TODAY’S DISCOVERIES: The seasons of the winery/vineyards Understanding varietals How wine is made Grafting and vine disease History of North American Wine The regions of North American Wine
SEASONS OF THE VINEYARD I January Pruning as grapes only grow on new vines Barrel topping-off and bottling of olderwines February Racking of the barrels March Planting new vines is the focus of thevineyard Guards are installed to protect tender newshoots from hungry rabbits
SEASONS OF THE VINEYARD II April Vines are trimmed to keep the plant‟s energyfocused on flowering Topping-off and racking continues Finish bottling older wines May Late frosts can kill young plants; sprayingwater protects them from freezing In the cellar, bottled wines are cased toprepare for distribution
SEASONS OF THE VINEYARD III June Trellising: Shoot-positioning is done bywiring the new vine shoots to help sunlightreach the fruit and new growth Fruit Set is when the grape berries first formafter flowering July Spraying against pests is a major priority Major efforts to minimize fungal diseases Further bottling if temperatures allow
SEASONS OF THE VINEYARD IV August Vendage Vert (The Green Harvest): Low-yield or inferior-size bunches are trimmed-off to concentrate the energy into the bestberries Ver jus may be pressed and bottled Veraison: Grapes are now beginning toripen; red varietals are changing fromgreen to red
SEASONS OF THE VINEYARD VSeptember The Crush (the harvest)! Growers decide the best time to harvest andthen find workers to pick the fruit or havemachinery ready and trucks waiting Check the brix level for ripeness Whites to the press; reds to the tank Chaptalization as permitted by law
SEASONS OF THE VINEYARD VIOctober Picked-over vines will now benefit from thenew light exposure In the fermenting room, the freshly-pressedmash is now starting to ferment Topping-over or punching-down the cap(delicate wines like Pinot Noir) of floatingskins is done to help release flavor, colorand tannins Extended Maceration (before fermentation) ifand when needed (if juice is weak) Signée: bleeding-off a Rosé (when juice isweak)
SEASONS OF THE VINEYARD VII November In the cellar, fining (clarification) of second-year red wines takes place Fining is done with egg whites, gelatin & specialforms of clay (bentonite or diatomaeceous soil) First-year wines are transferred fromfermentation vat to barrels The Press: Free-run wine, press wine, and the“cake” Oak-aging and barrel “racking” (pumpingfrom one barrel to another without thesediment)
SEASONS OF THE VINEYARD VIII December Vine cuttings are propagated to keep afavorable varietal Early tastings are done to evaluate the winein progress Blending: usually done by consensus Some wineries continue temperature-controlled bottle-aging for reds until readyfor vintage release Consumers may continue bottle-aging until redsdrop the tannin sediment (dregs) and decantbefore serving
DISEASES OF THE VINEPhylloxera disease almost destroyedthe French vineyards in the late1800‟s.Grafting viniferous varietals to theresistant lambrusca rootstock, saved the industry.Pierces disease continues to plaguethe vines, grafting cannot help.
PHYLLOXERA ATTACKS THE ROOT Pierce’s disease (glassy wingedsharp shooter) attacks the leaves
GRAFTINGGrapes mutate very readily. An entirevarietal may be changed simply bygrafting. This process saved theEuropean vines.
SOME GRAPE VARIETALS: Burgundy: Chardonnay, Aligoté Borgogne Pinot Noir, Gamay Bordeaux: Sauvignon Blanc, Sémillon, Cabernet Franc, Merlot, CabernetSauvignon, Malbec, Petit Verdot Loire: Sauvignon Blanc, Chenin Blanc, Cabernet Franc
WHAT DOES “OLD VINE” REFER TO?A reference to the age of the vine thegrapes are grown on; older vines willprovide more intense extracted flavor inthe wine.0-10 years old: “Young” vine11-50 years old: “Middle” or “Mature” vine51-80 years old: “Old” vineOver 80 years old: “Ancient” vine
THESE VINES WERE PLANTED IN 1851:They are oftenreferred to asgnarly vines
RED/ BLACK GRAPES = RED WINEGREEN/YELLOW GRAPES = WHITE WINESO, HOW DO THEY MAKE PINK WINE? Rosé, Rosado, Rosato:By any other name would taste as dry… Blush:Soda-Pop Sweet (perfect for new WineAfficionados who grew-up drinking soda)Three ways…
Yes, there are pinkgrapes!+ ==Signée: the ”bleedingoff”Blend red juice with white juice!
