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Modern neurosurgical practice
Modern neurosurgical practice
Modern neurosurgical practice
Modern neurosurgical practice
Modern neurosurgical practice
Modern neurosurgical practice
Modern neurosurgical practice
Modern neurosurgical practice
Modern neurosurgical practice
Modern neurosurgical practice
Modern neurosurgical practice
Modern neurosurgical practice
Modern neurosurgical practice
Modern neurosurgical practice
Modern neurosurgical practice
Modern neurosurgical practice
Modern neurosurgical practice
Modern neurosurgical practice
Modern neurosurgical practice
Modern neurosurgical practice
Modern neurosurgical practice
Modern neurosurgical practice
Modern neurosurgical practice
Modern neurosurgical practice
Modern neurosurgical practice
Modern neurosurgical practice
Modern neurosurgical practice
Modern neurosurgical practice
Modern neurosurgical practice
Modern neurosurgical practice
Modern neurosurgical practice
Modern neurosurgical practice
Modern neurosurgical practice
Modern neurosurgical practice
Modern neurosurgical practice
Modern neurosurgical practice
Modern neurosurgical practice
Modern neurosurgical practice
Modern neurosurgical practice
Modern neurosurgical practice
Modern neurosurgical practice
Modern neurosurgical practice
Modern neurosurgical practice
Modern neurosurgical practice
Modern neurosurgical practice
Modern neurosurgical practice
Modern neurosurgical practice
Modern neurosurgical practice
Modern neurosurgical practice
Modern neurosurgical practice
Modern neurosurgical practice
Modern neurosurgical practice
Modern neurosurgical practice
Modern neurosurgical practice
Modern neurosurgical practice
Modern neurosurgical practice
Modern neurosurgical practice
Modern neurosurgical practice
Modern neurosurgical practice
Modern neurosurgical practice
Modern neurosurgical practice
Modern neurosurgical practice
Modern neurosurgical practice
Modern neurosurgical practice
Modern neurosurgical practice
Modern neurosurgical practice
Modern neurosurgical practice
Modern neurosurgical practice
Modern neurosurgical practice
Modern neurosurgical practice
Modern neurosurgical practice
Modern neurosurgical practice
Modern neurosurgical practice
Modern neurosurgical practice
Modern neurosurgical practice
Modern neurosurgical practice
Modern neurosurgical practice
Modern neurosurgical practice
Modern neurosurgical practice
Modern neurosurgical practice
Modern neurosurgical practice
Modern neurosurgical practice
Modern neurosurgical practice
Modern neurosurgical practice
Modern neurosurgical practice
Modern neurosurgical practice
Modern neurosurgical practice
Modern neurosurgical practice
Modern neurosurgical practice
Modern neurosurgical practice
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Modern neurosurgical practice

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This lecture was presented the the Osteopathic students at Pacific Northwest University of Health Sciences. At the very beginning you will find operative videos that I recorded from some of my cases.

This lecture was presented the the Osteopathic students at Pacific Northwest University of Health Sciences. At the very beginning you will find operative videos that I recorded from some of my cases.

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Transcript

  • 1. MICHAEL THOMAS D.O.
