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  • 1. Culinary Skills II June 19, 2008   Indian Cuisine MENU Buttermilk sambar served with coconut rice Lemon Rasam Sprouting mung bean dal Assorted breads to include parathas, chipati and pappadum Semolina dosai, oothappam and yam chips Cabbage vadai and potato vadai Desserts Almond payasam Milk delight Sesame toffee Coconut burfi Written, compiled and researched by Chef Michael Scott Pg. 1 of 17 CS II Indian cuisine
  • 2. Reference Page Dakshin Vegetarian Cuisine from South India. By Chandra Padmanabhan. San Francisco, CA: Thorsons, 1994 India's Grocery 2877 28th St. Boulder, CO (720) 565-0475 Pacific Ocean Marketplace Indian and Middle Eastern spice aisle 6600 W 120th Ave # A Broomfield, CO 80020 (303) 410-8168 Savory Spice Shop 1537 Platte St Denver, CO 80202 (720) 283-2232 2650 W Main St Littleton, CO 80120 (720) 283-2232 Indian Foods Co. www.indianfoodsco.com 1-866-416-4165 Pg. 2 of 17 CS II Indian cuisine
  • 3. Culinary Skills II - Indian cuisine Indian cuisine is about the combination of different spices blended to achieve a unique flavor. Not only is each dish a mélange of spices, combined into a meal it becomes an orchestrated experience. An authentic Indian meal is served in a platter called a Thali. These spice combinations can be made from scratch however most can be purchased already mixed and if they are fresh, with toasting, a key technique in Indian cuisine the flavors can be achieved. A perfectly harmonized Indian meal should contain all of the six tastes Indian culture believes to exist – sweet, sour, salty, spicy, bitter and astringent. A traditional Indian meal could consist of an assortment or a complete sampling of the following: - Dal (Dahl) or lentils - Meat/chicken/fish curry (optional) - Dry-cooked vegetable dish - Plain yogurt or raita - Rice and/or breads such as chappati, roti, paratha, puri - Salad called kachumber – like a fresh salsa with diced cucumber, red onions and tomatoes, lime juice and salt - Pickles and relishes - Papad - Fresh herbal chutneys Tempering – many Indian recipes call for the use of a technique called Tempering. This means to heat the oil and add the listed spices, heating on medium high heat until they start to splutter. Many recipes in this booklet will refer to this technique as a shortcut so please follow the above steps. Menu research Sambar –first course in South India. Sambars have one of three bases – tamarind, tamarind and dal or buttermilk. The sour elements in these dishes help to preserve the vitamin nutrients in the vegetables. Paneer - is very similar to ricotta cheese here in America, salted it can last for months and pressed can be cut into cubes. Pg. 3 of 17 CS II Indian cuisine
  • 4. INDIAN CLARIFIED BUTTER: GHEE In India, clarified butter is the most eminent of all foods. In addition to being used as an ingredient and frying oil, it is an emblem of purity, an ancient offering to the gods, the fuel of holy lamps and funeral pyres. Ghee (from the Sanskrit for “bright”) was born of necessity. Ordinary butter spoils in only ten days in much of the country, while the clarified fat keeps six to eight months. Traditionally, ghee has been made from whole cow or buffalo milk that is soured by lactic acid bacteria into yogurt-like dahi, and then churned to obtain butter. Today, industrial manufacturers usually start with cream. The preliminary bowning improves both the quantity of butter obtained and its flavor; ghee made from sweet cream is said to taste flat. The butter is heated to 190 deg. F. to evaporate its water, then the temperature is raised to 250 deg. F. to brown the milk solids, which flavors the ghee and generates antioxidant compounds that delay the onset of rancidity. The brown residue is then filtered off (and mixed with sugar to make sweets), leaving the clear liquid ghee. 1 Coconut: In India coconut can be found in different ways; fresh, dried (copra), desiccated, shredded or flaked. Dal is a very important component in Indian cuisine. Dal refers to dried lentils and the particular dishes made from them. There are many types of dried lentils and each brings a particular characteristic to the dishes made from them. Following is a basic list of some of the lentils you might encounter in Indian cuisine. Dals or lentils used in Indian cooking Masoor Dal Red lentils whole or split Moong Dal Mung bean lentils whole or split Chana Dal Chickpea lentils yellow, split Matar or Vatana Dal Split pea lentils, yellow or green Toor Dal or yellow lentils These look like Chana Dal but are smaller and thinner.  Urad Dal or Kalai Dal Cooked whole or split and the final product can be a little sticky. whole is almost black in color.      1 On Food and Cooking The Science and Lore of The Kitchen. By Harold McGee. New York, NY: Scribner, 2004 Pg. 4 of 17 CS II Indian cuisine