BUT HOW IS WINE MADE?First, the grapes are monitored andwhen they have the perfect balanceof taste, acid and brix, they areharvestedBY HAND: BYMACHINE:
SECOND, THEY ARE DE-STEMMED(IN RED WINE VARIETALS)In this step, thestems areremoved from thegrapes. Stemscarry harshtannins so this isusually donebefore the grapesare crushed, so asnot to influencethe wine.
NEXT, THEY ARE CRUSHED, OR WHOLE-BERRYFERMENTED (CARBONIC MACERATION)For example, if he or she is trying to create a fruityaroma, they might decide to leave the berries nearlyintact.The skins of thegrapes are brokento release the juice.Winemakers willhave their ownpreferencesconcerning theamount of crushingthat should occur.
PRIMARY FERMENTATION In this step, yeastcells in the juicefeed on sugars andproduce carbondioxide andalcohol Winemakers willoften add extrayeast to insure astable conversioninstead of simplyrelying on the wildyeast found on thegrapes
“FREE-RUN” AND “PRESSED” WINESAfter fermentation, avalve is opened in thebottom of the tank, andwhat drains out iscalled free-runwine, which is the best.Afterwards, theremaining skins andseeds are pressed andmore wine is extracted(pressed wine), whichis of lesser qualitythan free-run wine.Nonetheless, winemakers will use pressed wine toincrease their grape yield, though is usually for lower-end releases.
SECONDARY FERMENTATION Aging and secondaryfermentation happen atthe same time. The yeastcontinues to fermentslowly The goals of thewinemaker will determinethe length of time thisfermentation will beallowed to continue A fine wine might stay inoak barrels for quite sometime while a home-stylevariety could spend onlyIt is determined how muchpercentage of a winebatch should go throughMalolactic fermentationand/or Sur Lie
FILTERING A brilliantly clear wine ismore desirable than a cloudy orhazy one, which may tastefine, but does not lookappealing This is why most commercialwines are filtered, leaving themsparkling clear and virtuallyincapable of re-fermenting Filtration removesyeast, bacteria, and grape/fruitdebris from the wine This not only renders the wineinstantly clear, it also makes thewine more stable without theyeast or bacteria that could feedoff any residual sugar As a result, theamount of SO2 and otherchemical preservativescan be reducedDifferent processes areused for fining & filtering
BOTTLING The final stepwhen the wine isbottled for sale Sulfites are oftenadded to help endthe fermentationprocess andpreserve the wine The bottle is thensealed with a cork
THE “CORKED” WINE The damage to wine from “tainted” corks hascaused great loss of revenue for wineries Cork trees can take up to ten years toproduce enough bark to harvest for corks Hence the emergence of screw-caps…
THE “CORKED” WINE II Air-purifying technology designed by NASAin the 90’s to keep produce fresh inspace, has found a new, more down-to-earth use:Neutralizing TCA, the chemical primarilyresponsible for cork taint in wineTCA in wine causes “cork taint”, a defectthat affects 2%-7% of wine bottles, andimparts an unappetizing moldy, dank smellinto the wine
NO MORE CORKED WINE! When tested by an independent Britishwine laboratory, NASA’s technique wasfound to remove up to 95% of TCA from asealed room within 24 hours Works by drawing air through a boxcontaining a bed of titanium dioxide catalystand irradiating it with UV light , which oxidizesany organic contaminants May have other applications in winemakingand is already being used inhospitals, research centers and for foodstorage
American Wine Fun Facts:Fourth in production behind Italy, France andSpainEvery state has at least one winery; even inAlaska!Production:California ranks #1 (90% of all Americanwines)New York is #2, followed by Oregon &WashingtonApproximately 5,400 commercial wineries in
HOW DID IT ALL BEGIN IN AMERICA?Grapes were wild and so prolific inAmerica, that the settler‟s nicknamed thecountry “Vinland” These were “unsophisticated” varietals ofVitis Labrusca that made “foxy” wines, buthad strong root stock making them lesssusceptible to disease (saved the Europeanwine industry from Phylloxera)Wild Vitis Labrusca varietals such asCatawba (a pink grape), Niagra, Concord, andothers, are still being made into wine in many
