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  • 1. Session II
  • 2. TODAY’S DISCOVERIES: The seasons of the winery/vineyards Understanding varietals How wine is made Grafting and vine disease History of North American Wine The regions of North American Wine
  • 3. SEASONS OF THE VINEYARD I January Pruning as grapes only grow on new vines Barrel topping-off and bottling of olderwines February Racking of the barrels March Planting new vines is the focus of thevineyard Guards are installed to protect tender newshoots from hungry rabbits
  • 4. SEASONS OF THE VINEYARD II April Vines are trimmed to keep the plant‟s energyfocused on flowering Topping-off and racking continues Finish bottling older wines May Late frosts can kill young plants; sprayingwater protects them from freezing In the cellar, bottled wines are cased toprepare for distribution
  • 5. SEASONS OF THE VINEYARD III June Trellising: Shoot-positioning is done bywiring the new vine shoots to help sunlightreach the fruit and new growth Fruit Set is when the grape berries first formafter flowering July Spraying against pests is a major priority Major efforts to minimize fungal diseases Further bottling if temperatures allow
  • 6. SEASONS OF THE VINEYARD IV August Vendage Vert (The Green Harvest): Low-yield or inferior-size bunches are trimmed-off to concentrate the energy into the bestberries Ver jus may be pressed and bottled Veraison: Grapes are now beginning toripen; red varietals are changing fromgreen to red
  • 7. SEASONS OF THE VINEYARD VSeptember The Crush (the harvest)! Growers decide the best time to harvest andthen find workers to pick the fruit or havemachinery ready and trucks waiting Check the brix level for ripeness Whites to the press; reds to the tank Chaptalization as permitted by law
  • 8. SEASONS OF THE VINEYARD VIOctober Picked-over vines will now benefit from thenew light exposure In the fermenting room, the freshly-pressedmash is now starting to ferment Topping-over or punching-down the cap(delicate wines like Pinot Noir) of floatingskins is done to help release flavor, colorand tannins Extended Maceration (before fermentation) ifand when needed (if juice is weak) Signée: bleeding-off a Rosé (when juice isweak)
  • 9. SEASONS OF THE VINEYARD VII November In the cellar, fining (clarification) of second-year red wines takes place Fining is done with egg whites, gelatin & specialforms of clay (bentonite or diatomaeceous soil) First-year wines are transferred fromfermentation vat to barrels The Press: Free-run wine, press wine, and the“cake” Oak-aging and barrel “racking” (pumpingfrom one barrel to another without thesediment)
  • 10. SEASONS OF THE VINEYARD VIII December Vine cuttings are propagated to keep afavorable varietal Early tastings are done to evaluate the winein progress Blending: usually done by consensus Some wineries continue temperature-controlled bottle-aging for reds until readyfor vintage release Consumers may continue bottle-aging until redsdrop the tannin sediment (dregs) and decantbefore serving
  • 11. DISEASES OF THE VINEPhylloxera disease almost destroyedthe French vineyards in the late1800‟s.Grafting viniferous varietals to theresistant lambrusca rootstock, saved the industry.Pierces disease continues to plaguethe vines, grafting cannot help.
  • 12. PHYLLOXERA ATTACKS THE ROOT Pierce’s disease (glassy wingedsharp shooter) attacks the leaves
  • 13. GRAFTINGGrapes mutate very readily. An entirevarietal may be changed simply bygrafting. This process saved theEuropean vines.