  • 2. EDUCATIONAL REQUIREMENTS FUNCTIONAL NEUROANATOMY  NEUROPHYSIOLOGY  NEUROPATHOLOGY  NEUROPHARMACOLOGY  NEUROANESTHESIOLOGY  NEURORADIOLOGY  NEUROONOCOLOGY  NEUROTRAUMA  PEDIATRIC NEUROSURGERY 
  • 3. TERMINOLOGY      CRANIOTOMY- REMOVAL AND REPLACEMENT OF PART OF CRANIUM CRANIECTOMY- REMOVAL W/O REPLACEMENT OF PART OF CRANIUM LAMINOTOMY- REMOVAL OF PART OF LAMINA LAMINECTOMY- COMPLETE REMOVAL OF LAMINA BONE FLAP- THAT REGION OF CRANIUM REMOVED
  • 4. SURGICAL MICROSCOPE LEICA OH3
  • 5. MICROSCOPE TECHNOLOGY FLORESCENCE TECHNOLOGY FOR NEUROVASCULAR SURGERY
  • 6. FLORESCENCE TECHNOLOGY
  • 7. BRAIN LAB NEURONAVIGATION
  • 8. MICROSCOPE TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION WITH STEREOTACTIC NAVIGATION
  • 9. TENSOR FIBER TRACT IMAGE
  • 10. BRAIN LAB INTRAOPERATIVE MRI
  • 11. BRAIN LAB WITH FUNCTIONAL MRI MAPPING
  • 12. BRAIN LAB MAPPING AND FIBER TRACKING
  • 13. FUNCTIONAL MRI
  • 14. BRAIN LAB 3D RECONSTRUCTED IMAGE
  • 15. NEUROENDOSCOPY    VENTRICULAR ENDOSCOPY – PRIMARILY USED TO TREAT INTRAVENTRICULAR TUMORS AND HYDROCEPHALUS MAY BE USED TO ASSIST WITH DIFFICULT AND LIMITED OPERATIVE EXPOSURES -IE; ANEUYSM SURGERY, PITUITARY SURGERY ASSISTANCE WITH SPINAL SURGERY
  • 16. ENDOSCOPE USED WITH NEURONAVIGATION
  • 17. HYDROCEPHALUS OBSTRUCTIVE-BLOCKAGE WITHIN VENTRICULAR CSF PATHWAYS  COMMUNICATING- BLOCKAGE OF ABSORBTION AT ARACHNOID VILLI 
  • 18. OBSTRUCTIVE HYDROCEPHALUS AQUEDUCTAL STENOSIS  INTAVENTRICULAR TUMORS-IE; COLLOID CYSTS,DERMOIDS, SUBEPYNDYMOMAS. PINEAL TUMORS, CERREBELLAR MASSES, CEREBELLAR STROKES/HEMORRHAGE, BRAINSTEM TUMORS  4th VENTRICLE IS USUALLY NORMAL SIZE OR SMALL 
  • 19. HYDROCEPHALUS - CLINICAL PRESENTATION  GAIT DISTURBANCE  HEAD ACHE  MEMORY DISTURBANCE  LETHARGY  URINARY INCONTINANCE
  • 20. AQUEDUCTAL STENOSIS SUPRACEREBELLAR ARACHNOID CYST AQUEDUCT OF SYLVIUS 4th VENTRICLE (NORMAL SIZE)
  • 21. AQUEDUCTAL STENOSIS CORONAL MRIOBSTRUCTIVE HYDROCEPHALUS
  • 22. PINEAL TUMOR
  • 23. BRAINSTEM GLIOMA ASTROCYTOMA
  • 24. COLLOID CYST
  • 25. 3rd VENTRICULAR COLLOID CYST  colloid
  • 26. TREATMENT OF HYDROCEPHALUS    CSF DIVERSION – NORMAL SIZE VENTRICLES HAS 25 CC’s OF CSF – TOTAL PRODUCTION OF CSF IS 500 -750 CC’s PER DAY OBSTRUCTIVE HYDRO-ENDOSCOPIC 3RD VENTRICULOSTOMY OR AQUEDUCTAL DILATATION AND STENTING. IF THIS FAILS THEN VP SHUNT COMMUNICATING HYDROCEPHALUSVENTRICULOPERITONEAL SHUNT (VENTRICULOATRIAL , VENTRICULOPLEURAL)
  • 27. ENDOSCOPIC VIEW OF 3RD VENTRICULOSTOMY FORMATION
  • 28. ENDOSCOPIC VIEW OF OSTOMY AND PREPONTINE CISTERN
  • 29. 3rd VENTRICAL EXPLORATION
  • 30. BRAIN TUMORS MULTIPLE TYPES DEPENDING ON EMBRYOLOGICAL ORIGIN -ie; Astrocytoma derived from glial tissue origin  METASTASTATIC(secondary) BRAIN TUMORS MOST COMMON  ASTROCYTOMA MOST COMMON PRIMARY BRAIN TUMOR 