HOW DID IT ALL BEGIN IN AMERICA?There were other wild grape families in the NewWorld in addition to Vitis Labrusca: Vitis Riparia (hybrids like Baco Noir &Frontenac) Vitis Rotundifolia(Scuppernong/Muscadine) Vitis Aestivalis (Norton) Settlers began making wine from these wildgrapes for religious sacrament and personalconsumption (it was a safe beverage todrink, as it was antispetic)
HOW DID IT ALL BEGIN IN AMERICA?Spanish missionaries arrived in Californiaand made “Mission Wine” throughout theterritory In 1920, the wine industry was devastatedwhen the 18th Amendment prohibited theproduction and consumption of alcoholexcept for sacrament The 21st Amendment repealed Prohibition in1933 It took many decades for the wine industry torecover, as the Great Depression resulted in a
In 1886 a beverage was invented which significantlychanged the taste preferences of the American public…. After WWII, returning American soldiers brought back ataste for European-style wines, though it still took another15-20 years for any significant shift to drier wines As these sugary-sweet beveragesbecame morepopular, manyAmerican consumerswere turned- off bydry, European-stylewines; tastes shifted tosweet and fortifiedwines like Sherry andPort…
THE 1970’S…During this time, American wines achieved ahigher level of sophisticationThe rest of the world didn’t take the Americanwine industry serious…But then, in 1976, somethingmiraculous happened! If you sawthe movie “Bottle Shock” youalready know what it was!
A Napa Valley winery, Château Montelena’sChardonnay shocked the wine world bywinning a wine competition in Paris againsta French Premier Cru Burgundy!Soon, vineyards began to expand… American packaging and marketing was changing theface of wine for the world The U.S. did not regulate it’s winemaking as the rest ofthe world did Altering bottle shapes, labeling, varietals and viniculturalpractices caused a paradigm-shift in the wine industry
In 1978, the AVA (American Viticulture Area) was createdto designate specific wine growing regions and areasTo qualify as an AVA an area must meet the followingcriteria:1. Be precisely defined on a geological map2. Use a name that has been commonly or historicallyassociated with the region3. Have climate, soil, aspect (slope), elevation and othertopographical and geological features that make itunique from surrounding areasThe Federal Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco & Firearms (BATF)Keeps control of AVA’s and labeling laws
AVA’s do not always live in their own defined exclusive areamany overlap between states, counties or other AVA’sExample: Sonoma‟s Green Valley is contained withinthe Russian River Valley, which is contained withinNorth SonomaThere are over 200AVA‟s in AmericaThere are over 100in California aloneColorado has justtwo
All wines with varietal labeling(Merlot, Chardonnay, etc.) must showappellation of origin information on thelabel Wines labeled United States orAmerican, must have 100% U.S. content Wines labeled California orWashington, must have 100% content fromthose states
Wines labeled by any other state nameor county name must have a 75%content from those states. Wines labeled by an AVA must have85% content from that AVA Wines with specific vineyardlabeling, have a threshold of 95% Wines labeled as Pinot Noir or PinotGris from Oregon, must have 90% ofthose grapes
85% of planted vineyards and90% of wine produced in U.S.Ideal growing conditions:Rain falls mostly in the winterDry growing season lessensthe impact of molds andmildewsOccasional spring frosts, butwinter frosts almost neveroccurOcean breezes moderate theinfluence of the sun. It slowsripening and helps maintain
Warm days and cool nights from theocean fogs allow the grapes to ripenmore slowlyThe long hang time (time ripening onthe vine) allows for more complexity todevelop Napa: Some of the country‟s topwines, home of the famous Super Cabs Sonoma: Wide variety of climate types;warm, cool, & ocean-influenced.Produces PinotNoir, Chardonnay, Zinfandel, etc. Lake: Produces Chardonnay, CabernetSauvignon, Cab Franc, Merlot andSauvignon Blanc Mendocino: Mostly cool climate.