  • 14. SOME GRAPE VARIETALS: Burgundy: Chardonnay, Aligoté Borgogne Pinot Noir, Gamay Bordeaux: Sauvignon Blanc, Sémillon, Cabernet Franc, Merlot, CabernetSauvignon, Malbec, Petit Verdot Loire: Sauvignon Blanc, Chenin Blanc, Cabernet Franc
  • 15. SOME GRAPE VARIETALS: Champagne: Chardonnay, Pinot Noir, Pinot Meunière Rhône: Roussanne, Marsanne, Viognier, Clairette, Grenache, Syrah, Carignan, Mourvèdre, Counoise Alsace: Gewürztraminer, Pinot Gris, Pinot Blanc, Riesling Languedoc-Roussillon: Carignan, Cinsault, Grenache
  • 16. SOME GRAPE VARIETALS: Italy: Trebbiano, Malvasia, Garganega, Gavi, PinotGrigio, Cortese Sangiovese, Nebbiolo, Corvina, Germany: Riesling, Sylvaner, Müller-Thurgau, Gewürztraminer Spätburgunder (Pinot Noir) Spain: Albariño, Godello, Viura, Garnacha Blanca, Palomino Tempranillo, Garnacha Tinta, Mataro
  • 17. WHAT DOES “OLD VINE” REFER TO?A reference to the age of the vine thegrapes are grown on; older vines willprovide more intense extracted flavor inthe wine.0-10 years old: “Young” vine11-50 years old: “Middle” or “Mature” vine51-80 years old: “Old” vineOver 80 years old: “Ancient” vine
  • 18. THESE VINES WERE PLANTED IN 1851:They are oftenreferred to asgnarly vines
  • 19. RED/ BLACK GRAPES = RED WINEGREEN/YELLOW GRAPES = WHITE WINESO, HOW DO THEY MAKE PINK WINE? Rosé, Rosado, Rosato:By any other name would taste as dry… Blush:Soda-Pop Sweet (perfect for new WineAfficionados who grew-up drinking soda)Three ways…
  • 20. Yes, there are pinkgrapes!+ ==Signée: the ”bleedingoff”Blend red juice with white juice!
  • 21. BUT HOW IS WINE MADE?First, the grapes are monitored andwhen they have the perfect balanceof taste, acid and brix, they areharvestedBY HAND: BYMACHINE:
  • 22. SECOND, THEY ARE DE-STEMMED(IN RED WINE VARIETALS)In this step, thestems areremoved from thegrapes. Stemscarry harshtannins so this isusually donebefore the grapesare crushed, so asnot to influencethe wine.
  • 23. NEXT, THEY ARE CRUSHED, OR WHOLE-BERRYFERMENTED (CARBONIC MACERATION)For example, if he or she is trying to create a fruityaroma, they might decide to leave the berries nearlyintact.The skins of thegrapes are brokento release the juice.Winemakers willhave their ownpreferencesconcerning theamount of crushingthat should occur.
  • 24. PRIMARY FERMENTATION In this step, yeastcells in the juicefeed on sugars andproduce carbondioxide andalcohol Winemakers willoften add extrayeast to insure astable conversioninstead of simplyrelying on the wildyeast found on thegrapes
  • 25. “FREE-RUN” AND “PRESSED” WINESAfter fermentation, avalve is opened in thebottom of the tank, andwhat drains out iscalled free-runwine, which is the best.Afterwards, theremaining skins andseeds are pressed andmore wine is extracted(pressed wine), whichis of lesser qualitythan free-run wine.Nonetheless, winemakers will use pressed wine toincrease their grape yield, though is usually for lower-end releases.
  • 26. SECONDARY FERMENTATION Aging and secondaryfermentation happen atthe same time. The yeastcontinues to fermentslowly The goals of thewinemaker will determinethe length of time thisfermentation will beallowed to continue A fine wine might stay inoak barrels for quite sometime while a home-stylevariety could spend onlyIt is determined how muchpercentage of a winebatch should go throughMalolactic fermentationand/or Sur Lie
  • 27. FILTERING A brilliantly clear wine ismore desirable than a cloudy orhazy one, which may tastefine, but does not lookappealing This is why most commercialwines are filtered, leaving themsparkling clear and virtuallyincapable of re-fermenting Filtration removesyeast, bacteria, and grape/fruitdebris from the wine This not only renders the wineinstantly clear, it also makes thewine more stable without theyeast or bacteria that could feedoff any residual sugar As a result, theamount of SO2 and otherchemical preservativescan be reducedDifferent processes areused for fining & filtering
  • 28. BOTTLING The final stepwhen the wine isbottled for sale Sulfites are oftenadded to help endthe fermentationprocess andpreserve the wine The bottle is thensealed with a cork
  • 29. THE “CORKED” WINE The damage to wine from “tainted” corks hascaused great loss of revenue for wineries Cork trees can take up to ten years toproduce enough bark to harvest for corks Hence the emergence of screw-caps…
  • 30. THE “CORKED” WINE II Air-purifying technology designed by NASAin the 90’s to keep produce fresh inspace, has found a new, more down-to-earth use:Neutralizing TCA, the chemical primarilyresponsible for cork taint in wineTCA in wine causes “cork taint”, a defectthat affects 2%-7% of wine bottles, andimparts an unappetizing moldy, dank smellinto the wine
  • 31. NO MORE CORKED WINE! When tested by an independent Britishwine laboratory, NASA’s technique wasfound to remove up to 95% of TCA from asealed room within 24 hours Works by drawing air through a boxcontaining a bed of titanium dioxide catalystand irradiating it with UV light , which oxidizesany organic contaminants May have other applications in winemakingand is already being used inhospitals, research centers and for foodstorage
