• Forequarter
• Chuck
• Brisket/Shank
• Short Plate
• Rib
• Hindquarter
• Full Loin
• Round
• Flank

• Sub Primal Cuts fro...
Inspection and Grading

Chef Michael Scott
Lead Chef Instructor AESCA
Boulder

All meat must be inspected by the USDA if i...
Grading
• Grading is optional and is a designation of quality

US Grades of Beef
• Prime
• Choice
• Select

Lesser grades ...
• Green Meat – freshly slaughtered animals still in a state of
rigor mortis
• Rigor mortis: “stiffness of death” – Natural...
• Cold shortening is caused by the release of stored calcium ions from the
sarcoplasmic reticulum of muscle fibers in resp...
Beef Production in the US

2100 feed lots handle approximately 21,000 head
Determine weight/fat ratio

4 slaughter houses ...
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22 primal cuts of beef

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22 primal cuts of beef

  1. 1. • Forequarter • Chuck • Brisket/Shank • Short Plate • Rib • Hindquarter • Full Loin • Round • Flank • Sub Primal Cuts from the Full Loin • Short loin • Sirloin • Tenderloin Chef Michael Scott Lead Chef Instructor AESCA Boulder Review Primal Cuts of Beef
  2. 2. Inspection and Grading Chef Michael Scott Lead Chef Instructor AESCA Boulder All meat must be inspected by the USDA if it is to be sold commercially • Inspection is Mandatory • Inspection is a sign of wholesomeness – product is fit for human consumption
  3. 3. Grading • Grading is optional and is a designation of quality US Grades of Beef • Prime • Choice • Select Lesser grades of Beef standard, commercial, utility, cutter, canner, packer Chef Michael Scott Lead Chef Instructor AESCA Boulder • Marbling is the major factor in determining the grade. • Grading is performed by the USDA and is an extra charge passed on to the consumer.
  4. 4. • Green Meat – freshly slaughtered animals still in a state of rigor mortis • Rigor mortis: “stiffness of death” – Natural enzymes start to tenderize muscle tissue and relieve the onset of rigor mortis • Wet Aging – continued tenderizing of commercial meat • Cryovac packaged meat goes through a natural tenderizing referred to as wet aging when natural enzymes continue to breakdown connective tissue • Dry Aging – the deliberate and controlled process for further aging of beef to achieve flavor and tenderness • Contolled, light, temperature, humidity, air flow are key • From 5% to 20% weight loss in meat • http://www.bonappetit.com/test-kitchen/ingredients/article/dryaged-beef-is-a-new-trend-in-restaurants-around-the-country Chef Michael Scott Lead Chef Instructor AESCA Boulder Aging
  5. 5. • Cold shortening is caused by the release of stored calcium ions from the sarcoplasmic reticulum of muscle fibers in response to the cold stimulus. The calcium ions trigger powerful muscle contraction aided by ATP molecules. To prevent cold shortening, a process known as electrical stimulation is carried out, especially in beef carcasses, immediately after slaughter and skinning. In this process, the carcass is stimulated with alternating current, causing it to contract and relax, which depletes the ATP reserve from the carcass and prevents cold shortening. • http://books.google.es/books?hl=es&lr=&id=M3wmO3ynTUwC&oi=fnd &pg=PA13&dq=avoid+cold+shortening+slaughter&ots=MRZiLBWd3X&si g=XQ4KGGoiBP2Pzg3UMBVK3RQUJo#v=onepage&q=avoid%20cold%20shortening%20slaug hter&f=false Chef Michael Scott Lead Chef Instructor AESCA Boulder • Rigor mortis is very important in meat technology. The onset of rigor mortis and its resolution partially determines the tenderness of meat. If the postslaughter meat is immediately chilled to 15°C (59°F), a phenomenon known as cold shortening occurs, where the muscle sarcomeres shrink to a third of their original length.
  6. 6. Beef Production in the US 2100 feed lots handle approximately 21,000 head Determine weight/fat ratio 4 slaughter houses handle 82% of all U.S. beef Wal-Mart / Kroger Chef Michael Scott Lead Chef Instructor AESCA Boulder 750,000 U.S. ranchers average 40 head per operation
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