Over 300wineries, consisting of 10%of California‟s totalacreage, but only 4% of itsproduction“Napa Cabs” of the rivervalley are the signature wineas well as Cab-dominated, Bordeaux-styleblends (Cab. Sauv. andMerlot )Southern Napa benefits fromcool ocean air from the SanFrancisco bay. This allows
Wide variety of AVAsWide variety of climateWide variety of soiltypesWide variety of geologyVarious oceanbreeze, fog influencesfrom gaps in themountains along thecoastCabernet, Chardonnay,Zinfandel, and Pinot
Northernmost wine-growing region in CaliforniaMountainous and heavilyforestedCool ocean fog along theriver supports Riesling andGewürztraminerHigher elevation AVA‟ssupportZinfandel, CabernetSauvignonMendocino Ridge: Multiplenon-contiguous areas, all
Produces table grapes andraisins in addition to winevarietals and is the largestagricultural region in the U.S. Lodi: Known for its old vineZinfandel Clarksburg : Produces a widevariety of wines River Junction: Cooler climate;produces good Chardonnay Tracy Hills: Produces mostlyBordeaux varieties Salado Creek: Produces CabernetSauvignon, SauvignonBlanc, Syrah and Viognier
American market is primarily focused on varietallabeling An alternate labeling system has been put in place toaccommodate “Bordeaux-style” blends, overseen bythe “Meritage Alliance” Members may put “Meritage” on their labels if theirwines are blended from CabernetSauvignon, Cabernet Franc, Merlot, PetiteSyrah, Malbec, and Carmenière White Meritage must use Sauvignon Blanc, Sémillonand Muscadelle The blend can have no more than 90% of any single
The pacific coastlinerange cascades act as ashield to block theoverly cool Pacificinfluence In between the tworanges is where themajority of thewinemakingoccurs, with theexception of MountHood and the AVA‟sshared with WashingtonState Pacific influence is still felt in the wine growingregion between the two ranges. Winters are cool and wet and do not experience hardfreezes ; summers are mild with moderate humidity
The Cascades act as anorth-south rain shieldand block the pacific rainson the eastern part of thestate; therefore this regionis much hotter then thecoast Columbia river systemirrigates 98% of vineyardsin the east Days are two hourslonger than California inthe summerPhylloxera-free due to sandy soils and harshwintersWinter freezes can be very damaging or evenkill vines
Innovation at it‟s finest: At the old Walla Walla airport, you will findmore than 20 of the most prestigious wineriesfound in Washington state Cabernets and Merlots are predominant; youwill find some of the best Merlots of the worldmade here Each hangar was renovated into a tastingroom; a great tour on foot.