  • 32. American Wine Fun Facts:Fourth in production behind Italy, France andSpainEvery state has at least one winery; even inAlaska!Production:California ranks #1 (90% of all Americanwines)New York is #2, followed by Oregon &WashingtonApproximately 5,400 commercial wineries in
  • 33. HOW DID IT ALL BEGIN IN AMERICA?Grapes were wild and so prolific inAmerica, that the settler‟s nicknamed thecountry “Vinland” These were “unsophisticated” varietals ofVitis Labrusca that made “foxy” wines, buthad strong root stock making them lesssusceptible to disease (saved the Europeanwine industry from Phylloxera)Wild Vitis Labrusca varietals such asCatawba (a pink grape), Niagra, Concord, andothers, are still being made into wine in many
  • 34. HOW DID IT ALL BEGIN IN AMERICA?There were other wild grape families in the NewWorld in addition to Vitis Labrusca: Vitis Riparia (hybrids like Baco Noir &Frontenac) Vitis Rotundifolia(Scuppernong/Muscadine) Vitis Aestivalis (Norton) Settlers began making wine from these wildgrapes for religious sacrament and personalconsumption (it was a safe beverage todrink, as it was antispetic)
  • 35. HOW DID IT ALL BEGIN IN AMERICA?Spanish missionaries arrived in Californiaand made “Mission Wine” throughout theterritory In 1920, the wine industry was devastatedwhen the 18th Amendment prohibited theproduction and consumption of alcoholexcept for sacrament The 21st Amendment repealed Prohibition in1933 It took many decades for the wine industry torecover, as the Great Depression resulted in a
  • 36. In 1886 a beverage was invented which significantlychanged the taste preferences of the American public…. After WWII, returning American soldiers brought back ataste for European-style wines, though it still took another15-20 years for any significant shift to drier wines As these sugary-sweet beveragesbecame morepopular, manyAmerican consumerswere turned- off bydry, European-stylewines; tastes shifted tosweet and fortifiedwines like Sherry andPort…
  • 37. THE 1970’S…During this time, American wines achieved ahigher level of sophisticationThe rest of the world didn’t take the Americanwine industry serious…But then, in 1976, somethingmiraculous happened! If you sawthe movie “Bottle Shock” youalready know what it was!
  • 38. A Napa Valley winery, Château Montelena’sChardonnay shocked the wine world bywinning a wine competition in Paris againsta French Premier Cru Burgundy!Soon, vineyards began to expand… American packaging and marketing was changing theface of wine for the world The U.S. did not regulate it’s winemaking as the rest ofthe world did Altering bottle shapes, labeling, varietals and viniculturalpractices caused a paradigm-shift in the wine industry
  • 39.  In 1978, the AVA (American Viticulture Area) was createdto designate specific wine growing regions and areasTo qualify as an AVA an area must meet the followingcriteria:1. Be precisely defined on a geological map2. Use a name that has been commonly or historicallyassociated with the region3. Have climate, soil, aspect (slope), elevation and othertopographical and geological features that make itunique from surrounding areasThe Federal Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco & Firearms (BATF)Keeps control of AVA’s and labeling laws
  • 40. AVA’s do not always live in their own defined exclusive areamany overlap between states, counties or other AVA’sExample: Sonoma‟s Green Valley is contained withinthe Russian River Valley, which is contained withinNorth SonomaThere are over 200AVA‟s in AmericaThere are over 100in California aloneColorado has justtwo
  • 41.  All wines with varietal labeling(Merlot, Chardonnay, etc.) must showappellation of origin information on thelabel Wines labeled United States orAmerican, must have 100% U.S. content Wines labeled California orWashington, must have 100% content fromthose states
  • 42.  Wines labeled by any other state nameor county name must have a 75%content from those states. Wines labeled by an AVA must have85% content from that AVA Wines with specific vineyardlabeling, have a threshold of 95% Wines labeled as Pinot Noir or PinotGris from Oregon, must have 90% ofthose grapes
  • 43. 85% of planted vineyards and90% of wine produced in U.S.Ideal growing conditions:Rain falls mostly in the winterDry growing season lessensthe impact of molds andmildewsOccasional spring frosts, butwinter frosts almost neveroccurOcean breezes moderate theinfluence of the sun. It slowsripening and helps maintain
  • 44.  Warm days and cool nights from theocean fogs allow the grapes to ripenmore slowlyThe long hang time (time ripening onthe vine) allows for more complexity todevelop Napa: Some of the country‟s topwines, home of the famous Super Cabs Sonoma: Wide variety of climate types;warm, cool, & ocean-influenced.Produces PinotNoir, Chardonnay, Zinfandel, etc. Lake: Produces Chardonnay, CabernetSauvignon, Cab Franc, Merlot andSauvignon Blanc Mendocino: Mostly cool climate.
