TODAY’S DISCOVERIES: Wines of France French wine history Wine classifications of France 1855/2009 Wine regions of France Eau de Vie and dessert wine Champagne Reading a French label Wines of Germany Classifications of German wines Reading a German wine label
1855 BORDEAUX CLASSIFICATION Pioneers in marketing and regulating the WineIndustry Napoleon III hosted the Paris UniversalExposition Designed to show off the best products ofFrance Bordeaux Chamber of Commerce participated toput together a list of the best wine estates Ranked the Châteaux into five categories indescending quality from “1st Growth” (PremierCru) to “5th Growth” (Cinquième Cru) Followed unofficial classifications that had beenin existence for centuries
The four original Bordeaux Premier Crus Châteaux were:Château Margaux, Château Latour, Château Haut-Brion, andChâteau Lafite-Rothschild; Château Mouton-Rothschild was raisedfrom second growth to first growth in 1973, making it five.
APPELLATION D’ORIGINE CONTROLÉE SYSTEM In 1935, AOC laws passed to control winequality Governed by a powerful oversight board Strict laws regulating viticulture &viniculture One of the oldest systems maintainingprotected designation of origin for wines inthe world Other European systems are modeled after it The word appellation is used by othercountries
OLD FRENCH AOC LAW CATEGORIES AOC had four categories prior to2006Two falling under the EuropeanUnions Table Wine categoryVin de Table Vin de PaysTwo under the EUs Quality WineProduced in a Specific Region(QWPSR) designationVin Delimite de Qualite Surperièure(VDQS)
OLD AOC LAW CATEGORIES PART DEUX Vin de Table Assures designation and producer is French Vin de Pays Assures specific region within France Subject to less-restrictive regulations than AOCwines Producers allowed to distinguish wines that aremade using specific grape varieties or procedures Vin Delimite de Qualite Surperièure (VDQS) For smaller areas or “in waiting" to become an AOC This category was abolished in 2011 Appellation d’Origine Controlée (AOC) Wine from a particular area with manyrestrictions, including grape varieties and
NEW FRENCH AOC LAW CATEGORIES The wine classification system ofFrance had been under overhaul forthree years beginning in 2006 The new system introduced fully in2009 Consists of 3 categories rather than4 The category corresponding toVDQS was eliminated
NEW AOC LAW CATEGORIES PART DEUX Vin de France Category basically replacing Vin de Table, butallowing grape variety and vintage to beindicated on the label Indication Geographique Protegée (IGP) An intermediate category replacing Vin de Pays Appellation d’Origine Protegée (AOP) The highest category basically replacing AOCwines
There are many wine-growingregions in France……each is very unique. Evenwithin each region, there isdiverse terroir
ALSACE Situated in eastern France on the riverRhine Borders Germany, with which it sharesmany grape varieties and a tradition ofvarietal labeling Primarily a white-wine region, thoughsome red, rosé, sparkling and sweetwines are also produced Fabulous wines made fromGewürztraminer, Riesling, PinotGris, Pinot Blanc, Pinot Noir and Muscat But let’s not forget Eau de Vie!
HOW DO THEYGET THE PEARIN THEBOTTLE?Poire Williams…
BORDEAUX Large region on the Atlantic coast Long history of exporting its winesoverseas Primarily a red wine region Famous for the five Premier Crus The red wines produced are usually blended From Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, CabernetFranc, Malbec, and Petit Verdot Dry and sweet white wines alsoproduced, including some of the worldsmost famous botrytis-affected dessert winesfrom the Sauternes appellation, such asChâteau D’Yquem
REGIONS OF BORDEAUXThe Left Bank : Has soilthat is gravelly whichfavors CabernetSauvignonEntre-Deux-Mers: Knownmore for white wines butdoes produce lighterbodied reds blended fromCabernet Sauvignon andMerlotThe Right Bank: Moreclay based soil, favors
BURGUNDY Burgundy or Bourgogne in easternFrance is a region where red and whitewines are equally important Probably more terroir-conscious thanany other region, Burgundy is dividedinto the largest number of appellationsof any French region
BURGUNDY PART DEUXThe Burgundy region is divided in fourmain parts Côte de Nuits From Marsannay-La-Côte down to NuitsSaint-Georges Côte de Beaune From north of Beaune to Santenay Côte Chalonnaise The Maconnais
BURGUNDY PART TROIX Two parts of Burgundy are sometimesconsidered separate regions: Chablis in the north, halfwaybetween Côte dOr andParis, where white wines areproduced on chalky soil giving amore crisp and steely-style thanthe rest of Burgundy Beaujolais in the south, close tothe Rhône Valley region
Beaujolais Situated in central East of Francefollowing the river Saone below Burgundyand above Lyon Primarily produce red wines from theGamay grape Some whites and sparkling rosés are alsoproduced Famous for Beaujolais Nouveau, apopular Vin de Premier which is releasedannually on the third Thursday ofNovember In France, It is the only wine that can belegally consumed in the year of its production
How Timely…Being that Beaujolais Nouveau is a lightbodied, carbonic-macerated and thereforefruit-forward wine, it goes very well with ourThanksgiving feast!