  • 31. BRAIN TUMOR CLINICAL PRESENTATION HEAD ACHES SEIZURES NAUSEA/VOMITING MENTAL STATUS CHANGES GAIT DISTURBANCE VISUAL DISTURBANCE NEUROLOGICAL DEFICIT DEPENDING ON LOCATION  CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE  BRAIN HERNIATION       
  • 32. BRAIN TUMOR DIFFERENCIAL DIAGNOSIS CEREBRAL ABCESS  STROKE  PSEUDOTUMOR CEREBRI  CEREBRITIS (PRE-ABCESS STAGE)  ARTERIAL-VENOUS MALFORMATION  MS  HYDROCEPHALUS 
  • 33. BRAIN TUMOR WORK UP AND INITIAL TREATMENT     DEXAMETHASONE- INITIAL 10 MG IV X 1 THEN FOLLOWED WITH 4-6 MG IV/PO q 6 hrs OBTAIN CT OR MRI WITH AND WITH OUT CONTRAST IF MASS IS PRESENT THEN RULE OUT ABCESS vs METASTATIC DISEASE IF ORIGIN OF TUMOR CANT BE DISCOVERED THEN CEREBRAL BIOPSY AND POSSIBLY RESECTION IS INDICATED
  • 34. FALX MENINGIOMA
  • 35. MENINGIOMA
  • 36. ASTROCYTOMA
  • 37. ANAPLASTIC ASTROCYTOMA
  • 38. ANAPLASTIC ASTROCYTOMA HISTOPATHOLOGY
  • 39. PILOCYTIC ASTROCYTOMA
  • 40. GLIOBLASTOMA MULTIFORME
  • 41. GLIOBLASTOMA MULTIFORME
  • 42. GBM HISTOPATHOLOGY
  • 43. SUBEPENDYMAL GIANT CELL ASTROCYTOMA
  • 44. FRONTAL CRANIOTOMY
  • 45. EXPOSURE OF RIGHT FRONTAL LOBE
  • 46. PARTIAL FRONTAL LOBECTOMY FALX SUPERIOR SAGITAL SINUS PREMOTOR CORTEX
  • 47. LATERAL VIEW ANTERIOR FRONTAL LOBECTOMY FALX CEREBRI CORONAL SUTRE TEMPORALIS MUSCLE
  • 48. TRANSVENTRICULAR COLLOID CYST REMOVAL
  • 49. SKULL BASE MENINGIOMA SAGITAL CORONAL AXIAL
  • 50. SKULL BASE MENINGIOMA – POST OP MRI
  • 51. STRUCTURES OF THE CAVERNOUS SINUS PITUITARY P SPHENOID SINUS S
  • 52. PITUITARY MACROADENOMA
  • 53. PITUITARY ADENOMA CLINICAL PRESENTATION HEADACHE  BITEMPERAL HEMIANOPSIA  APOPLEXY(RARE)  SECRETING vs NON-SECRETING  ENDOCRENOPATHIES –Cushings(ACTH) ACROMEGALY(GH),PANHYPOPITUITARY  FREQUENTLY HAVE ELEVATED PROLACTIN LEVELS-(STALK EFFECT vs PROLACTINOMA SECRETING ADENOMA 
  • 54. PITUITARY SURGERY MOST COMMON APPROACH IS TRANSSPHENOIDAL  GOALS OF SURGERY 1) PRESERVE VISION 2) CORRECT ENDOCRENOPATHY  CAVERNOUS SINUS INVASION WILL REQUIRE POST OPERATIVE STEREOTACTIC RADIOSURGERY ,CONTINUED MEDICAL MANAGEMENT, OR BOTH  CRANIOTOMY IS RARELY INDICATED 
  • 55. TRIGEMINAL NEUARALGIA ETIOLOGY REDUNDANT SUPERIOR CEREBELLAR ARTERY COMPRESSION  SUPERIOR PETROSAL VEIN COMPRESSION  POSTERIOR FOSSA TUMOR  MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS (bilateral TN) 
  • 56. TRIGEMINAL NEURALGIA(AKA tic douloureux) PATHOPHYSIOLOGY    SEVERE PAROXYSMAL LANCINATING PAIN LASTING ONLY A FEW SECONDS OFTEN TRIGGERED BY SENSORY STIMULI CONFINED TO THE DISTRIBUTION OF ONE OR MORE DIVISIONS OF THE TRIGEMINAL NERVE ON ONE SIDE OF THE FACE DUE TO EPHAPTIC TRANSMISSION IN TRIGEMINAL NERVE FROM LARGE DIAMETER MYLENATED A FIBERS TO POORLY MYLENATED A-DELTA AND C NOCICEPTIVE FIBERS EPHAPTIC - conduction of nerve impulse across point of lateral contact rather than at synapse