Highest elevation vineyards in North America: 4,500 - 7,000 ft. above sea level; slightly lower thanArgentina Grand Valley and West Elks are Colorados two AVA‟s: Prominent grapes in the Grand Valley are primarilyCabernet Franc, CabernetSauvignon, Merlot, Syrah, Chardonnay West Elks produces primarily Riesling and Pinot NoirThe temperature extremes in winter along the frontrange rule out traditional vinifera grapes.Pre prohibition, Colorado was a thriving winemakingarea, most of the vines were torn up to plant peaches. Inthe past ten years, Colorado is finally making a
About 4% of U.S. production Harsh winters, low sunlightand moderating influence ofmajor bodies of water. Produces hybrids, nativegrapewines and some viniferous Lake Erie: Only recentlystarted using vinifera grapes Niagara: Cool climate grapesChardonnay and Riesling Finger Lakes: Largest AVA inNY; producing many differentcool-climate varieties. Homeof “Cayuga White” inventedby Cornell Universityviticulture extension. Hudson River: Hybrids such asBaco Noir and cool climateVinifera. This is where the famousHudson Valley Foie Gras isproduced! Long Island: Produces CabernetFranc, Merlot, Chardonnay andRiesling
Producer/Brand name – usually the same, but notalways Class/type – still wine, mead, rice wine, etc. Name and address of bottler Only shows where the wine was bottled, notnecessarily where any of the other production stepsoccurred Alcohol by Volume Volume content Sulfite content if above 10ppm Health Warning (back label)
Wine # 1 Vintage: 2011 Name: Dry Riesling Producer: Pacific Rim Region: Columbia Valley, WashingtonWine # 2 Vintage: 2012 Name: Viognier Producer: Cline Region: North Coast, California
“Bright red cherry, violets, vanilla and pie crustaromas, punctuated by an alluring smokiness, are a vivaciousintroduction to this Oregon vintage. A sweet approach leads to asatiny mouthful of red plum, cranberry and sage. Food friendlyacidity allows for a spirited, lasting finish.”VINTAGE OVERVIEW2010 was a vintage „ripe‟ with challenges so-to-speak. Certainly atest of one‟s knowledge and experience not to mention one‟sresolve! Spring bud break came relatively early but we thenexperienced a month of cold and rain greatly slowing vinedevelopment. If that were not enough what followed was thewettest June on record and the coldest summer in 17 yearsresulting in a record late bloom, low crop yield and a delay in theinitiation of harvest by more than three weeks. Miraculously wewere spared by a sunny couple of weeks in October. The cropripened to a level approaching the highly touted 2008 vintageresulting in balanced wines with intensely bright flavors and lower2010 Erath, Pinot Noir, WillametteValley, Oregon
“Dynamite Cabernet Sauvignon is a fairlydry, medium-to-full bodied red wine that is highin tannins. The acidity is decent enough but thedryness and strong tannins cause it to reallyneed to be tempered by food - its not really awine for sipping on its own.If it werent for the harshness of thetannins, this Dynamite Cabernet Sauvignonwould probably be a much better wine thatwould pair well with a wider variety of foods.”Dynamite, Cabernet, LakeCounty, California
“From Lodi‟s oldest operatingwinery. Produced from 50- to 100-year-old vines, this is not a crazy-high-alcohol Zinfandel. It isrobust, with jammyfruit, raspberry, milk chocolate andmocha flavors; an excellentbarbecue wine.”Oak Ridge Winery, OZV, Lodi, California
2011 Hogue Late-Harvest RieslingColumbia Valley, WashingtonEastern Washington’s low annual rainfall and cool nightsduring the growing season make it the perfect area forproducing consistently great late harvest wines. TheHogue Cellars has developed a style of late harvestRiesling that is crisp yet moderately sweet. The wine wasproduced from select Riesling vineyards where the fruitcan ripen to the required 24°+ Brix. At that level ofripeness, the wine develops its trademarktangerine/apricot flavor. Zesty aromas of orange, lemon-lime, and peach are followed by flavors oftangerine, apricot, and a trace of mineral. Serve alongsidepoached pears, cheesecake, or a cheese platter ofStilton, smoked Gouda, and fresh goat cheese. It’s alsoexcellent as an aperitif.