One annual celebration is Chefs-On–Bikes, wherechefs ride their motorcycles and bikes through varioustowns Even at Las Vegas’ Paris resort, a celebrity guest willlight the hotel’s Eiffel Tower a Beaujolais-shade of redat 12:01 a.m. to kick-off a weekend of celebrationsthereA BigCelebration! Under French law, BeaujolaisNouveau, made from Gamay, isnot allowed to go on sale until12:01 a.m. on the third Thursdayof NovemberMany Beaujolais Nouveauevents happen at that timearound the world
GRAPE VARIETALS OF BURGUNDY There are two main grape varieties usedin Burgundy:Chardonnay for all white wines Whites are also made from AligotéBorgogne, but are not exported Traditional grape used to make the KircocktailPinot Noir for all redsGamay is used for reds from Beaujolais
LANGUEDOC-ROUSSILLON Languedoc-Roussillon is the largest region interms of vineyard surface and production Much of Frances cheap bulk wines are producedthere So-called “Wine Lake", Languedoc-Roussillonis also the home of some innovative producerswho combine traditional techniques with newapproaches Blanquette de Limoux, the worlds oldestsparkling wine International styles using lessons from the NewWorld Though many varietals are grown here, it
TOURAINE AND ANJOU (IN THE LOIRE) The Touraine region produces coldclimate-styled white wines (dry, sweet orsparkling) from Chenin Blanc in Vouvrayand red wines from Cabernet Franc inBourgueil and Chinon The Anjou region’s wine is similar toTouraine wines with respect tovarieties, but the dry Savennières andsweet Coteaux du Layon are often morepowerful than their upstream neighbors
THE LOIRE: POUILLY FUMÉ AND SANCERRE In the eastern part of the LoireValley, most of the grapes used areSauvignon Blanc… Pouilly-Fumé is a delicious, dry white (donot confuse with Burgundy’s Pouilly-Fuissé)that is produced in this areaPouilly-Fumé has a bewitching perfume, richaromas and a distinctive flavorCalifornia producers use Fumé Blanc as amore public-friendly name to marketSauvignon Blancs Sancerre is from the other bank of the Loireriver
JURA & SAVOIE A small region in themountains close toSwitzerland with someunique wine styles: Vin Jaune (young wine) Vin de Paille (straw wine) The region covers sixappellations and is relatedto Burgundy through itsextensive use of theBurgundian grapesChardonnay and PinotNoir, though other varietiesare usedVin Jaune isallowed to oxidizethen is fortified;similar to Sherry
PROVENCE In France’s south-east & close to theMediterranean It is perhaps the warmest wine region ofFrance and produces mainly rosé and red wines It covers eight major appellations, led by itsflagship appellation: Bandol Some wines can be compared with those ofthe Southern Rhône as they share both grapesand, to some degree, style and climate Provence also has a classification of its mostprestigious estates, much like Bordeaux
THE RHÔNE Primarily a red-wine region in south-eastern France, along the Rhône River Styles and varietal composition ofnorthern and southern Rhône differ, butboth parts compete with Bordeaux astraditional producers of red wines The soil tends to be rocky which keepsthe vines warm at night Syrah and Grenache are thepredominant grape varietals
WHAT IS CHÂTEAUNEUF-DU-PAPE? Unlike its northern Rhône neighbors, Châteauneuf-du-Pape permits thirteen different varieties of grape, thoughthe blend is usually predominantly Grenache Other red grapes includeCinsault, Counoise, Mourvèdre, Muscardin, Syrah, TerretNoir, and Vaccarèse. White grapes include GrenacheBlanc, Bourboulenc, Clairette, Picardan, Roussanne andPicpoul In recent years, the trend has been to include fewer (oreven none) of the allowed white varieties and rely heavily(or solely) upon the Grenache, Mourvèdre, and Syrah One may suspect that this is a response to internationalwine-market trends and the desire to appeal to a broadercommercial audience
CHAMPAGNE Champagne, situated in easternFrance, close to Belgium andLuxembourg, is the coldest ofFrances major wine regions andhome to its major sparkling wine Champagne wines can be both whiteand rosé A small amount of still wine isproduced in Champagne (as AOCCoteaux Champenois) of which some
A BIT O’ BUBBLY!!A Champagne is a sparkling wine but asparkling wine is not a Champagne!WHAT DOES THAT MEAN?
