2. Joints, also called articulations, are functional junctions between two bones The science of joints is called arthrology. Functions of joints 1. Bind skeleton together 2. Enable body movements 3. Makes growth possible 4. Permit changes in skeleton for childbirth
  3. 3. Classification of Joints Classifications based on amount of movement 1. Synarthrotic = immovable 2. Amphiarthrotic = slightly moveable 3. Diarthrotic = fully movable Classifications by types of tissue: 1. Fibrous joint = dense connective tissue 2. Cartilaginous joint = bones connected by cartilage 3. Synovial joint = contains a synovial membrane
  4. 4. Fibrous Joints There are three (3) types of fibrous joints: • Syndesmosis • Suture • Gomphosis 1. Syndesmosis: Bones are connected by a sheet or bundle of fibrous tissue. Examples include the interosseous membrane and interosseous ligaments between the tibia and fibula. Interosseous membrane between tibia and fibula is a syndesmosis joint.
  5. 5. Fibrous Joints 2. Suture: • Thin layer of dense connective tissue • Connects flat bones of the skull (sutural ligaments) •Synarthrotic 3. Gomphosis: • Cone-shaped bony process in a bony socket • Example includes a tooth anchored into a bony socket
  6. 6. Cartilaginous Joints • There are two (2) types of cartilaginous joints: • Synchondrosis • Symphysis 1. Synchondrosis • Bones are united by a band of hyaline cartilage. • Located between manubrium of sternum & 1st rib • Also located at epiphyseal plates of developing bone • Movement is synarthrotic
  7. 7. Cartilaginous Joints 2. Symphysis • A pad of fibrocartilage between two bones • Examples include the pubic symphysis and intervertebral discs • Movement is amphiarthrotic.
  8. 8. General Structure of Synovial Joints Synovial Joints are Freely movable (Diarthrotic) Structures include: • Articular cartilage • Synovial membrane – secretes synovial fluid • Joint cavity – filled with synovial fluid • Joint capsule – dense connective tissue that stabilizes and protects joint Figure 8.7 The generalized structure of a synovial joint.
  9. 9. General Structure of Synovial Joints Structures include: • Ligaments – bundles of collagenous fibers that reinforce the joint capsule • Menisci (sing. Meniscus) – pad of fibrocartilage that separates some joints. • Bursa – sac filled with synovial fluid. • Bursitis = inflammation of bursa Figure 8.8 Menisci separate the articulating surfaces of the femur and tibia. Several bursae are associated with the knee joint.
  10. 10. Types of Synovial Joints 1. Ball-and-socket • • • • rounded head + cup-shaped socket. Movement in all planes (multi-axial). Allows for rotation Includes hip joint and shoulder joint. 2. Condylar joint • • • • Oval condyle + elliptical socket Movements in most planes (bi-axial) No rotational movement Joints between metacarpals and phalanges/
  11. 11. Types of Synovial Joints 3. Plane (Gliding) Joint • Flattened bones slide across each other • Includes carpals and tarsals • ribs 2-7 articulate with sternum 4. Hinge joint • Increases or decreases angel between bones • Includes elbow joint • Joints between phalanges
  12. 12. Types of Synovial Joints 5. Pivot Joint • Rotation around a central axis (uni-axial) • Joint between radius and ulna • Joint between atlas (C1) and axis (C2). 6. Saddle Joint • 2 concave bones positioned at right angles • Includes metacarpal and carpal of thumb End of Chapter 8, Section 1
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