  • 45.  Over 300wineries, consisting of 10%of California‟s totalacreage, but only 4% of itsproduction“Napa Cabs” of the rivervalley are the signature wineas well as Cab-dominated, Bordeaux-styleblends (Cab. Sauv. andMerlot )Southern Napa benefits fromcool ocean air from the SanFrancisco bay. This allows
  • 46. Wide variety of AVAsWide variety of climateWide variety of soiltypesWide variety of geologyVarious oceanbreeze, fog influencesfrom gaps in themountains along thecoastCabernet, Chardonnay,Zinfandel, and Pinot
  • 47. Northernmost wine-growing region in CaliforniaMountainous and heavilyforestedCool ocean fog along theriver supports Riesling andGewürztraminerHigher elevation AVA‟ssupportZinfandel, CabernetSauvignonMendocino Ridge: Multiplenon-contiguous areas, all
  • 48.  Produces table grapes andraisins in addition to winevarietals and is the largestagricultural region in the U.S. Lodi: Known for its old vineZinfandel Clarksburg : Produces a widevariety of wines River Junction: Cooler climate;produces good Chardonnay Tracy Hills: Produces mostlyBordeaux varieties Salado Creek: Produces CabernetSauvignon, SauvignonBlanc, Syrah and Viognier
  • 49.  American market is primarily focused on varietallabeling An alternate labeling system has been put in place toaccommodate “Bordeaux-style” blends, overseen bythe “Meritage Alliance” Members may put “Meritage” on their labels if theirwines are blended from CabernetSauvignon, Cabernet Franc, Merlot, PetiteSyrah, Malbec, and Carmenière White Meritage must use Sauvignon Blanc, Sémillonand Muscadelle The blend can have no more than 90% of any single
  • 50.  The pacific coastlinerange cascades act as ashield to block theoverly cool Pacificinfluence In between the tworanges is where themajority of thewinemakingoccurs, with theexception of MountHood and the AVA‟sshared with WashingtonState Pacific influence is still felt in the wine growingregion between the two ranges. Winters are cool and wet and do not experience hardfreezes ; summers are mild with moderate humidity
  • 51. 17 AVA‟s in Oregon
  • 52.  The Cascades act as anorth-south rain shieldand block the pacific rainson the eastern part of thestate; therefore this regionis much hotter then thecoast Columbia river systemirrigates 98% of vineyardsin the east Days are two hourslonger than California inthe summerPhylloxera-free due to sandy soils and harshwintersWinter freezes can be very damaging or evenkill vines
  • 53. Washington has 13 very diverseAVA‟s:
  • 54. Innovation at it‟s finest: At the old Walla Walla airport, you will findmore than 20 of the most prestigious wineriesfound in Washington state Cabernets and Merlots are predominant; youwill find some of the best Merlots of the worldmade here Each hangar was renovated into a tastingroom; a great tour on foot.
