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Summary of topic 5.5
Summary of topic 5.5
Summary of topic 5.5
Summary of topic 5.5
Summary of topic 5.5
Summary of topic 5.5
Summary of topic 5.5
Summary of topic 5.5
Summary of topic 5.5
Summary of topic 5.5
Summary of topic 5.5
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Summary of topic 5.5

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Environmental Systems and Societies

Environmental Systems and Societies

Published in: Education
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  • 1. Topic 5 Pollution Management 5.5 Solid domestic waste http://edroness.blogspot.mx/2013/ 12/the-story-of-stuff.html
  • 2. Types of Solid Domestic Waste disposable nappies, 3% paper, 1% packaging, 4% textiles, 4% soil, 4% garden scrap metal, 6% waste, 25% furniture, 6% wood, 6% glass, 9% household sweepings, 11% kitchen waste, 21%
  • 3. Percentage Composition of Waste Country Organics Paper Glass Metals Plastics Textiles Other Belgium 43 28 9 4 7 9 0 Denmark 37 30 6 3 7 18 0 Germany 32 24 8 5 9 0 22 France 21 27 7 4 11 2 28 Greece 49 20 5 4 9 13 0 Ireland 42 15 6 4 11 8 14 Italy 32 27 8 4 7 3 19 Luxembourg 41 16 4 3 8 3 25 Netherlands 39 25 8 5 8 15 0 Portugal 39 20 4 2 9 5 21 Spain 44 21 7 4 11 5 8
  • 4. Disposable Nappies (Diapers) • One of the most problematic types of domestic waste • Made of resistant plastics • Also contain faeces and urine which may carry disease • Approx. 3 billion kg disposed of to landfills in the US per year • It takes about 500 years for one nappy to break down completely
  • 5. Management Strategies 1. Reduce o o Producers can consider expanding lifespan of goods and reducing packaging Consumers can demand or use less packaging 2. Reuse o o o Use of refillable bottles – e.g. garafons Refurbishment of used products Donation of used items for resale (charity shops) 3. Recover o o o Recycling Composting Incineration to collect heat 4. Dispose o Landfill
  • 6. Management Strategies • Recycling – Reduces pressure on landfill sites – Reduces mining, use of oil to produce plastics and transportation of new goods – Not all recycling companies are ethical and many materials are simply exported (in 2015, 410 000 tonnes of plastic were collected for recycling; approx 57% was exported to Asia) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i3fOLL10yxY
  • 7. Management Strategies • Composting – The recycling of organic material to produce nutrient-rich soil – May divert approx. 30% of total household waste from landfill – Introduces beneficial microorganisms to the soil – Helps to reduce leaching of nutrients and problems of eutrophication (increasing amounts of sewage sludge are now being composted worldwide) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6eXRfynD-M8
  • 8. Management Strategies • Incineration – Combustion of waste (organic and inorganic) – Produces ash, flue gases and heat – Heat can be used to produce electricity – Ash is sometimes used to produce paving slabs, bricks or road fill – Reduces the amount of waste which is sent to landfill – Reduces harmfulness of wastes which might otherwise go to landfill – e.g. hospital waste – Produces polluting gases including CO2 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VhJRuiEId9Y
  • 9. Disposal Problems • Landfill Disposal – Biodegradation of organics in landfills produces methane (explosive and greenhouse gas) – This may also biodegrade to CO2 – Leachates may contaminate rivers and groundwater, causing eutrophication – Punishments for not collecting animal poo (sealing landfills causes increased methane production – Cause local problems of noise, smell and vermin
  • 10. Disposal Problems • Incineration – Many waste gases produced – CO2, SOx, NOx, Cl2, dioxins – These lead to indirect problems such as acid rain, smog, global warming, lung diseases etc. – Large amounts of road traffic, producing more greenhouse gases, fuel use, noise etc. Ukranian politician Viktor Yushchenko before and after dioxin poisoning
  • 11. Questions 1. Describe the different types of domestic solid waste 2. Describe and evaluate different pollution management strategies for domestic solid waste disposal 3. Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of disposal to landfill 4. Evaluate the advantages and disadvatages of disposal by incineration

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