  • 57. VENTRAL BRAIN/POSTERIOR FOSSA
  • 58. RIGHT CEREBELLOPONTINE ANGLE
  • 59. TRIGENINAL NEURALGIA - TX OPTIONS       MEDICAL- TEGRETOL, NEURONTIN, DILANTIN PERCUTANEOUS RADIOFREQUENCY RHIZOTOMY PERCUTANEOUS GLYCEROL INJECTION PERCUTANEOUS TRIGEMINAL BALLON COMPRESSION MICROVASCULAR TRIGEMINAL DECOMPRESSION STEREOTACTIC RADIOSURGERY
  • 60. TRIGEMINAL NEURALGIA MICROVASCULAR DECOMPRESSION
  • 61. CN VII+VIII A.I.C.A. SUP. PET. V. CN V S.C.A. CEREBELLUM FLOCCULUS PONS CN IV
  • 62. PONTOMEDULLAY JUNCTION DURA CEREBELLUM
  • 63. SPINALCORD TUMORS: CLASSIFICATION EXTRADURAL-arise outside cord in vertebral body and epidural tissue(metastatic tumors most common)  INTRADURAL EXTRAMEDULLARY-arise from leptomeninges or nerve roots. ie; meningiomas and neurofibromas  INTRAMEDULLARY- primary and secondary tumors that destroy tracts and grey matter 
  • 64. INTRADURAL EXTRAMEDULLARY TUMOR CONUS TUMOR
  • 65. CAUDAEQUINA EPENDYMOMA
  • 66. CERVICAL MEDULLARY ANGIOMA
  • 67. SYRINGOMYELIA ETIOLOGIES     ARNOLD CHIARI MALFORMATION INTRAMEDULLARY MASS IDIOPATHIC HYDROCEPHALUS
  • 68. INTRAMEDULLARY ASTROCYTOMA
  • 69. MEDULLOBASTOMA
  • 70. MEDULLOBLASTOMA HISTOPATHOLOGY
  • 71. INTRADURAL EXTRAMEDULLARY T-1 WEIGHTED SAGITAL IMAGE OF A NEUROFIBROMA
  • 72. CONTRAST ENHANCED T1 WEIGHTED AXIAL IMAGE OF NEUROFIBROMA SPINAL CORD
  • 73. C-6 SCHWANNOMA RESECTION
  • 74. C-6 NEUROFIBROMA RESECTION
  • 75. SUBDURAL HEMATOMA
  • 76. POST OP CRANIOTOMY
  • 77. SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE
  • 78. ANEURYSMAL SUBARACHNOID HEMORRAGE SEVERE SUDDEN ONSET HEAD ACHE MAY CAUSE ACUTE HYDROCEPHALUS  HUNT HESS GRADING SCALE 0-5  HIGH GRADE PTS REQUIRE VENTRICULOSTOMY  4 PERCENT RERUPTURE RATE WITHIN 24 HR  REQUIRES ANGIOGRAM  MAY PRESENT WITH NO NEURO DEFICIT TO FOCAL DEFICIT TO COMA  3rd OF PATIENTS DON’T EVEN MAKE IT TO HOSPITAL  VASOSPASM CLINICALLY EFFECTS 30% NO SOONER THAN DAY 3 ,USUALLY AROUND DAY6-8  ICP MANAGEMENT  
  • 79. MANAGEMENT OF ANEURYSMS        ANGIOGRAM TO DEFINE ANEURYSM ANATOMY IF GRADE 3 OR LOWER SURGICALLY CLIP OR COIL VENTRICULOSTOMY FOR HYDROCEPHALUS CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKER (NIMODIPINE)HELPS PREVENT VASOSPASM STEROIDS (DEXAMETHASONE) ANALGESIA TRIPLE “H” THERAPY
  • 80. VASOSPASM TREATMENT EARLY SURGERY CANT TREAT SAFELY WITHOUT SECURING ANEURYSM TRIPLE “H” THERAPY  HYPER VOLEMIA  HYPERTENSION  HEMODILUTION
  • 81. CAROTID BIFERCATION ANEURYSM CT ANGIOGRAM
  • 82. BASILAR ANEURYSM POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY
  • 83. CTA BASILAR ANEURYSM
  • 84. OCCIPITAL AVM
  • 85. NEUROSURGICAL HORIZONS GENE THERAPY  STEM CELL IMPLANTS  IMMUNOTHERAPY  NANOTECHNOLOGY  ROBOTICS  MOORE’S LAW  NEURO - CYBERTECHNOLOGY 

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