WHAT’S IN A NAME? Other regions of France:MousseuxCrémant Italy: Frizzante/Spumante/Prosecco Germany: Sekt Spain: Cava
CHAMPAGNE HISTORY Vines planted by the Romans in 50 A.D. Secondary fermentation discovered bychance Methode Champenoise evolved over 200years Dom Perignon: Master blender; createdblanc de noir and initiated using Englishglass bottles Antoine Müller: Invented remuage (w/crownseal) and dégorgement initiated byMadame Cliquot of the Cliquot Ponsardin
WHAT IS RIDDLING (LE REMUAGE)?TheA-frameriddlingrack tothe rightis called a“Pupitre”
THE CHAMPAGNE PROCESSStill wine fermentation & the Cuvée…Then: Liqueur de Tirage (sugar & yeast) capped toferment, then aged 3 years minimum en tirage Remuage: Twisting and turning Mis sur point: Bottoms up Dégorgement: Explosion & expulsion Dosage: The final note of sweetness
CHAMPAGNE TYPES Brut (driest) - up to 1.5% sugarEnglish Cuvée or Ultra Brut Extra Dry Sec (dry, but slightly sweet) Demi-Sec Doux (Very sweet, not seen in U.S.) Crémant
CHAMPAGNE GRAPES Chardonnay (Burgundy) - lighter style 100% called Blanc de Blanc Pinot Noir (Burgundy) - adds depth 100% called Blanc de Noir Pinot Meunier (nowhere else) Red like Pinot Noir, but not as “classic”
THE PRESTIGE CUVÉE Best grapes, highest rated vineyards First pressing of the grapes More time in the bottle than N.V. Made only in vintage years Smaller quantities are produced Price dictated by supply & demand
SERVING SPARKLING WINESBe careful; never point the bottleat anyone! Keep control at alltimes!Remove the foil, then the cageHold at a 45º angle, twist the bottleagainst the cork, and VOILA!Two pours - avoids foam-over
MORE VOCABULARY YOU NEED TO KNOW Négociant: A merchant who buys grapes, juice orwine from growers and sells the wines under his ownlabel Domaine: Estate (Burgundy) Château: Estate (Bordeaux) Climat: Vineyard Mise en Domaine: Estate-bottled Récolte or Millesime: Vintage; Récoltant: Grapegrower Cave: Wine cellar Superièur: Wine with higher (superior) alcoholcontent as a result of being made from riper grapes Vieilles Vignes: Old vines
GERMANYGermany produces primarily white wines Varietals include: Riesling Gewürztraminer Müller-Thurgau Rieslange Ruländer – Pinot Gris Spätburgunder – Pinot Noir Weissburgunder – Pinot Blanc The very best winemakers do not usecommercial yeasts, make any alterations toacidity, nor ferment or age their wine in oak
GERMAN WINE PYRAMID At the top of thepyramid, controlson grapesproduction, viticultual techniques(chaptalization), and labelinginformationHierarchy isbased on ripenessof grapes, with theriper grapesproducing the top
GERMANY’S WINE REGIONSGermany has 13 wine regions… Most notable are the top four: Mosel : The vineyards are planted on the verysteep banks of the Mosel river and its tributaries Mostly Riesling and Müller-Thurgau Rheingau: Germanys most central wine-growing region and the home of some ofthe worlds oldest wine-growing familiescontinued…
GERMANY’S WINE REGIONS II Pfalz: Borders France on the southwestTop volume and quality producer of wines made from: Müller-Thurgau, Kerner, Silvaner & Morio-Muskat(whites) as well as Portugieser (red) Rheinhessen: Largest of the winegrowing regions Production is second only to that of the Pfalz Production primarily Riesling Other grapes - Müller-Thurgau, Silvaner, Riesling Also new hybrid crossings The Portugieser grape is the most important red variety Ingelheim is known for its Spätburgunder (Pinot Noir)