  • 55. Highest elevation vineyards in North America: 4,500 - 7,000 ft. above sea level; slightly lower thanArgentina Grand Valley and West Elks are Colorados two AVA‟s: Prominent grapes in the Grand Valley are primarilyCabernet Franc, CabernetSauvignon, Merlot, Syrah, Chardonnay West Elks produces primarily Riesling and Pinot NoirThe temperature extremes in winter along the frontrange rule out traditional vinifera grapes.Pre prohibition, Colorado was a thriving winemakingarea, most of the vines were torn up to plant peaches. Inthe past ten years, Colorado is finally making a
  • 56.  About 4% of U.S. production Harsh winters, low sunlightand moderating influence ofmajor bodies of water. Produces hybrids, nativegrapewines and some viniferous Lake Erie: Only recentlystarted using vinifera grapes Niagara: Cool climate grapesChardonnay and Riesling Finger Lakes: Largest AVA inNY; producing many differentcool-climate varieties. Homeof “Cayuga White” inventedby Cornell Universityviticulture extension. Hudson River: Hybrids such asBaco Noir and cool climateVinifera. This is where the famousHudson Valley Foie Gras isproduced! Long Island: Produces CabernetFranc, Merlot, Chardonnay andRiesling
  • 57.  Producer/Brand name – usually the same, but notalways Class/type – still wine, mead, rice wine, etc. Name and address of bottler Only shows where the wine was bottled, notnecessarily where any of the other production stepsoccurred Alcohol by Volume Volume content Sulfite content if above 10ppm Health Warning (back label)
  • 58. Wine # 1 Vintage: 2011 Name: Dry Riesling Producer: Pacific Rim Region: Columbia Valley, WashingtonWine # 2 Vintage: 2012 Name: Viognier Producer: Cline Region: North Coast, California
  • 59. Wine # 3 Vintage: 2009 Name: Pinot Noir Producer: Firesteed Region: OregonWine # 4 Vintage: 2009 Name: Zinfandel OZV Producer: Oak Ridge Winery Region: Lodi, California
  • 60. “Bright red cherry, violets, vanilla and pie crustaromas, punctuated by an alluring smokiness, are a vivaciousintroduction to this Oregon vintage. A sweet approach leads to asatiny mouthful of red plum, cranberry and sage. Food friendlyacidity allows for a spirited, lasting finish.”VINTAGE OVERVIEW2010 was a vintage „ripe‟ with challenges so-to-speak. Certainly atest of one‟s knowledge and experience not to mention one‟sresolve! Spring bud break came relatively early but we thenexperienced a month of cold and rain greatly slowing vinedevelopment. If that were not enough what followed was thewettest June on record and the coldest summer in 17 yearsresulting in a record late bloom, low crop yield and a delay in theinitiation of harvest by more than three weeks. Miraculously wewere spared by a sunny couple of weeks in October. The cropripened to a level approaching the highly touted 2008 vintageresulting in balanced wines with intensely bright flavors and lower2010 Erath, Pinot Noir, WillametteValley, Oregon
  • 61. “Dynamite Cabernet Sauvignon is a fairlydry, medium-to-full bodied red wine that is highin tannins. The acidity is decent enough but thedryness and strong tannins cause it to reallyneed to be tempered by food - its not really awine for sipping on its own.If it werent for the harshness of thetannins, this Dynamite Cabernet Sauvignonwould probably be a much better wine thatwould pair well with a wider variety of foods.”Dynamite, Cabernet, LakeCounty, California
  • 62. “From Lodi‟s oldest operatingwinery. Produced from 50- to 100-year-old vines, this is not a crazy-high-alcohol Zinfandel. It isrobust, with jammyfruit, raspberry, milk chocolate andmocha flavors; an excellentbarbecue wine.”Oak Ridge Winery, OZV, Lodi, California
  • 63. 2011 Hogue Late-Harvest RieslingColumbia Valley, WashingtonEastern Washington’s low annual rainfall and cool nightsduring the growing season make it the perfect area forproducing consistently great late harvest wines. TheHogue Cellars has developed a style of late harvestRiesling that is crisp yet moderately sweet. The wine wasproduced from select Riesling vineyards where the fruitcan ripen to the required 24°+ Brix. At that level ofripeness, the wine develops its trademarktangerine/apricot flavor. Zesty aromas of orange, lemon-lime, and peach are followed by flavors oftangerine, apricot, and a trace of mineral. Serve alongsidepoached pears, cheesecake, or a cheese platter ofStilton, smoked Gouda, and fresh goat cheese. It’s alsoexcellent as an aperitif.