  • 5. A SPECIAL NOTE ON SPICES Spice blends used in Indian cooking Garam Masala Vindaloo Masala Tandoori Masala Sambar powder Panch Foran, or Balti Masala cinnamon, roasted cumin, caraway seeds, cloves, nutmeg (or mace) and green cardamom seed or black cardamom pods red chili, mustard seeds, turmeric, fenugreek seeds, black pepper, ginger, cinnamon cardamom and cumin garam masala, garlic, ginger, cumin, cayenne pepper See recipes Bengal Five Spice powder 1 Part each, Fennel Seed, Mustard Seed, Cumin Seed, Black cumin seed, Fenugreek Seed See recipes Asafetida is a resin also available powdered. It has a strong and very unpleasant smell but when introduced to hot oil or ghee the smell disappears and complements the cuisine. It grows in Iran, Afghanistan and Kashmir in India. It is the dried resin or latex from the rhizomes of the 12 foot plant. Cardamom – A very unique spice. You can buy cardamom either green or black (or brown). The green is fresh scented while the black is smoky and earthy due the fact it is dried in the hot sun to roast. Use the green for desserts and the black for savory hearty dishes. Herbs - The main herbs in Indian cooking are Cilantro, Mint, and Curry Leaves. Mint can be Peppermint or Spearmint. The Basil is similar to the Indian Holy Plant called “Tulsi”. The Curry leaves are mostly used in the southern part of India. The tropical curry leaf tree is native to India and Sri Lanka. These leaves have a strong curry flavor. These are available dried or fresh in Indian grocery stores. To get the most flavors out of these leaves you have to put it in hot oil. There is no substitute for the flavor that these leaves give to any dish it is cooked with. In West Bengal “Neem” which has high medicinal properties can sometimes be found dried at Indian grocery stores. Fenugreek leaves called “Methi” is widely used all over India. Rice - The State of Orissa, India has its own type of rice with a little red line across the label and is called “Laal Chaal” or red rice. Any brown rice from the U.S.A. grocery store can be used Souring agents – Tamarind, fresh Lime or lemon, dried lemon, plain yogurt, Indian gooseberries sub American sour gooseberries. American cranberries and rhubarb are a good souring substitute. Pg. 5 of 17 CS II Indian cuisine
  • 6. PRODUCT LIST Bay Leaves Saffron Beans Garbanzo Beans called “Kabuli Chana”. Chick Peas brown or green or black Red Kidney Whole Split pea, yellow or green “Kabuli Matar” When split “Vatana Dal”. Black Eyed Beans called “Lobhia” Lima Beans are called “Pavta” Dried Peas or “Sukha Matar” Flours Chappati flour or Durham Wheat Flour All Purpose flour Corn flour Garbanzo Bean, Chickpea, or “Chana” Semolina flour Buckwheat Flour Thickening agents White flour Corn flour Garbanzo Bean flour Corn Starch Other ingredients Almonds or “Badam” Cashews or “Kaju” Pistachios or “Pista” Walnuts or “Akhrot” Peanuts or “Mungphali” Pine nuts or “Chilgoza” Raisins or “Kishmish” or “Manukka” Apricots or “Khubani” Plums dried Spices Oils Turmeric powder Cayenne Pepper powder Cumin seed Coriander Seed Fenugreek Seed Fennel Seed Mustard Seed (can be black or yellow) White Poppy Seed White sesame seed (these are mostly used to sprinkle over desserts or candies) Cinnamon Cardamom Cloves Nutmeg Mace Black Pepper White Pepper Rock salt, “Kala Namak” Ajwain Seeds Asafetida or Hing Pg. 6 of 17 Canola Oil Safflower Oil Peanut Oil Mustard oil Coconut Oil Sesame seed oil Ghee or Clarified Butter Rice Basmati Rice Jasmine Rice Red Rice CS II Indian cuisine
