Section 1, chapter 2
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Section 1, chapter 2

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anatomy and physiology

anatomy and physiology
chemistry

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    Section 1, chapter 2 Section 1, chapter 2 Presentation Transcript

    • A clear understanding of chemistry is essential for the study of physiology. This is because organ functions depends on cellular functions, which occur as a result of chemical reactions. Watson & Crick first proposed the double helix structure of DNA
    • Biochemistry = Chemistry of living things Matter = Anything that has mass and takes up space (Solids, liquids, gasses) Element = Fundamental substance of matter (e.g. Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen) Compound = Two or more different elements chemically bonded together (e.g. H2O = water, C6H12O6 = glucose) Molecule = two or more atoms chemically joined together. Molecules may be compounds (H2O = water molecule), or Molecules may be of the same element (H2= hydrogen molecule)
    • Our body consists of 11 bulk elements and 7 trace elements. Bulk elements make up 99.9% of our body: Hydrogen (H) Nitrogen (N) Sodium (Na) Chlorine (Cl) Oxygen (O) Sulfur (S) Potassium (K) Phosphorus (P) Carbon (C) Magnesium (Mg) Calcium (Ca) Trace elements make up less than 0.1% of our body: Cobalt (Co) Zinc (Zn) Manganese (Mn) Iron (Fe) Iodine (I) Copper (Cu) Fluorine (F) Learn each bulk element and trace element along with their atomic symbols shown in parentheses
    • All elements are arranged onto a Periodic table
    • Atoms Atoms are the smallest particles of an element that still have the properties of that element. Atoms are composted of 3 subatomic particles: Proton – carries a single positive charge Neutron – carries no electrical charge Electron – carries a single negative charge An atom contains a central nucleus composed of protons and neutrons. Electrons orbit the nucleus.
    • Subatomic Particles Electrical Charge: Proton: +1 charge. Electron: -1 charge. Neutron: 0 charge Atomic Mass: Proton: 1 dalton Neutron: 1 dalton Electron: 0 Most atoms contain equal number of protons and electrons, so an atom contains no overall net charge and is neutral.
    • Subatomic Particles Atomic Number: The number of protons in one atom. Atomic number identifies an element. Example. The atomic number of oxygen is 8. Oxygen, and only oxygen has 8 protons. Atomic Weight: The sum of protons and neutrons in one atom. Remember, the weight of electrons is negligible.
    • Isotopes Isotopes are atoms with the same atomic number, but different atomic weights. Isotopes occur because the number of neutrons of an element varies between atoms. Two isotopes of oxygen: Oxygen 16 (O16) Oxygen 17 (O17) protons: 8 electrons: 8 protons: 8 electrons: 8 neutrons: 8 neutrons: 9 Atomic Number: 8 8 Atomic Weight: 16 17 *The atomic weight of an element is an average of the isotopes present.
    • Understand the notations on a periodic table. End of Section 1, Chapter 2