Wine # 1 Vintage: 2011 Name: Saint M Producer: Dr. Loosen Region: Pfalz, GermanyWine # 2 Vintage: 2011 Name: Rosé Producer: Bastide de Trians Region: Provence, France
Wine # 3 Vintage: 2009 Name: Côte du Rhône Producer: E. Guigal Region: Rhône, FranceWine # 4 Vintage: 2009 Name: Bordeaux Superière Producer: Château Jean Guillon Region: Bordeaux, France
Chateau Ste. Michelle is proud to offer Saint M, a GermanRiesling made by acclaimed winemaker ErnstLoosen, owner of the Dr. Loosen estate, which has a 200-year tradition of producing Riesling in Germanys Moselregion. With his modern world view and his traditionalapproach to winemaking, Ernst strives to produce winesthat unmistakably express the character of Riesling and ofthe vineyards where they are grown. Saint M represents agreat value in classic Riesling from the Pfalz region.Saint M Riesling is clean and crisp, with a viscous mouth-coating texture balanced by a firm, mineral edge. ThisRiesling typifies the classic fruity, but stony, character ofthe Pfalz. I am extremely happy with the amazing purity ofthe fruit.Alcohol by volume:11.0%2011 Saint M, Riesling, Pfalz, Germany
From deep in the heart of Provence (Brignoles, tobe more precise) comes this delicious rosé fromthe Bastide de Trians. Its light pink hue evokesfreshness, vivacity and all that screams summerhas officially arrived! On the palate a wide range offruit flavors prevail, including white peach and wildstrawberry. The wine is rich and expressive on themid-palate, however it also maintains a fine andelegant finish. Enjoy this Provençal pink with awide selection of Mediterranean fare, includinggrilled fish and meats. Made with organically growngrapes. (50% Grenache 30% Cinsault, 20% Syrah)13% abv.2011 Bastide de Trians, Rosé, ProvenceFrance
There are 3.5 million bottles of the 2009 Cotes du Rhone red, whichrepresents an amazing value. A blend of 50% Syrah, 40% Grenacheand 10% Mourvedre, it comes primarily from the Plan de Dieu (Plainof God), which is situated northeast of Chateauneuf du Pape. Thistank-aged, deep ruby/purple-colored, concentrated, fleshy, medium tofull-bodied, supple offering reveals plenty of pepper, kirsch and blackcurrant fruit intermixed with a notion of flowers. It is meant to beconsumed during its first 2-3 years of life although I have tasted 10-year-old bottles that are still good.Exceptionally structured, rich, and complex. Unlike most producers inthe appellation, Guigal ages his Côtes Du Rhône Rouge for a full twoyears before release. This expensive process results in a wine ofunusual aromatic complexity, with a substantial and generous palate.Consistent from vintage to vintage, and deceptively age-worthy in theriper years, Guigals Côtes Du Rhône Rouge is one of the worldsgreatest wine values.2009 E. Guigal, Côte du Rhône, France
2009 Chateau Jean Guillon,Bordeaux Superière, Bordeaux, FranceA ripe, plump and smooth style;deeply colored, superb length andbalance; red meat, duck and mediumhard cheeses.
A particular slide catching your eye?
Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.