  • 7. Buttermilk Sambar Yield: serves 4 2 ¼ c t ¾ c paste t oil t fenugreek t urad dal t coriander seeds t toor dal ea. red chilis t asafetida T grated fresh coconut or 4 Tbl. flaked pc. fresh ginger tempering t oil t fenugreek t cumin ea. red chili 2 1¼ 1¼ 1 1½ 6 ½ 3 1 2 1 1 1 plain yogurt (see recipe) gr. turmeric salt to taste chopped ash gourd Heat oil in pan add fenugreek, urad dal, coriander seeds, toor dal, chilis and asafetida, sauté 2 – 3 minutes, add grated coconut and ginger and grind to a paste. Use a little water if too dry. To the paste add yogurt, turmeric and salt, beat until smooth and reserve. Tempering, follow standard tempering when toasted add ash gourd sauté slightly, add enough water to just cover gourd, cover pan, simmer on low until gourd is tender. Add yogurt mixture be careful not to boil once yogurt is added. Pg. 7 of 17 CS II Indian cuisine
  • 8. Coconut Rice 1 2 3 3 ¾ 2 2 1 1 1 1 ½ 2 Yield serves 4 long grained rice white sesame seeds Ghee raw cashew nuts halved for garnish flaked coconut green chilies finely minced Salt to taste tempering t oil t cumin seeds t urad dal t chana dal ea. red chili t asafetida ea. curry leaves c T T T c ea. Cook rice using basic rice steamer or in heavy lidded pot. Refer to ratio for liquid on rice package as different rice has different liquid/rice ratios. Dry roast sesame seeds, grind to a powder reserve. Heat ½ of the ghee, sauté cashew set aside for garnish. In the same pan add the rest of the ghee, sauté coconut until red/brown. Proceed with standard tempering adding green chilies, cooked rice, coconut and salt, garnish with cashews. Yam chips Yield: serves 4 2 4 2 t c lb 2 1 t t gr. turmeric water yam oil for frying chili powder asafetida salt to taste Soak turmeric in water. Peel yams and slice into thin chips, soak in turmeric water for 30 minutes. Drain well and pat dry, fry until golden brown. Pg. 8 of 17 CS II Indian cuisine
  • 9. Lemon Rasam Yield serves 4 ¼ 1 2 4 ½ ¾ ½ 2 1 c c t ea. t t t ea. ea. pigeon peas, toor dal) water + 1 ½ cups ginger juice green chilis cumin seed black peppercorns gr. turmeric tomatoes quartered lemon juice of chopped cilantro for garnish tempering t ghee t brown mustard t asafetida ea. red chili ea. curry leaves 2 1 ½ 1 2 Wash dal and cook with first amount of water. Blend ginger and chili into a paste and grind cumin seeds and peppercorns into a powder reserve both separately. Add the next part of water to cooked dal (do not drain) bring to a simmer add the reserved spices and salt. Proceed with standard tempering; add to above dal finish with lemon juice and cilantro. Sprouted Moong Dal Yield: 3 c 1 2 1 1 1 1 ½ c ea T ea T T t sprouted moong beans (1 package of Ajika Moong Beans soaked overnight, drained and kept in a strainer to let it sprout takes a day or two but is worth the wait) onion minced green chilies minced mustard seeds curry leaves dry coconut ghee turmeric Salt to taste cilantro and lime juice to taste Heat ghee in a pan or wok. Add mustard seeds and curry leaves. After the mustard seeds start to splutter add onions and green chili and sauté until onions are translucent, stir in the rest of the ingredients, toss, cover and steam for about 5 minutes. Sprinkle with fresh cilantro and limejuice. Pg. 9 of 17 CS II Indian cuisine
  • 10. Chipati or Roti dough Yield: 6 each 2½ c chipati flour (Durham wheat flour) or AP flour + 1cup for dusting 1 cup water ghee Place a well in the center of the flour, pour water in and gently incorporate the flower with a fork until pasty, with one hand finish mixing in the remaining flower. Knead the dough until it is elastic so that your thumb print will spring back quickly when released. Rest dough in a warm area for 1 hour. Refrigerate if not cooking immediately. When ready to use divide dough into desired size but no larger then a peach. Generously flour a clean surface and roll portioned dough into very thin pancakes with thinner edges. Preheat a cast iron skillet large enough to accommodate the pancake to MH heat, place pancake on bottom of skillet. If pancake does not start to blister within a few seconds your pan is not hot enough. Flip pancake and continue blistering. Try pressing pancake with a clean towel compressing the blisters; be careful of any steam repeat one or two more times on each side. Remove pancake when slightly brown Variation on chipati: parathas – Before cooking brush pancakes with ghee, fold in half, continue brushing and folding until you have a ¼ wedge of the pancake. Cook just like the regular chappati however flip a lot more, dough will steam inside and should be soft but cooked. Batter for frying 1¼ 1 ½ ½ ½ ¼ 1¼ c t t t t t c chickpea flour (Besan) salt cayenne pepper cumin seeds crushed mango powder turmeric water Nix all ingredients making sure there are no lumps. Rest for 30 minutes. Stir before using. Pg. 10 of 17 CS II Indian cuisine
  • 11. Semolina Dosai Yield: 15 – 20 pancakes 1 1 1 c c c 2 3 1 2 1 t ea. c ea. bnch all purpose flour semolina rice flour Salt to taste cumin seeds green chili finely chopped plain yogurt curry leaves cilantro chopped Water as needed Oil for frying Mix flours and all ingredients in a bowl, add enough water to form a dough and let rest 2 hours. After resting add more water so dough dissolves into batter consistency. Season iron skillet and continue like making French crepes. Oothappam Yield: 6 each 2 1 1 2 1 c ea ea ea bnch leftover sour dosai batter onion finely chopped tomato finely chopped green chili finely chopped cilantro finely chopped Oil for frying Proceed as with regular dosai only make them thicker, sprinkle above ingredients or any other acceptable combinations, over and let pancake set, gently flip. If you don’t have leftover batter add 1/4 c. yogurt to 2 c. batter. Pg. 11 of 17 CS II Indian cuisine
  • 12. Cabbage Vadai Yield: 15 each 1 2 1 4 c c t ea ½ 1 2 1 c ea T bnch urad dal water asafetida green chili salt to taste cabbage finely chopped onion finely chopped shelled green peas cilantro finely chopped oil for frying Soak the dal in the water for 2 hours, drain, and grind in a mortar. Add asafetida, chilies and salt, blend into a thick batter. In a large bowl combine cabbage, onions, peas and cilantro with the dal batter mix well. Form batter into a doughnut shape on a ladle using wet hands, fry batter in deep fryer until golden brown. Potato Vadai Yield: 15 each 11 ½ 2 1 8 1 1 2 2 1 2 oz c T T ea bnch t ea potatoes chickpea flour rice flour minced ginger green chilies finely chopped cilantro asafetida curry leaves salt to taste tempering t oil t brown mustard seeds ea curry leaves Start diced potatoes in cold salted water; simmer until tender, drain and pass through food mill add rest of ingredients. Temper using standard procedure, add temper to potato mixture and mix thoroughly. Scoop batter and fry until golden brown. Pg. 12 of 17 CS II Indian cuisine
  • 13. Almond Payasam 1 c 8 ½ 4 1 1 c c ea t t Yield: serves 6 whole almonds hot water milk sugar whole cardamom crushed gr. nutmeg saffron Soak almonds in hot water for 2 hours. Peel and blend to a fine paste. Simmer milk stirring regularly until reduced by ¼. Add almond paste and the rest of the ingredients; simmer on low for 5 minutes. Serve chilled. Milk delight Yield 20 squares 3 2 ½ ¼ c c c c milk sugar ghee semolina Mix dry ingredients, mix wet ingredients, pour into dry and mix well. Heat on low stirring constantly until thick and sticky. Pour into greased mold and cut into cubes while warm, chill. Sesame toffee Yield: 25 each 4 ½ 1½ ¼ c c c c white sesame seeds water powdered jaggery flaked coconut Dry roast sesame seeds. Simmer jaggery in water until it becomes a syrup, add coconut and simmer until thick and sticky, add roasted sesame seeds mix thoroughly and form into balls. Coconut Burfi 1 1 1 6 ¼ c c c ea c Yield: 15 each sugar water grated fresh or desiccated coconut cardamom crushed cashews chopped Heat sugar and water on low and simmer to make a thick syrup. Add cardamom and coconut mix thoroughly, turn off heat while syrup is still pour able add cashews. Pour into greased pan and cut into diamonds just before set. Pg. 13 of 17 CS II Indian cuisine
  • 14. Basic recipes Plain Yogurt 4 2 c T milk plain yogurt Heat milk to a simmer, transfer to a very clean container and add yogurt. Mix thoroughly and cover, place in a warm place for 6 – 8 hours. Paneer 1 1 2 1 gal qt ea T Yield: 1 ½ lb Milk buttermilk limes juice only salt In a heavy sauce pot heat milk to a simmer, do not scald (get too hot), add buttermilk and let mixture slowly come to a simmer add lime juice salt, (if you are going to keep more then 1 week use extra salt, 4 tbs. this can be added in the beginning however the salt will mellow with age so if you want to use the curd fresh as well just add the extra salt in two to three days. Turn heat off and let sit 10 min. Strain through a fine chinois with 3 layers of cheesecloth in it, wet with a little water. Discard whey (liquid) and let curds (solids) drain overnight. If you want to age, make sure extra salt has been added, suspend a container that will allow curds to drain (a clean strawberry basket works well) place curds still in the cheesecloth into container and suspend over another container to catch the dripping whey with twine, let age two weeks minimum. Green plantain crumble 3 ea. 1 2 2 1 6 ½ T T T T ea t Yield: serves 4 raw green plantains salt to taste oil chana dal urad dal toor dal red chili asafetida Smear oil on skin of plantains and roast over flame or on grill (you can also boil whole and peel for a milder flavor). Skin and set aside. Heat oil in a pan and sauté dal, asafetida and chili 2 – 3 minutes. Grind to a powder. Grated plantain pulp add salt and dal powder, cook over low heat until blended. Pg. 14 of 17 CS II Indian cuisine
  • 15. Sambar powder ½ ½ 1 1 ½ ½ 2 ½ 2 1 ½ 1 c c T T t t T t T ea. t ea. Yield: 3 oz coriander seeds red chilies black peppercorns cumin seed fenugreek seeds brown mustard seeds chana Dal (yellow split peas) poppy seeds grated copra (dried coconut) cinnamon bark gr. turmeric curry leaf Dry roast all ingredients separately except for the turmeric. Grind all ingredients in spice mill adding turmeric at this time. This is an extensive spice mix store in an airtight container no longer then 1 month. Variations: omit coconut and add dried pigeon peas for a different flavor. Balti masala spice mix 4 2 2 1 2 4 ½ ½ 1 10 1 ½ T T ea t t ea t t t ea t t coriander seeds cumin seeds cassia bark fennel seeds black mustard seeds cloves wild onion sees fenugreek seeds dry fenugreek leaves dry curry leaves green cardamom pods lovage seeds Roast cool and grind whole spices. Mix with ground spices and store tightly. Pg. 15 of 17 CS II Indian cuisine
  • 16. Optional recipes Dumpling Sambar 3 2 1 4–6 ½ 1 2 2 1 ½ 2 ½ 2 1 1 1 Yield: serves 4 tamarind pulp plus water to dissolve (the size of a lemon) t sambar powder (without the coconut) salt to taste T jaggery dumplings cup toor dal (pigeon peas) ea. red chili t asafetida salt to taste T oil ea. curry leaves tempering T sesame oil t brown mustard t fenugreek seeds ea. red chilis t asafetida ea. curry leaves t urad dal t chana dal t toor dal Soak tamarind and extract juice. For dumplings, soak the toor dal and chili in water 2 – 3 hours, drain add salt and asafetida, blend to a paste. In a skillet heat oil add paste and curry leaves and sauté for 2 – 3 minutes, cool and shape into small balls. Steam 20 minutes cool and reserve. Proceed with standard tempering, add dal sauté until golden brown, add sambar powder sauté for 1 minute, add tamarind juice, salt, and jaggery, cover simmer for 10 minutes Variation: Add fresh grated coconut, flaked coconut and sprouting mung bean to dumpling mixture before you shape. Pg. 16 of 17 CS II Indian cuisine
  • 17. Gooseberry Pickle Yield: 1 cup 1 ½ 1 ½ 1½ ½ 4 ¼ c t t c t t t c gooseberries seeds removed asafetida fenugreek seeds sesame oil mustard seeds brown turmeric chili powder salt Dry roast asafetida and fenugreek, grind and reserve. Heat oil, add mustard turmeric, chili powder, sauté 2 – 3 minutes. Add gooseberries and asafetida mix, mix thoroughly but do not overcook. Serve chilled. Sweet potato samosa 8 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 Filling oz T ea t t t c T 1 1 2/3 8 2½ ¼ 2 1 1 Dough T olive oil ea egg c plain yogurt T butter melted c flour t baking soda t paprika t salt ea egg beaten for assembly sweet potato canola oil shallots minced coriander seed crushed cumin ground curry powder green peas mint fresh chopped Salt and pepper to taste Cook sweet potatoes either in boiling salted water or bake in the oven until tender. Cool, peel and dice small. Sauté shallots in oil add sweet potatoes and fry until brown around the edges. Add spices, remove from heat and add peas, mint and salt and pepper, cool. To make the dough, whisk oil, egg and stir in yogurt, add butter. Sift flour, baking soda, salt and paprika, add to yogurt mixture to form soft dough. Roll out and cut to desired shape. Place filling in center and fold up using egg wash to seal. Bake at 400˚ for about 20 minutes or until crisp and golden brown. Pg. 17 of 17 CS II Indian cuisine